In a Japanese Garden : Using Calif. Native Gymnosperms 2013

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Talk covers commonly used CA native conifers (firs, cypress, pines and others) and their use in home and larger gardens. Talk introduces using principles of Japanese gardening in California native gardens.

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In a Japanese Garden : Using Calif. Native Gymnosperms 2013

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. In a Japanese Garden: Using CA Native Pines, Junipers & Other Gymnosperms C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve December 7 & 10, 2013 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide © Project SOUND
  4. 4. What do you think of when you hear the words ‘Japanese Garden’? http://www.interiorholic.com/outdoors/landscaping/japanesestroll-garden-designs/             Ponds/lakes Streams Waterfalls Japanese lanterns Bridges Green, green & more green Evergreen shrubs & trees Careful, formal pruning Not a leaf in sight Pink/purple flowers Colorful fall leaves Peaceful/meditation © Project SOUND http://thephotogardenbee.com/2010/03/01/the-huntingtons-japanese-garden-in-san-marinocalifornia/
  5. 5. There are actually several Japanese garden types/styles http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_garden http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_garden Promenade or Stroll Garden Dry Zen/meditation Garden © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Many local ‘Japanese Gardens’ combine several types/styles http://www.culturalnews.com/?p=7620 © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Earl Burns Miller Japanese Garden CSULB - 1250 N Bellflower Blvd Long Beach http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/28218598.jpg © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Japanese garden – Descanso Gardens http://www.descansogardens.org/ © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Huntington Library  100 years old – very established  Also the new Chinese Garden  Well worth the trip in any season http://thephotogardenbee.com/2010/03/01/the-huntingtons-japanese-garden-in-san-marino© Project SOUND california/
  10. 10. Suiho En, the garden of water and fragrance - Tillman Water Reclamation Plant (Woodley Park, 6100 Woodley Avenue, Van Nuys)  6.5 acres  Designed by Dr. Koichi Kawana; constructed 1980-1983.  Ranked 10 of300 public Japanese gardens in the United States by the Journal of Japanese Gardening.  Includes: a dry Zen meditation garden (Karesansui); large chisen, or "wet strolling" garden with waterfalls, lakes, greenery; an authentic tea house and adjacent tea garden. © Project SOUND http://pumpkinmania.blogspot.com/2013/02/a-visit-to-japanese-garden-suiho-en-at.html
  11. 11. Can there ever truly be a ‘Japanese Garden’ in S. California (or outside of Japan, for that matter) ? http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/28218598.jpg © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Japan’s climate is not our climate  Much more like the Pacific Northwest or N. CA: http://www.worldpress.org/images/maps/world_600w.jpg  More rainfall; higher humidity (fog)  Colder in winter  Landforms: more vulcanism than tectonic uplifting  Forests/mountains/sea more accessible (at least where some of the famous gardens are - can ‘borrow’ the outside landscapes better than we can) Bottom line: Japan and Japanese culture are quite different © Project SOUND
  13. 13. But like all gardening traditions, Japanese gardening has lessons to teach us http://www.asherbrowne.com/ © Project SOUND
  14. 14. The Japanese gardening tradition reflects Japanese history  Shinto religion:  Reverence for the natural world  The special holiness of certain places, natural objects http://travelpast50.com/roadside-shinto-shrine-nikko-japan/  Need to keep ‘animals’ (including humans) and other things in or out:  Fences & gates separate world into sacred & profane  The garden is a ‘place apart’ from the outside world  A ‘retreat’ that allows for renewal © Project SOUND http://www.chinagardensociety-kc.org/ChineseGarden_KC.htm
  15. 15. The Japanese gardening tradition reflects Japanese history  Influence of China & Korea (~700800 A.D)  Gardening traditions go back > 3000 years – include large public gardens and small http://www.chinagardensociety-kc.org/ChineseGarden_KC.htm  Many elements influenced Japanese gardening tradition:  The idea of gardens producing harmony between humans & nature  Enclosure: walled gardens  Specific elements: ponds, rock works, trees and flowers  Winding paths connecting a series of carefully composed scenes © Project SOUND http://www.chinatoday.com/culture/chinese_garden.htm
  16. 16. The Japanese gardening tradition reflects Japanese history  Reverence for tradition – and the many 100’s of years of formal gardening tradition  Importance of studying/ studying with the masters  Demographics http://i1100.photobucket.com/albums/g406/kunouero/41R.jpg  City life: need to bring nature to people who were becoming removed from it – and had leisure to enjoy it  Small islands/limited land/growing population – the need for retreat http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4093/4782591223_3e68c8420d_z.jpg © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Roji (Cha-niwa) Teahouse Gardens  Simple, small rustic gardens, often with teahouses http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_garden http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_garden  Purpose: transition – path/passage between the mundane cares/ stresses of the secular world and the detached spiritual realm of the tea ceremony © Project SOUND http://www.minimalisti.com/architecture/exterior-design-architecture/12/traditional-japanesegarden.html
