Pools & Ponds - Notes

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Pools & Ponds - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Pools, Ponds and Streams C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Madrona Marsh Preserve Project SOUND - 2010 June 5 & 8, 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND S. California has many different kinds of Local wetlands – what do they look like? wet places  Estuarine—marsh*  Western L.A./Orange County  Estuarine—mudflat (lowlands)  Estuarine—open water  Wetlands associated with  Estuarine—submerged aquatic vegetation depressions  Vernal pools & swales (always seasonal)  Vernal pools (Madrona Marsh)  Depressional wetlands except vernal pools & swales—marsh and unvegetated flats* Madrona Marsh – seasonal marsh  Freshwater marshes - vernal or  Depressional wetlands except vernal pools & year-round (Madrona Marsh) swales—open water*  Seeps and springs wetlands*  Playas—marsh*  Wetlands associated with  Playas—open water* moving water  Lakes—marsh  Year-round streams (San  Lakes—open water Gabriel & Santa Ana Rivers)  Streams and rivers—channel*  Seasonal streams (Gardena  Streams and rivers—riparian habitat* Willows Preserve) Gardena Willows – seasonal stream 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 Local wetlands – a little farther away –and a Two key elements that determine plant bit more topography life in freshwater systems  Local Mountains  Is the water still or (Santa Monica & San moving? Gabriel Mtns.)  Is the water year-round E. Fork, San Gabriel River  Seeps & wet meadows or seasonal?  Ponds & lakes http://walkingboots.wordpress.com/  Year-round creeks, These two elements will streams & rivers also determine the types of pond/pool/creek side plants appropriate for your garden Malibu Creek What do you have in mind? Types of Perhaps you’ve fallen in love with the Madrona Marsh… water features in home gardens  Seasonally wet places (rain garden; vernal swale)  Moist ground year-round (splash zones around fountains or irrigation)  Wet soil year-round (wet meadow/bog garden)  Ponds/pools/puddles (standing water year-round)  Streams/creeks (running water at least part of thehttp://greenlifeinsocal.wordpress.com/2010/01/30/my-veggie- year) – may be natural or constructedgarden-in-january/ 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 …and want to have a little bit of the marsh Three water habitats in garden ponds/pools in your backyard http://www.finegardening.com/design/articles/a-garden-set-in-stone.aspx Some ponds have just 2 of the habitats http://www.mabaquascapes.co.uk/portfolio.htm  Habitat 1 – shallow water (less than 1-2 ft)  Habitat 2 – pond edge – very shallow water/ muddy soils  Habitat 3 – upper bank http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2009/01/winter-in-blake-garden.html You can create a mini-pond in your Madrona Marsh provides excellent examples garden…complete with pond plants of local pond/marsh plants  Any water-tight container will do: a watertight half wine barrel; large ceramic pots or bowls ; galvanized tubs or horse troughs, etc.  Use ceramic or terra cotta pots set upon bricks or cinderblocks, adjusting them to the level of the top edge of the pond container.  Depending upon the size of your container, you can select about three to five plantshttp://www.penick.net/digging/index.php?s=wildflower+center for your little "pond".  Be sure you deal with mosquito larva – mosquito fish or chemical means "mosquito dunk"  Relocating a water garden is a challenge. Its best to begin in the right location: in the sun and away from trees and plants dropping debris. Tules dominate the wettest parts of the marsh 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013Tules – Schoenoplectus (formerly Scirpus) The trouble with Tules … Six local species:  They are large – to 8 ft. tall  Schoenoplectus acutus – Tule  They are active spreaders  Schoenoplectus americanus – Chairmaker’s Bullrush  They are tough  Schoenoplectus californicus – CA Tule  They require active management  Schoenoplectus pungens var. badius -  They can take over a garden Common Threesquare pond  Schoenoplectus robustus – Sturdy Bullrush  Scirpus microcarpus – Small-fruited Bullrush Note: the terms Tule and Bullrush are used interchangeably Southern Cattail – Typha domingensis Southern Cattail – Typha domingensis  Warm temperate and tropical areas, worldwide  In CA - most areas, with proper conditions  Almost anywhere soil remains wet, saturated, or flooded most of the growing season, including : wet meadows, http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=222000445 marshes, fens, pond and lake margins, floating bog mats, seacoast estuaries, roadside ditches, irrigation canals, oxbow lakes, and backwater areas of rivers and streams. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Typhadomingensis.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?9383,9390,9392 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Genus Typha – the Cattails Characteristics of Southern Cattail  Members of the cattail family (family  Size: Typhaceae); the only genus in the  3-6+ ft tall family.  spreading – many ft wide  Aquatic or marsh herbs with creeping rootstocks, long, narrow leaves  Growth form:  Like a very large sedge; upright  Tiny flowers crowded in terminal spikes, with the male (staminate) ones  Foliage: Typha latifolia at the top and female (pistillate) below.  