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Infiltration gardens 2015

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Talk on building and planting rain gardens and other infiltration devices in S. California.

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Infiltration gardens 2015

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2015 (our 11th year)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND Capture the Rain: rain gardens, dry swales and other features to retain rainwater C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve January 3 & 8, 2015
  3. 3. 2015: Sustainable Living with California Native Plants © Project SOUND
  4. 4. What is ‘sustainable living’  Thriving lives & livelihoods  Sustainable food security  Secure sustainable water  Universal clean energy  Healthy & productive ecosystems  Governance for sustainable societies © Project SOUND http://nancysteele.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/image0011.jpg Living within our means to provide:
  5. 5. Pillars of sustainable gardening for S. CA © Project SOUND Water-wise Life-friendly Productive
  6. 6. Today we’ll focus on rain and water © Project SOUND
  7. 7. © Project SOUND It turns out that water laws in Western U.S. states are complex, reflecting old realities Let’s start at the beginning: who owns the rain?
  8. 8. Western Water Law in a nutshell  Most water laws are state and sometimes more local – vary widely by state  The basis of most date back a long while (to the 1800’s or early 1900’s)  Most reflect the water needs of ‘industry’ – ranching, farming, mining and other industries  Most do not reflect our current understanding of watersheds © Project SOUND http://www.foothillwater.com/images/CalLaw.gif
  9. 9. What is a watershed (and why are they important)?  A watershed is an area of land from which water, sediment, and dissolved materials drain to a common point along a stream, wetland, lake, river or ocean.  The watershed boundary is defined by the dividing line of highest elevation surrounding a given stream or network of streams. © Project SOUNDhttp://uown.org/Pictures/watershed.jpg
  10. 10. Know your local watershed – it affects you  Watersheds can be small or large  Smaller watersheds (the sub- watersheds) can combine to make a much larger watershed.  No matter where you are, you are in a watershed. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.nps.gov/pwro/sangabriel/sangabriel_watersheds.jpg
  11. 11. Why worry about our local watershed? © Project SOUND http://www.prescottcreeks.org/blog/amanda-richardson/2012/04/26/venturing-world-ecosystem-services Because it provides (and requires) services that affect us all (more next month)
  12. 12. © Project SOUND The water cycle is modified in the urban environment http://pmm.nasa.gov/education/water-cycle
  13. 13. Water infiltration: an issue in the urban West © Project SOUND http://www.landsat.com/torrance-california-aerial-a0680000.html In fact, urban runoff is a problem everywhere, wet or dry
  14. 14. Typical impervious urban surfaces  Roadways  Roofs  Sidewalks and walkways  Driveways  Patios, etc. © Project SOUND All can be viewed as potential rainwater collecting devices
  15. 15. © Project SOUND What if we all increased the infiltration in our own yards – that would help, right? But, do we actually own the water that falls on our roof?
  16. 16. Who owns the rain?  Clarifies that use of rainwater captured from rooftops does not require a water right permit from the State Water Resources Control Board.  Permits holders of a C27 license (landscape contractors) to prime contract for the construction of rainwater capture systems used exclusively for irrigation or to supply for a fountain, waterfall, pond, or other water feature. © Project SOUND California Assembly Bill 1750 (Rainwater Capture Act of 2012)
  17. 17. California Rainwater Capture Act of 2012  A good step forward - for our gardens and our watersheds  ‘Together with targeted overflow into bioswales and vernal detainment pools, rainwater management systems recharge local aquifers and liberate the gardener from the city garden hose.’ © Project SOUND
  18. 18. © Project SOUND Water conservation: one part of a landscape water management plan  Conserving seasonal precipitation  Saving water: rain barrels & tanks  Directing water: french drains; seasonal ‘streams’  Allowing water to percolate into the soil: rain gardens and percolation swales; pervious hardscaping  Preserving soil moisture: mulching  Using irrigation water efficiently  Choice of irrigation method(s)  Designing landscape/selecting plants using Water Zone principles
  19. 19. Benefits of having a home rainwater management system  Provides clean free water for use in garden  Directs water to where you need it in the garden  Helps to deep water larger plants during the winter  Allows water to infiltrate rather than create a muddy mess  Helps recharge the local aquifer = better water management for the whole watershed © Project SOUND Allows you to grow plants from additional plant communities – and attract some wonderful wildlife
  20. 20. You may have looked up ‘rain gardens on- line and concluded ‘that’s not for me’ © Project SOUND https://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/raingarden/stormwater_clip_image002_0000.jpg