  18. 18. The Tea Garden  Evokes the remoteness and tranquility of the mountains, and provides an illusion of depth.  Guests are made to feel as if they were walking along a simple mountain path, so the prevailing colors are greens and browns of various shades and intensities.  Few exotic/flowering plants – would distract  Seasons are subtly reflected through autumn leaves or spring buds; variety in diverse shapes and levels of shininess of the leaves. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_garden © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Storrier Stearns Japanese Garden, Pasadena http://japanesegardenpasadena.com/ © Project SOUND
  20. 20. But how do we apply the principles of Japanese gardening to our own gardens? © Project SOUND
  21. 21. The lessons of Japanese Gardens are reflected in the ‘essence’ of the tradition http://www.landscapingnetwork.com/garden-styles/asian.html http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v44/Dragynstorm/Japan2012/Japan20 12_F_57_zps7707e7eb.jpg A garden is at its best when it reflects some of the themes found in nature, yet elevates and interprets those themes into an artful expression of human interaction with the land. © Project SOUND
  22. 22. The ‘essence’ of Japanese gardening is to capture the ‘spirit’ of the natural world in which we live - and bring it home © Project SOUND
  23. 23. The ‘spirit’ of Japanese gardening is rooted in a sense of place © Project SOUND
  24. 24. ‘The essence of nature created in a smaller space’ http://www.zimbio.com/Gordon+Smith/articles/_2JMBjlKz-1/Nontraditional+Japanese+Garden+Arroyo+Grande  So a Japanese-influenced California garden interprets California landscapes – and will never look like a Japanese garden in Japan © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Classical plants for Japanese gardens  Trees: Japanese maple Flowering cherry Gingko Podocarpus  Shrubs: Bamboo Camellia Azalea Pine Juniper http://www.interiorholic.com/outdoors/landscaping/japanese-strollgarden-designs/  Groundcovers & perennials: Asiatic jasmine Star jasmine Ginger Ferns Liriope Thyme Mondo grass © Project SOUND http://thephotogardenbee.com/2010/03/01/the-huntingtons-japanese-garden-in-san-marinocalifornia/
  26. 26. Before designing a garden we must first study natural landscapes in detail, to determine the ‘essence’ of the California landscape © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Choices for ‘Japanese influenced’ CA garden  N. CA coastal and mountain forests – most like Japanese forests  S. CA forests – drier, but still forest communities  More local plant communities  Coastal Prairie/shrubland  Coastal Sage Scrub  Coastal Chaparral (Santa Monica Mtns) © Project SOUND
  28. 28.  First we need to develop a deep understanding of the natural landscape  Then we must determine the ‘essence’ of what makes our California landscape unique  Only then can we apply traditional principles for ‘bringing nature home’ © Project SOUND
  29. 29. http://gallery.photo.net/photo/15348535-md.jpg © Project SOUND
  30. 30. N. California evergreen forests http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_California_coastal_fo rests_(WWF_ecoregion) Coastal redwood forest Cool, damp, foggy with relatively rich, organic soils © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Mixed evergreen forest Closed-cone pine forest © Project SOUND
  32. 32. The ‘essence’ of the coastal northern forest http://www.lizasreef.com/HOPE%20FOR%20THE%20RAIN%20FORESTS/rain_forests_of_the_ world.htm  Shade: medium to dense  Play of light and shade; may be islands of sun  Straight tree trunks: column/pole-like and often large  Evergreen Gymnosperms  Smaller understory plants: often vine-like  Spots of color in mostly green landscape  Mostly flat – fades out into the mist © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Evolution of plants  The gymnosperms are older than the angiosperms (flowering plants) by quite a bit (~ 400 MYA vs ~ 150 MYA)  The gymnosperms: http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/plantrelat.gif  Have pollen & seeds  Do not have flowers or fruits; are not dependent on living pollinators  Pollen comes into ‘direct’ contact with ovule (seed) for fertilization to occur http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/kingdoms-living-world/gymnosperms.php © Project SOUND
  34. 34. The Gymnosperms: old and less mighty than in the past  700 living species  Classically divided into four divisions (subclasses): http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/biobookdiversity_6.html  Conifers: pines, spruce, cypress – worldwide  Cycads (such as the sago palm) - tropics  Ginkgos (the maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba) - Asia  Gnetophytes (such as Mormon tea, Ephedra © Project SOUND
  35. 35. A modern representation of the phylogeny of gymnosperms based on chloroplast DNA.  The pine family (Pinaceae) and a sister branch leading to six additional families have a common ancestor within the division Pinophyta. http://sydkab.wordpress.com/tag/gondwanaland/  In other words, the seven major families of cone-bearing trees and shrubs all evolved from the division Pinophyta. © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Division Pinophyta: California natives  Family Pinaceae: Cedrus, Pinus, Cathaya, Picea, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Pseudolarix, Tsuga, Nothotsuga, Keteleeria, Abies  Family Cupressaceae: Cunninghamia, Taiwania, Athrotaxis, Metasequoia, Sequoia, Sequoiadendron, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Taxodium, Papuacedrus, Austrocedrus, Libocedrus, Pilgerodendron, Widdringtonia, Diselma, Fitzroya, Callitris (incl. Actinostrobus), Neocallitropsis, Thujopsis, Thuja, Fokienia, Chamaecyparis, Cupressus, Hesperocyparis, Juniperus, Calocedrus, Tetraclinis, Platycladus, Microbiota  Family Taxaceae: Austrotaxus, Pseudotaxus, Taxus, Cephalotaxus, Amentotaxus, Torreya © Project SOUND