Long, strap-like leaves  ~ 18 species all occur in temperate and  Leaf width ( ~ ½ inch) between tropical regions. that of Broad- and Narrowleaf Cattails  Local species:  Typha latifolia – Broadleaf Cattail  Roots:  Typha dominguensis – Southern Cattail  Rhizomes stout, to 27" in length  ?Typha angustifolia – Narrowleaf Cattail and typically ¾"-1½" in diameter (definitely from San Gabriel Mtns)  Can be eaten raw, cooked or dried and made into flour Typha angustifolia http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/ponds/p/ap/guide/emergent/typhaa.cfm http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/aquatics/typhaan.html © Project SOUND Distinguished from the closely related Common Flowers are unusual Cattail (Typha latifolia) by:  Blooms: Late spring/summer - usually May-July  narrower, deeper  Flowers: Typical for Cattails green leaves on a less  Flower structure a dense, fuzzy, robust plant cylindrical spike on the end of stem  fruiting spikes  A distinct gap of 1"-3" of naked showing clear stem between the upper, male separation between portion (staminate) and the lower, the male and female female (pistillate) portion. sections - staminate above the pistillate  Male flowers lighter brown; female flowers often green during bloom  leaves typically turning dark brown during seed extending beyond the maturation. spike.  Seeds: fluffy, small – typical Cattail; wind-distributed http://www.opsu.edu/Academics/SciMathNurs/NaturalScience/PlantsInsect sOfGoodwell/plants/pasturefiles/pasture119.htmlhttp://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=3281 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 Many uses of cattails and tules Cattails like water…  Soils:  Texture: any  Roots & young stalk – eaten  pH: any local including quite as food; used as diuretic acidic (to pH 3.0)  Young female flowers – eaten  Light: full sun raw or cooked like corn on the cob  Water:  Winter: flooded  Pollen – eaten raw or cooked; often added to flour to  Summer: Tolerates continuous increase nutrition inundation, seasonal draw-downs, and brackish waters. Can grow in  Seeds – used to stuff pillows water to 24" deep. Great for boggy pond margins  Leaves:  Medicinal: diuretic and  Fertilizer: light fertilizer haemostatic (stops bleeding  For constructing shelters,  Other: Less water = less invasive hats, mats, etc. http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/Evolutionary_Ecology_Research/Ecology_of_Cumbe rland_Plain_Woodland/woodland_plants/typha_domingensis http://practicalsurvivor.com/wildedibleplants © Project SOUND Cattails – not for every What makes water plants so invasive? garden/gardener  Interesting container plant – can  Fast-growing when control spread and conditions conditions are optimal  In seasonally wet areas – rain (water; temp.; pH, gardens, vernal swales nutrients)  Around/in ponds & pools  Most expand through an extensive rhizome system  Bank stabilization around ponds, which is responsible for the streams, rivers. maintenance and expansion of existing stands.  Most will also reseed – ifhttp://farm2.static.flickr.com/1248/702390298_0a32a0a4cd.jpg conditions are right http://brg.cma.nsw.gov.au/uploads/images/ih_CumbungiBoomi.jpg http://homepage3.nifty.com/plantsandjapan/img698.gif © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Why the need for vegetative propagation Managing cattails/rushes/etc. in the garden in wetland species? setting  Many not suitable for growing in small areas  Conditions are not always – choose appropriate optimal – needs to be able species to maximize growth in  Fast-spreading species optimal times need to be managed yearly or will take  Seed reproduction is iffy – over: small seeds must quickly  Cut back stems in germinate on moist soil, dormant season  Remove ½ to 2/3 of which often doesn’t occur mass  Disturbance – plays a key  Replant role in both removing and http://www.jardin-mundani.org/typhaceae/typha.jpg  Best contained inIn the absence of disturbance, cattail disbursing wetland plants large, strong,dominates marshes in dense, single- bottomless container.species stands, out-competing otherspecies. http://www.westcarlston.com/aquatics_Plants_Lists.htm © Project SOUND In garden ponds, you must be the ‘disturbance’ Smaller choices for habitat 1(shallow water) & 2 (pond edge) areas  Scouring Rushes - Equisetum  Spikerushes – Eleocharis species  Some rushes – Juncus species  Some sedges – Carex species  Flat-sedges – Cyperus species  Fiber-optic grass - Isolepis (Scirpus) cernuus © Project SOUND http://greenlifeinsocal.wordpress.com/2010/01/30/my-veggie-garden-in-january/ 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013Giant Scouring Rush – Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine Equisetums are well suited to moist container gardening  Soils:  Texture: any from sandy or gravelly muds to clays  pH: any – prefers 6.5 to 7.5  Light: full sun to shady  Water:  can tolerate prolonged wet conditions, but should not be totally submerged nor allowed to dry out  Best in cool moist soils or pots submerged up to 4” http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/bio406d/images/pics/equ/equisetum_hyemale.htm http://www.vanbloem.