  21. 21. The idea of rain gardens was first developed in places with too much water  Flood (water) control  Pollution control/ management  Sediment control  Water conservation © Project SOUND http://lowerseletarlearningtrail-2g.blogspot.com/
  22. 22. © Project SOUND In our dry climate, we need to wisely use all the water we get http://kristamaxwell.com/garden/photos2.html
  23. 23. © Project SOUND Saving rainwater  Can be done at all scales – rain barrel to cistern  Common practice worldwide  Have potential to save a lot of clean water  Perhaps more cost- effective in other climates  Much good information on-line http://www.terranovalandscaping.com/blog/page/3/ http://www.relocalize.net/peakmomenttravels
  24. 24. The “Slow Water Movement”: slow it, spread it, sink it In other words, learn from nature © Project SOUND http://slowwatermovement.blogspot.com/
  25. 25. Is an infiltration feature feasible in your garden?  Conduct a percolation test  Dig hole  Fill to top and let drain  Fill again to top and see how long it takes to completely drain  If soil drains at least 1 inch per hour the soil is fine for a rain garden, vegetated swale or infiltration drain. © Project SOUND 1 ft wide by 1 ft deep
  26. 26. Water infiltration methods: Dry well  An underground structure that disposes of unwanted water, most commonly stormwater runoff, by dissipating it into the ground, where it merges with the local groundwater  Passive dissipation structure – water moves through by gravity  Lots of information on the internet © Project SOUND http://inthewatershed.org/page/4/
  27. 27. © Project SOUND Percolation ‘dry streams’ and rain gardens http://www.indahbulan.com/cardoza.html Can add interest and beauty to the landscape as well as being functional
  28. 28. © Project SOUND Rain gardens  Rain gardens come in many variations, but all:  Are strategically located to accept rain runoff  Have a shallow depression in the center to collect rain water  Infiltrate rain water into the soil  Hold water only long enough for percolation to occur  Are planted (usually) with native plant species adapted to the local climate and water regime  ‘a poorly constructed pond that will not hold water; given an intriguing name and planted’. http://www.penick.net/digging/?p=222
  29. 29. © Project SOUND Catch Basin  If you have natural run-off from a slope, you may want to build a catch basin – a variant of the rain garden concept http://www.surfrider.org/ofg_cpr.asp
  30. 30. Vegetated swale  A vegetated swale is a broad, shallow channel with a dense stand of vegetation covering the side slopes and bottom.  Swales can be natural or manmade, and are designed to:  Trap particulate pollutants (suspended solids and trace metals),  Promote infiltration  Reduce the flow velocity of storm water runoff. © Project SOUND EPA Storm Water Technology Fact Sheet http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/LandArch/ec/stormwater/biofiltration_swales.htm
  31. 31. © Project SOUND Vegetated swales (Bio-swales)  Bio-swales are open channels with a dense cover of grasses and other herbaceous plants  Runoff is directed through swales during storm events  A swale is not a drain - it is a water collection/ percolation device  Some homeowners make their swales look like dry creek beds http://forums2.gardenweb.com/forums/load/design/msg100921408707.html http://www.surfrider.org/ofg_cpr.asp
  32. 32. © Project SOUND ‘stream bed’ percolation swale  Adds to the natural look of the landscape  Completely functional http://www.calown.com/installations_past.html http://laspilitas.com/sites/dmh.html http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Brusco_2009/index.html
  33. 33. Infiltration drains (‘French drains’)  Purpose: to convey water from one place to another, where it can infiltrate  Underground structure; usually requires pipes (regular and permeable)  Good for deep watering large plants in winter © Project SOUND
  34. 34. © Project SOUND Directing rainwater into your garden - French drains  A French drain or land drain is a ditch filled with gravel & rock that redirects water to/from an area.  Modern French drains also use perforated pipe to drain the water  Commonly used to prevent ground and surface water from penetrating or damaging building foundations.  Alternatively, the French drain technique may be used to distribute water and to deep water plants.  French drains can lead to dry wells or environmentally-friendly rain gardens where the extra water is held and absorbed by plants.  May require permits if water ends up in natural drainage (stream) or in storm drains http://www.fusecon.com/pubs/txtfiles/dmwhouse/FdrainProject.html http://www.calown.com/aboutus.html
  35. 35. How do you make a an infiltration feature? © Project SOUND
  36. 36. © Project SOUND Half of the water goes to an infiltration drain  Water from roof gutter drains into a rain barrel (not required; it does slow down water and we use for demonstration of water saving)  Overflow drains into standard pipe that transports water to a nearby infiltration bed  Perforated pipe releases water for infiltration
  37. 37. Building an infiltration drain: digging is the hardest part  Dig trench at least 2-3 feet deep; very slight slope down to end  Line trench with landscape fabric (to inhibit roots and keep out sediment)  fill lined trench to 18 inches below surface with gravel © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Building an infiltration drain © Project SOUND  Cover infiltration (perforated) pipe with drain sleeve (‘pipe sock’)  Attach pipe sections; tape sleeve sections  Close landscape fabric ‘tube’ – tape  Fill in trench  Plant and mulch