  37. 37. * California Nutmeg – Torreya californica ©2011 George Jackson © Project SOUND
  38. 38. * California Nutmeg – Torreya californica  N. Calif. Endemic  Its range has two distinct parts:  Coast Ranges - from southwest Trinity County south to Monterey County  Cascade-Sierra Nevada foothills - from Shasta County south to Tulare County.  Cool, humid, wooded slopes, shady canyons in forest or woodland, sometimes chaparral http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torreya_californica http://www.budomonk.com/california-nutmeg.html © Project SOUND
  39. 39. The genus Torreya : an old taxon  ~ 170 million years  Once widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere - fossil records from Europe, Greenland, AK, British Columbia, OR, CO, VA, NC  Now extremely spatially disjunction distribution.  ? Out-competed  ? Climate change  Five species now: three in eastern Asia, one in California (T. californica) and a small range in northern Florida (T. taxifolia) . http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Torreya_nucifera_SZ129.png © Project SOUND
  40. 40. CA Nutmeg: a woodland evergreen tree  Size:  40-60+ ft tall  20-40 ft wide  Growth form:      Upright tree from central leader: conical then rounded Evergreen; branches appear to droop Looks like yew or redwood Slow growing Bark: thin, gray-brown  Foliage:   http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Torreya_californica Small, sharp ‘needles’ Very aromatic – like sandalwood © Project SOUND http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=420
  41. 41. Female ‘cones’ : unusual  Blooms: in spring  Flowers:   http://online.sfsu.edu/bholzman/courses/Fall%2003%20project/Nutmeg.html Dioecious: separate male and female trees (usually) Pollen cones: small, wind pollinated (typical of gymnosperms)  Seeds:  Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences.    http://www.conifers.org/ta/Torreya_californica.php Female cones have fleshy covering – green then purple-brown Shape/size reminiscent of the true nutmeg 2 years to mature Decorative/interesting: food for birds, animals © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Forest conditions  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained, including clays  pH: any local – takes acidic  Light:  In our are, best in part-shade to even full shade  Water:  Winter: plenty  Summer: Water Zone 2-3 to 3; young trees may benefit from occasional misting on cool days  Fertilizer: fine with ½ strength fertilizer; best with organic forest mulch  Other: dislikes wind © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Gardening with Torreya  Specimen tree in shady spots  Large screen/barrier hedge (sharp)  Good for large containers/bonsai – slow growing http://online.sfsu.edu/bholzman/courses/Fall%2003%20proje ct/Nutmeg.html Be sure you smell before you buy http://selectree.calpoly.edu/Photos/Torreya_califo rnica/images/tree.jpg ©2012 Belinda Lo © Project SOUND
  44. 44. The ‘essence’ of the coastal northern forest http://www.lizasreef.com/HOPE%20FOR%20THE%20RAIN%20FORESTS/rain_forests_of_the_ world.htm  Shade: medium to dense  Play of light and shade; may be islands of sun  Straight tree trunks: column/pole-like and often large  Smaller understory plants: often vine-like  Spots of color in mostly green landscape  Mostly flat – fades out into the mist When choosing gymnosperms consider their size © Project SOUND
  45. 45. N/central CA Mixed Evergreen Forest http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_MEDIA/stelprdb5171898.bmp © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Essence of N. CA mountain evergreen forests http://www.kcet.org/news/the_back_forty/commentary/golden-green/the-angelesnational-forest-is.html       Vistas Slopes & valleys Sun and shade Drier than Coastal forests ‘specimen’ evergreen trees Rocks/boulders © Project SOUND http://travelonastudentbudget.com/?tag=angeles-national-forest
  47. 47. The essence of N. CA forests in a garden http://www.moplants.com/secrets-of-coast-redwood/ Gymnosperms Large trees Light and shade Illusion of distance & slope Cool, green appearance Specimen tree or not Smaller understory plants: often vine-like  Spots of color in mostly green landscape        Take home message: capture the essential features © Project SOUND
  48. 48. * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  49. 49. * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens  Montane forests from Oregon south through California to northern Baja California, Mexico and east to western Nevada  Locally in San Gabriel Mtns. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?157,158,159 © 2005 Steven Perkins  On mesic sites including riparian habitats in mixedevergreen, yellow-pine forests, 2000-7000 feet © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Incense Cedar: magnificent  Evergreen tree in large yards, parks, business parks, schools, other large areas  Used as a large screen  Good for large Asian-themed gardens http://shriverfarms.com/default.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calocedrus_decurrens © Project SOUND http://www.panoramio.com/photo/37860873