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/PLANTS.plantDetail/plant_id/363/index.htm Pale Spikerush – Common Spikerush –Pale Spikerush – Eleocharis macrostachya Eleocharis macrostachya Eleocharis palustris http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=9080&flora_id=1 =1&taxon_id=242101136  Jepson treats them as one species – but there are some slight morphologic differences  Classification is currently undergoing revisions  Challenge – widely disbursed world- wide (as are many wetland species http://www.joesnowaquaticplants.com/plant%20list%20with%20links.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Eleocharis+macrostachya 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Spikerushes grow at the edges of ponds or in vernal wetlands – seeds germinate under water Eleocharis (Spike Rushes) in the wild  Seeds can germinate under water  Do best with fluctuating water levels in streams, vernal ponds/pools – can even grow in ponds (or aquariums)  Short, delicate stems - bright green color in spring/early summer  Form large meadows in vernal pools  Have great little flower spikes that tower above the leaves  Attractive to bees when flowering  Attractive stems even when dry – looks like a silvery-brown meadow http://www.cnps.org/programs/vegetation/Table_Mountain/images/16_Eleocharis-Sagittaria-Paspalum_JT.jpg Eleocharis Spike Rushes in the garden Juncus, Carex and water-tolerant perennials are  Rain gardens and vernal useful for spanning Wetland Habitats 2 & 3 swales  On the edges of ponds/pools  In pots in freshwater pools  As a “natural lawn” – needs water to stayhttp://www.greenthumbinternational.com/ponds/images/Eleocharis_montevidensis_jpg.jpg green, but needs no mowing  Good for erosion control  Good habitat - birds eat the seeds http://www.csupomona.edu/~biotrek/tour/tour03.htmlSpike rushes need more water  Improves useable soilthan many rushes & other sedges nitrogen http://www.finegardening.com/design/articles/a-garden-set-in-stone.aspx 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Juncaceae: Rushes (Wire-grasses) Blue Rush: adaptable to a wide range of water  Characteristics: stiff narrow stems schedules with tiny flower clusters at tips or on side of stem  Seasonal flooding in winter  “Rushes are rounded but sedges have edges”  Prefers moist summer soil but will take:  Juncus – large genus with > 200 annual and perennial species  Growing in water in a pond (grow in a pot)  Rushes form an extremely important component of wetlands, rivers and  Regular watering estuaries  Occasional (every few weeks) watering  Rushes reproduce by seed, but many species set little viable seed; form  No added water – and still large clonal colonies through looks greenish http://www.biology.iastate.edu/Courses/Bot364%20Aquatic%20B underground spread of rhizomes. otany/Genera/Juncus/Juncus-line.GIF http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/spreadingrush.html Some local rushes – and there are others Juncus in  Accent plant in/around pools  Planted among stones Baltic Rush Common/Blue Iris-leaved Leopold’s Rush Mexican Rush the garden Rush Rush  As a container plant  Erosion control – along streams  In moist areas in general – bio- swales, wet areas in lawns  Good nesting, hiding cover for birds http://www.paradiseenvironments.com/images/New/POND S-GRIFFITH%20JUNCUS.JPG http://www.cjb.unige.ch/BotSyst/APG2/Commelinid/100_JUN_13.jpghttp://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Junca1.html 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Uses for Carex species in Water Smartweed – Polygonum hydropiperoides the garden  In vernal swales http://www.alamedacreek.org/Join%20- %20Volunteer/FOTA/GNG%20plants.pdf  In rain gardens Carex tumulicola  Along banks of ponds and natural pools  In full sun or in shade under trees  In watered rock gardens  As an ornamental “grass” http://www.smgrowers.com/imagedb/Carex_spissa.jpg Carex spissa http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/ponds/p/ap/guide/emergent/polygonumh.cfm © Project SOUND Water Smartweed – Polygonum hydropiperoides Smartweed is different… but kind of interesting  Size:  Much of N. America  2-4 ft tall  3-4+ ft wide, spreading  Locally – Madrona Marsh & other local wetlands  Growth form:  Shallow water along the  Herbaceous perennial margins of lakes, ponds, and  Many erect to leaning stems – streams clump-forming http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=92773&flora_id=1  Smartweeds are members of  Dies back in winter – nice fall color the buckwheat family (family  Foliage: Polygonaceae).  Long narrow leaves  Stems commonly have swollen  Young leaves and be eaten – also nodes. (The family name refers important as an antiseptic medicine to this, deriving from Greek words meaning many knees.)  