  51. 51. * California Juniper – Juniperus californica http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Juniperus_californica_Mount_Diablo.jpg © Project SOUND
  52. 52. * California Juniper – Juniperus californica  Mountain slopes of W. CA into Baja; desert mountains of S. CA, NV & AZ – locally in Antelope Valley & desert side of San Gabriels  In S. CA commonly occurs in pinyon-juniper woodlands that border and integrate with chaparral along desert margins http://www.conifers.org/cu/Juniperus_californica.php © 2003 Monty Rickard © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Use where ever you want a juniper     As an unusual bonsai On hot, dry slopes As a specimen or hedge plant For it’s great habitat value http://www.fourdir.com/p_california_juniper.htm © Project SOUND http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Juniperus_californica_Mount_Diablo.jpg
  54. 54. Bonsai in Japanese gardens  The purposes of bonsai are primarily contemplation (for the viewer) and the pleasant exercise of effort and ingenuity (for the grower). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Atlas_Cedar,_GSBF-CN_120,_September_12,_2008.jpg  Not usually included in Japanese gardens per se  Take home message for small gardens: large plants that can be trained for bonsai are good candidates for container plants (junipers, pines, oaks, some flowering shrubs) © Project SOUND http://valavanisbonsaiblog.com/2013/11/23/japan-international-bonsai-tour-exploration-autumn2013-part-5/
  55. 55. * Common Juniper – Juniperus communis var. montana (saxatilis) © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Juniperus communis, the common juniper http://shelf3d.com/i/juniperus%20communis  Has the largest range of any woody plant, throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. * Common Juniper – Juniperus communis var. montana  In CA: Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains  Dry rocky soil and rock crevices on slopes and summits  Yellow Pine Forest, Douglas-Fir Forest, North Coastal Coniferous Forest, Lodgepole Forest, Subalpine Forest, slopes http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu /cgibin/get_IJM.pl?tid=60424 ©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Common juniper: woody groundcover  Size:  1-5 ft tall  4-10+ ft wide  Growth form:   ©2009 Barry Breckling   Evergreen Mounded to mat-like; spreading w/ age Live 150+ years Moderate growth rate  Foliage:     ©2012 Jean Pawek Blue-green or medium green Sharp needles in bundles of 3 Bark – red-brown, thin peeling Foliage makes nice orange dye © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Female fruits are showy  Blooms: spring  Flowers: male and female; usually on separate plants ©2012 Jean Pawek  Female fruits/cones:    Look like berries – typical of junipers Take 2 years to ripen Begin green, then red; blue with white bloom when ripe ©2010 Louis-M. Landry © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Juniper berries spice up foods http://mojavedesert.net/plants/shrubs/juniper.html  The cones from a handful of species are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine and native SW U.S. - also give gin its distinguishing flavor  In addition to J. communis, other edible species include Juniperus californica which is said to have ‘sweet’ berries  The mature, dark berries are usually but not exclusively used in cuisine, while gin is flavored with fully grown but immature green berries © 2005 James M. Andre © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: just about any  pH: any local  Light: full sun to light shade; fine under high canopy  Water: ©2008 Louis-M. Landry  Winter: adequate; no standing water  Summer: best with occasional – Water Zone 1-2 or 2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils but fine with leaf mulch  Other: nice natural shape, but can be pruned; watch for Juniper Blight http://web.ewu.edu/ewflora/Cupressaceae/Juniperus%20communis.html © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Common juniper in the garden      As an attractive pot plant, bonsai Evergreen groundcover, under tall trees Rock gardens Woodland/habitat gardens In Asian-themed gardens http://www.bonsai.de/shop/images/SH040_wacholder_juniperus_communis_bonsai.jpg http://conservationgardenpark.org/plants/443/common-juniper/ Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Junipers as medicine  Tea from foliage:     Tonic Diuretic/kidney cleanser Colds/flu Arthritis, muscle aches  Tea/infusion of ‘berries’  stomach ailments  Colds/lung ailments  Kidney ailments  Smoke:  Ritual purification Care must be taken to limit consumption © Project SOUND
  64. 64. In the wilds, junipers often grow with other native evergreens ©2005 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy © Project SOUND
  65. 65. * Sitka spruce – Picea sitchensis http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Picea_sitchensis_forest.jpg © Project SOUND
  66. 66. * Sitka spruce – Picea sitchensis  Tree of northern temperate rainforests – truly not our climate  Very large – not for most gardens  Sold in nurseries throughout the U.S. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Picea_sitchensis_ distribution_map.png http://www.shannontech.com/ParkVision/Olympic/Olympic8.html SOUND © Project http://www.humboldt.edu/redwoods/photos/spruce.php
  67. 67. Dwarf cultivars: very different look http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/images/pisip38.jpg Picea sitchensis ‘Papoose’ Picea sitchensis ‘Tenas’  Shrub-size: 4-8+ ft.  Round ball – not statuesque tree  Useful, but not the real feel http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/11463464.jpg © Project SOUND
  68. 68. * Douglas fir – Pseudotsuga menziesii http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pseudotsuga_menziesii_2.JPG © Project SOUND
  69. 69. * Bigcone spruce – Pseudotsuga macrocarpa On Mt. Wilson – San Gabriel Mountains http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pseudotsuga_macrocarpa_Mount_Wilson_CA.jpg http://davisla.wordpress.com/2013/03/22/plant-of-the-week-pseudotsuga-macrocarpa/ © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Ideas for including the ‘essence’ of big trees in a smaller garden  If a neighbor has a large pine, cypress or juniper, make use of ‘borrowed landscape http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/2569495.jpg Incorporate large uprights in architecture to suggest tree trunks http://www.minimalisti.com/architecture/exterior-design-architecture/12/traditional-japanese© Project SOUND garden.html
  71. 71. Ideas for including the ‘essence’ of big trees in a smaller garden http://www.atedadesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/japanese-garden-designs.jpg Use smaller trees (or container plants) to suggest larger trees © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Cypresses are common components of CA evergreen forests © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Junipers and Cypresses are similar, but their cones are quite different  Cypress (Hesperocyparis) are distinguished by woody cones, often persistent on older branches and opening (scales separating) upon fire  Juniperus has succulent cones with fused scales, developing at the ends of leafy green branches (or in axils of leaves). © Project SOUND
  74. 74. A Cypress is a Cypress: whatever happened to the genus Cupressus?  Molecular studies have led to splitting of the genus and transfer of species among four genera:  Cupressus - Old World  Callitropsis - nw N Amer.  Chamaecyparis - 2 spp in N. Amer. and 3 in e Asia)  Hesperocyparis - 16 spp. w N Amer. to Columbia © Project SOUND
  75. 75.  Millions of years ago, cypress woodlands containing one or more ancestral species of the cone-bearing Hesperocyparis dominated vast areas of California. During the past 20 million years, as mountains were uplifted and the climate became increasingly more arid, most of these extensive cypress woodlands vanished. SOUND © Project
  76. 76. Cypress ‘Islands’ are unique and endangered   Some of these populations became isolated; gradual changes over millions of years resulted in the present-day species and subspecies.  Tecate Cypress Today 10 species (or 8 species and 2 subspecies) are confined to isolated groves scattered throughout coastal and inland mountains, from the Mexican border to Oregon. Cypress of arid inland mountains and valleys (such as Piute cypress, Macnab cypress, Cuyamaca cypress, and Arizona cypress) have developed glandular (resinous) foliage and are more drought resistant. © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Monterey Cypress - Hesperocyparis macrocarpa http://www.pacifichorticulture.org/articles/why-plant-names-change-2/ © Project SOUND http://treesofsantacruzcounty.blogspot.com/search/label/Cupressus%20macrocarpa
  78. 78. http://www.cnps-sgm.org/gallery/show.php?picloc=images-SturtevantFalls0704/SturtevantFalls041-TheTrack-m.jpg © Project SOUND
  79. 79. * Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  80. 80. * Tecate Cypress – Hesperocyparis forbesii   http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrolo gy/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=784 http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=89295 Very rare – 15 U.S. populations; formerly more widespread – in La Brea tar from Pleistocene Santa Ana Mountains (Orange County); Guatay Mountain, Otay Mountain (San Diego County); Mount Tecate on the U.S.-Mexican boundary; N. Baja.  Dry slopes, exposed hillsides, ridgetops; also along stream banks/arroyos, 1,500 to 5,000 feet © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Tecate Cypress is a well-mannered evergreen  Size: to 20+ ft tall; grows quickly to 12 ft. then slows  6-8 ft wide   Growth form:  Woody evergreen tree; may be shrubby, manybranched with age  Bark lovely; peeling and nice colors  Long-lived (100’s of years)  Foliage:  Pretty typical Cypress  Nice looking; neater than Italian Cypress http://www.conifers.org/cu/cup/forbesii.htm http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/tecatecypress.html  Roots: taproot and laterals © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Cones are distinctive  Flowers:  Separate male & female flowers  You probably won’t notice it blooming  Cones:  Male cones numerous; unusual looking – on small branches  Female cones are larger and attached to larger branches  Start out green – gradually become dry & hard  Take 2 years to mature; remain on tree for several years  Need hot temperatures (fire) to open & release seeds http://www.conifers.org/cu/cup/forbesii.htm http://www.conifers.org/cu/cup/forbesii.htm © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: best in coarse, welldrained soils  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: rain usually adequate  Summer: none or very little after established; over watering can make susceptible to blow-down  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: Easy under proper conditions © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Uses in the garden     Anywhere you might consider a nonnative Cypress Great on dry hillsides – is fire-prone Excellent as an evergreen hedge or screen Impressive specimen plant http://www.geographylists.com/tecate_cypress.jpg http://vhd.heritage.vic.gov.au/vhd/heritagevic#detail_places;70998 http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/pictures/Cupressus_forbesii_tecate_cypress.jpg © Project SOUND