Roots:  Rhizomes; stems also root where they touch the ground http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/where/ponds/p/ap/guide/emergent/polygonum © Project SOUND h.cfm © Project SOUNDhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5936,6248,6270 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Flowers are showy Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local, acidic to alkali  Blooms:  Summer into fall  Light:  Usually July & Aug or later –  Full sun to part-shade (good in depends on available water filtered shade under trees)  Water:  Flowers:  Winter: takes winter flooding  Clustered on slender  Summer: wet to moist; can flowering stems grow in shallow water, but also  Many small pink-white in seasonally dry areas flowers –old-fashioned look  Fertilizer: leaf mulch; ok with light fertilizer  Seeds:  Small, dark brown/black  Other: may need to be replaced  Food for many birds – when starts looking raggedy – waterfowl & songbirds every 3-4 years © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.backyardnature.net/n/h/swamp-sm.htm Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Garden uses for Container gardens allow us to create the Smartweed conditions needed by selected plants  As a pond plant – in shallow water; can grow in pot in a pond  As a pond-side plant  As an attractive pothttp://www.backyardnature.net/n/h/swamp-sm.htm plant – good for wet/bog containers  Other moist areas of the garden © Project SOUND http://bhushandalvi.wordpress.com/tag/polygonum-hydropiperoides/ 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 Garden uses for Yerba Mansa – Anemopsis californica Yerba Mansa  As an attractive pot plant, particularly for mini ‘bog gardens’  In containers placed in the ground  Around ponds  In water gardens  As a turf substitute or ground cover  Under birdbath or other moist http://www.mswn.com/Plant%20Info%20Sheets/Anemopsis%20californica.pdf areas of gardenMusk Monkeyflower – Mimulus moschatus Cardinal Flower: a garden perennial  Size:  2-6 (usually 2-4) ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; winter dormant  Upright growth  Short-lived but re-seeds well  Foliage:  Leaves: most basal, alternate  Light to deep green; often with bronze tinge J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LOCA2 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 Cardinal Flower is a Yellow-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium californicum great Zone 3 plant…  Great candidate as a container plant; bog garden plant  Moist meadow, rain garden, anywhere that gets a little extra water  Flowers make nice cut flowers  Fine at back of conventional (regularly watered) beds http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LOCA2 http://www.soquelnursery.com/perennials_Santolina_Sutera.html Yellow-eyed Grass – Sisyrinchium californicum Yellow-eyed Grass – like Blue-eyed Grass  Pacific coast from central  Size: California to s. British  1-2 ft tall Columbia -  1-2 ft wide, spreading  Primarily in moist-wet  Growth form: peripheries of ponds,  Herbaceous perennial from bogs, marshes, lakeshores, rhizomes (like Iris) moist grasslands and other moist sites near the  Foliage: coast  Grass-like (or mini-Iris-like) http://www.efloras.org/fl orataxon.aspx?flora_id= leaves 1&taxon_id=242101895  Genus Sisyrinchium  Pale to blue-green; dry to black  In the iris family, Iridaceae.  Roots:  Between 70 to 150 species,  rhizomes all native to the New World. Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Scienceshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8185,8222,8224 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 Flowers are lovely Likes a drink in spring  Soils:  Texture: any – sand to clay  Blooms:  pH: any local  Spring/summer usually Apr-  Light: June in our area  Full sun best; will tolerate light  Long bloom season with good shade water  Water:  Flowers:Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Winter: adequate moisture  Like Blue-eyed Grass –  Summer: moist to wet conditions in except bright, cheery yellow spring - somewhat drier conditions http://www.anniesannuals.com/signs/s/sisyrinchium_californicum_yeg.htm  Delicate, star-like - on stem in midsummer through winter. above the foliage Needs dormant period © 2007  Open in morning; close by Ron Wolf midday  Fertilizer: not picky; poor to medium- rich soils  Seeds:  Pod is 3-chambers – like Iris  Other:  Small, angular dark seeds  Divide every 3rd year  Re-seeds well; deadhead to prevent © 2001 Tony Morosco http://www.geoffhandley.com/Gardening/flowergallery/siscalifornicum.jpg So now we’re feeling confident about But maybe you really wanted more of a planting a small garden pool…. streamside look… http://www.wiseacre-gardens.com/pond/pond_matt2.jpg http://www.calflora.net/wildplaces/index.html Malibu Creek - Santa Monica Mountains © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 There’s something special about a *California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum lowland riparian woodland… http://trees.stanford.edu/ENCYC/ACERneg.htm © Project SOUND*California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum *California Boxelder – Acer negundo var. californicum http://na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/acer/negundo.htm  Species: moist areas of U.S… including much of east  var. californicum: CA Floristic Province (W of Sierras) from OR to Baja  Locally in Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns  Introducing into nursery trade by Theodore Payne  Species widely planted as a street tree Several nice specimens at the Gardena Willows Wetland©Preserve Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?256,257,0,264 © Project SOUND 16

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