  85. 85. * Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis ©2008 Matt Teel © Project SOUND
  86. 86. * Piute Cypress – Hesperocyparis nevadensis http://ucjeps.berkel ey.edu/cgibin/get_IJM.pl?tid= 89300  Narrow endemic: Kern County: the drainage of Bodfish Creek, and, at 4000 feet, on Red Hill in the Paiute Mountains where it grows at elevations of 50006000 feet with Juniperus californica, Pinus sabiniana, P. monophylla and Ephedra viridis ©2012 Joey Malone © Project SOUND http://www.conifers.org/cu/Cupressus_nevadensis.php
  87. 87. Paiute Cypress: majestic tree  Size:   30-50+ ft tall 20-30 ft wide  Growth form:     Tree with straight central leader Pyramidal in youth; top is rounded with age Fast growing to 20 ft. Wonderful rustic bark  Foliage: ©2008 Matt Teel    Medium to gray-green Scale-like leaves Strongly aromatic ©2002 Dr. Louis Emmet Mahoney http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cupressus_nevadensis_resin_glands.jpg © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Cones are cypress-type  Blooms: winter-early spring; separate pollen, seed cones on same plant  Female cones:  ©2002 Dr. Louis Emmet Mahoney    ©2008 Matt Teel Round; brown becoming gray with age Ripen in 1 year On short lateral shoots near branch tips; nice appearance Only open when exposed to high temperatures © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: looks best with occasional to somewhat regular water – Zone 2 or 23, though quite drought tolerant  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: can be pruned to shape, ©2012 Joey Malone even hedged - but has a nice natural shape; watch for fungal diseases, bark borers © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Uses for Piute Cypress  Planted as an ornamental tree, particularly for gray foliage  Nice large background plants – or drought-tolerant large hedges/screens  Hardy – planted along roads in Santa Monica mtns http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/cupressus-nevadensis http://www.worldbotanical.com/images/145-Cupressus.jpg http://jaysullivan.org/cypresn.htm © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Essence of a drier CA forest     Moderate size trees – some with straight, vertical trunks Open vistas with distant hills Evergreens often mixed with other plant communities (patches in chaparral/ oak woodland) Dry shade (more open); light/shade ©2010 Rebecca Wenk © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Ideas for small gardens  ‘borrow’ a nice landscape – if there’s one to borrow  Suggest distance http://agardenbydesign.blogspot.com/2013/01/something-borrowed-part-1.html http://freshfurnitureidea.com/garden/asian-garden-design-ideas/  Medium gray-brown to graygreen fences  Living ‘screens; © Project SOUND
  93. 93. You may have noticed that cypress’ and pines go together – in nature and gardens http://achefinthegarden.blogspot.com/2011_07_01_archive.html © Project SOUND
  94. 94. * Coast Pine – Pinus contorta var. contorta http://sjgbloom2012.wordpress.com/2012/05/08/pinus-contorta-shore-pine-15-2/ © Project SOUND
  95. 95. *Coast Pine – Pinus contorta var. contorta  Pinus contorta subsp. contorta — Shore pine; Pacific Coast, S. AK to N. California  Pinus contorta subsp. murrayana — Tamarack pine, or Sierra lodgepole pine (large tree) – in San Bernardino Mtns ©2012 Vernon Smith http://www.mostlynatives.com/plants/pinus-contorta © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Coast pine  Size:   20-50 ft tall 10-25 ft wide  Growth form:   Variable with age, environmental conditions Usually multi-branched, irregular; may be wind-swept  Foliage:  Needles short, medium/dark green – may be sparse or dense © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://science.halleyhosting.com/nature/plants/trees/conifer/pine/pinus/contortacontorta.html
  97. 97. Cones are irregular  Blooms: in spring - pollen  Flowers:    Separate male, female cones Female cones: two years to mature; may remain on tree for long time Cones relatively small, irregular shape  Seeds:   ©2012 Aaron Arthur ©2012 Vernon Smith Ripen in fall Edible – good for jays and other birds that eat pine nuts © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: most, including sandy or poorly drained  pH: any but high pH (> 8.0)  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate – remember where plant originates  Summer: semi-regular best; Zone 2 to 2-3 depending on soil drainage  Fertilizer: none; fine with poor soils  Other: organic mulch as must http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_contorta © Project SOUND
  99. 99. Gardening with Shore pine  As an attractive container plant  Pair with Bishop pine (Pinus muricata), Common juniper (Juniperus communis) and naked sedge (Calamagrostis nutkatensis) for ‘N. coast garden’  Fine for immediate coast http://science.halleyhosting.com/nature/plants/trees/conifer/pine/pinus/contortacontorta.html http://www.pnwplants.wsu.edu/PlantDisplay.aspx?PlantID=179 Project SOUND © http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/picoc1.htm
  100. 100. http://sjgbloom2012.wordpress.com/2012/05/08/pinus-contorta-shore-pine-15-2/ © Project SOUND
  101. 101. S. CA mountains have lovely pines http://www.flickriver.com/photos/mattmcgrath/sets/72157604318436716/ © Project SOUND
  102. 102. *Ponderosa Pine Pinus ponderosa http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pinus-ponderosa http://activerain.com/blogsview/253030/traveling-to-shingletown-from-redding-californiaponderosa-pines-bar-and-grill-is-a-must http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pinus-ponderosa © Project SOUND
  103. 103. *Coulter Pine – Pinus coulteri http://www.gardensandplants.com/uk/plant.aspx?plant _id=2497 http://www.conifers.org/pi/Pinus_coulteri.php Grows in San Bernardino Mtns © Project SOUND
  104. 104. * Jeffrey Pine – Pinus jeffreyi On Mt. Pinos http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Pinus_jeffreyi © Project SOUND
  105. 105. * Bishop Pine – Pinus muricata © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND
  106. 106. * Bishop Pine – Pinus muricata  Narrow endemic: several places on N/Central coast and in Baja (incl. Cedros Isl.)  Dry ridges to coastal, windshorn forests, often in or around bogs in Redwood forest, n coastal conifer forest, closed-cone-pine forest, chaparral < ~1500 ft http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38287 Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © Project SOUND
  107. 107. Bishop pine reflects its environment  Size: moderate for pine   40-70 ft tall 20-30+ ft wide  Growth form:   ©2013 Jason Matthias Mills  May be rounded and windswept on coast; taller and more pyramidal away from coast (and in youth) High canopy; dark, furrowed bark with age Relatively fast growth to 20 ft; 50-150+ years  Foliage:  Dark green; medium length needles © Project SOUND
  108. 108. Cones stick around…  Blooms: in spring  Cones:    ©2004 Charles E. Jones Separate pollen/seed cones Seed cones long and pointed’ usually hang down from branches Remain unopened until exposed to high heat (usually fire; may open with hot weather); many on mature tree at one time and old ones are ultimately enclosed by bark (‘eaten’)  Seeds:  Mature in 3 years ©2012 Aaron E. Sims © Project SOUND
  109. 109. Bishop pine: N. CA coastal tree  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained, including sandy or rocky  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun (foggier coastal areas); part-shade elsewhere  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: occasional to moderate (Water Zones 2 or 23; 2 or less with age)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; organic mulch  Other: susceptible to Aphids and Beetle Borers, Phytophthora, Root Rot, Rust and Pitch Canker http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pinus-muricata © Project SOUND
  110. 110. Bishop pine takes to local gardens     http://selectree.calpoly.edu/treedetail.lasso?rid=1058 Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Wherever a moderate-size pine is needed, including coastal gardens, semi-dry slopes, windbreaks/tall hedges Asian-themed gardens Large plantings, including public/ commercial (schools; parks; etc.) Prune up and can garden beneath (grasses; ferns; other natural understory Introduced into CA gardens by Theodore Payne http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Pinus_muricata http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5187/5683301494 © Project SOUND _a469cd8fbf.jpg
  111. 111. * Knobcone pine – Pinus attenuata http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pinus-attenuata http://www.baumkunde.de/Pinus_attenuata/ © Project SOUND
  112. 112. * CA Foothill Pine – Pinus sabiniana ©2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  113. 113. * CA Foothill Pine – Pinus sabiniana  Foothills in coastal ranges, Sierras south to Ventura Co.  Dry slopes & ridges below 4500 ft. in foothill woodlands, n oak woodland, chaparral  AKA: Bull pine; Gray pine  Fossils suggest only recently adapted to the Mediterranean climate - closest relatives are at higher elevations in the southwest US and Mexico.  Humans likely contributed to the current distribution pattern, including the large gap in distribution in Tulare County. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinus_sabiniana http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?PISA2 © Project SOUND
  114. 114. CA Foothill Pine: moderate size but looks big  Size:   40-80 ft tall (40-50 in garden) 25-35 ft wide  Growth form:     Pyramidal in youth; high, rounded canopy with age Single leader Fast to 40-45 ft in 15 years Lives 200+ years in wild  Foliage:  ©2013 Susan McDougall ©2011 Jean Pawek    Color: most often gray-green; open airy – can garden beneath Longish needles Graceful appearance Roots & twigs used for basketry © Project SOUND
  115. 115. Seeds: among the best  Blooms: spring  Female cones: Produced after 10-25 yrs Large (6-10 inches; 1-2 lb) with long, sharp ‘beaks’  Mature in 2 years; persist 5-7 years  Open slowly, releasing seeds   ©2011 Jean Pawek  Seeds:    ©2011 Neal Kramer Large; predictable crop Hard-shelled; need to process Eaten fresh, roasted, boiled or pounded and mixed with cold water and other seeds for small cakes, thin mush © Project SOUND
  116. 116. Foothill Pine: Dry  Soils:  Texture: well-drained a must  pH: any local  Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: adequate; supplement if needed  Summer: drought tolerant; best with occasional water (Water Zones 1-2 to 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: susceptible to western gall rust and bark beetles; don’t over-water, and watch for signs © Project SOUND
  117. 117. Foothill Pine From California Native Plants, Theodore Payne's 1941 catalog: "A rapid growing tree and the best pine for hot dry locations. Beautiful long drooping silvery green foliage. Quite distinct in appearance from other pines. In typical specimens the trunk has a habit of parking into several erect branches forming a broom-like top.” ©2012 Jean Pawek http://www.backyardnature.net/sierr as/pinedigg.htm © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pinus-sabiniana
  118. 118. How else might you use CA foothill pine? http://www.pinetum.org/PhotoJEFFsabiniana.htm © Project SOUND
  119. 119. * Pinyon Pine – Pinus edulis (SW U.S.) http://www.conifersociety.org/conifers/conifer/pinus/edulis/ © Project SOUND
  120. 120. Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_monophylla © Project SOUND
  121. 121. Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla  Tree of the Southwest: CA, AZ, NM and northern Baja California; in the dry mountain ranges of NV, UT, and southeastern ID  Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Foothill Woodland between ~3000 & 7500 ft. green - Pinus monophylla subsp. monophylla blue - Pinus monophylla subsp. californiarum red - Pinus monophylla subsp. fallax http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_monophylla  Widespread and often abundant in this region, forming extensive open woodlands, often mixed with junipers, Jeffrey pine, sagebrush & montane white fir © Project SOUND
  122. 122. Singleleaf Pinyon – Pinus monophylla  Single-leaf Pinyon occurred as early as the Late Wisconsin glacial period (20,000 to 11,000 years ago).  Large area of distribution and, therefore, probably a large degree of genetic variation  Conservation implications – esp. in CA green - Pinus monophylla subsp. monophylla blue - Pinus monophylla subsp. californiarum red - Pinus monophylla subsp. fallax http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_monophylla Mark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  123. 123. Singleleaf pine: typical pinyon  Size:   10-35+ ft tall 5-20 or 25 ft wide  Growth form:    Shrubby-appearing tree Many branches – often irregular shape with age Slow-growing; long-lived (100’s of years)  Foliage:  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_monophylla Short, gray-green needles in bundles of one © Project SOUND
  124. 124. Seeds are fantastic  Blooms: in spring; separate pollen & seed cones on same plant  Female cones:  Small: ~ 2”; round ; 35 years old when start to bear  Crops every 3-7 years; 2 years to mature  Open widely when mature – typical pinyon trait  Seeds:    Absolutely delicious! Consumed by humans, birds and animals Primarily spread by Jays, Clark’s Nutcracker © Project SOUND http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_monophylla
  125. 125. Singleleaf pinyon  Soils:  Texture: most any  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water: Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Winter: good soil moisture  Summer:  Most xeric pine in the U. S.  Mean annual precipitation range is 8 to 18 inches; most precipitation falling DecemberApril  Once established, needs only occasional watering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Management: Native Californians pruned out dead branches; removed underbrush – fire can kill this species http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_monophylla © Project SOUND
  126. 126. Gardening with pinyons  Container or bonsai plant  Screen/hedge; good for mild, coastal conditions  Neat, bold appearance; gray color blends well with dry high-desert and mountain landscapes as well as modern and mediterranean gardens http://selectree.calpoly.edu/treedetail.lasso?rid=1054 http://paridevita.com/2013/04/20/drip-drop-drip-drop/ http://www.washoecounty.us/parks/arboretum/burke.html © Project SOUND
  127. 127. ©2012 Steven Perry http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pinus_monophylla http://www.birdandhike.com/Veg/Species/Conifers/Pinus_mon/_Pin_mon.htm Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  128. 128. Many good resources on Japanese Gardening  http://www.japanesegardensonline.com  Books: Japanese Gardening  Ortho’s All About Creating Japanese Gardens  Joe Earl (ed): Infinite Spaces: the Art and Wisdom of Japanese Gardening  many others – see your local library  Books: CA Landscape Gardening  M. Francis & A. Reiman: The California Landscape Garden  G. Keator & A. Middlebrook: Designing California Native Gardens: the Plant Community Approach to Artful, Ecological Gardens © Project SOUND
  129. 129. Get out and visit a local garden © Project SOUND
  130. 130. Look at our local landscapes with new eyes http://www.cnps-sgm.org/gallery/gallery.php © Project SOUND
  131. 131. My Gardening Philosophy – circa 2013 1. 2. http://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/ Knowledge is power It’s better to understand how something works rather than to just follow rules 3. It’s easier to work with the physical conditions in a garden (soil characteristics, light, etc.) than to try to change them dramatically 4. California native plants from the local area are often the best suited for local gardens 5. Look to Mother Nature and Native Californians for gardening advice 6. Make a garden plan – even tho’ it may change over time 7. Choose plants based on their suitability for your needs and garden conditions 8. Save ‘Heritage’ trees and large shrubs – unless there’s a good reason to remove them 9. Choose plants for their habitat value 10. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.) © Project SOUND
  132. 132. 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide © Project SOUND

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