  39. 39. Infiltration drain: you’d never know it’s there © Project SOUND
  40. 40. © Project SOUND The other half of the roof water drains to a rain garden
  41. 41. Choosing a location is key  Either be near the impervious surface(s) it drains or in a place where water can be easily diverted to it.  Ideally, a rain garden that infiltrates water from a large surface (such as a roof) should be at least:  8-10 ft from any structures or utility lines and  3 ft from sidewalks and walkways.  Rain gardens that drain patios or walkways are usually located fairly close to the surface they drain – usually 1-2 feet away. © Project SOUND http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/burema/gesein/abhose/abhose_075.cfm
  42. 42. How big should a rain garden/swale be?  Goal: standing water for no more than several hours  Determine how much rain falls per hour during a good rainstorm (~ ¾ inch or 0.0625 cubic ft. in our area)  Determine the area drained (length x width)  Example: 20 ft X 30 ft = 600 square feet of roof  Multiply the area X times 0.0625 to get the total cubic feet of rainfall  Example: 600 X 0.0625 = 37.5 cubic feet of rainfall per hour © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Determine the size of the rain garden  Decide on a depth for the rain garden (typically 1-3 feet of infiltration material + basin)  Divide the cubic feet of water (37.5 cubic feet) by the depth (2 feet) to get the surface area of your rain garden (37.5 / 2 ft = 18.75 square feet).  An oblong rain garden that is 3 ft wide by 6 ½ feet long and 2 feet deep will do the trick = 37.5 cubic feet of infiltration/short-term storage © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Building a simple rain garden © Project SOUND  Dig the hole; may make one part deeper  Fill with gravel to about 1 ft below surrounding soil
  45. 45. Building a simple rain garden © Project SOUND  Fill with 6 inches of soil; smooth edges  Plant  mulch
  46. 46. Sit back and enjoy your rain garden © Project SOUND
  47. 47. © Project SOUND CA rain gardens/retention ponds take many forms http://deviantdeziner.blogspot.com/2007/09/west-coast-green-expo.html http://www.surfrider.org/ofg_cpr.asp
  48. 48. Do infiltration ‘gardens’ have to be planted?  No – of course not  Advantages of adding plants:  Improve drainage as roots penetrate soil  Improve soil retention  Look pretty  Allow you to plant wetland and riparian plants – and attract some interesting insects, birds, amphibians © Project SOUND http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/nalani-and-anna-heath-delaney%e2%80%99s- garden?gid=45&idx=1
  49. 49. How much irrigation do rain gardens need? © Project SOUND It depends on the natural conditions for the plants
  50. 50. © Project SOUND Plants for a rain gardens & swales  For the lowest part of the rain garden/swale:  Native wetland plants found in your area (rushes; sedges; others that can take seasonal flooding)  May be Water Zone 2-3 or 3  For the edges of the garden/swale:  Appropriate plants from Riparian areas (including grasses, shrubs, even trees).  Likely to be Zone 2 or 2-3; may take some summer/fall dry http://www.penick.net/digging/?p=222
  51. 51. Juncaceae: Rushes (Wire-grasses)  Large genus with > 200 annual and perennial species; many excellent local species  An extremely important component of wetlands, rivers and estuaries  Characteristics: stiff narrow stems with tiny flower clusters at tips or on side of stem  “Rushes are rounded but sedges have edges”  Form large clonal colonies through underground spread of rhizomes. http://www.biology.iastate.edu/Courses/Bot364%20Aquatic%20B otany/Genera/Juncus/Juncus-line.GIF
  52. 52. Mexican Rush - Juncus mexicanus
  53. 53. Mexican Rush - Juncus mexicanus  Western U.S. to South America; locally in western L.A. county  Moist or alkaline places, usually coastal but sometimes in foothills, mountains, even desert  Many plant communities http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/westflor/species/4/juncmexi.htm http://www.magney.org/photofiles/ClipperMtnsPhotos4.htm http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?JUME4
  54. 54. Mexican Rush  Family: Juncaceae (Rush Family)  Similar to Baltic Rush  Habit: mat-forming perennial herb  Size: ½ - 2 feet tall; continues to grow clonally  Roots: rhizomes – can extend to 4 ft below soil surface  Can fix atmospheric nitrogen  Native Californians used for weaving baskets and mats http://www.callutheran.edu/Academ ic_Programs/Departments/Biology/ Wildflowers/gf/plants/category/gar- 4241.htm
  55. 55. Flowers: side-stem  Blooms in warm weather – late spring to summer  Flowers interesting up close – wind pollinated  Flowers on flowering branches’; flowers of many Juncus species are slightly different © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juncus_mexicanus#mediaviewer/File:Juncus_mexicanus.jp g ©2014 Aaron Arthur
  56. 56. Gardening with Juncus mexicanus  Tolerates full sun or partial shade  Need moist soils – although can tolerate short periods of drought  Garden soils ok if supply water  Remains green even if dry  In severe drought will die back to ground  Soil texture: not particular, even about pH (acid to alkali)  Medium salt tolerance  Can re-sprout after fire
  57. 57. Juncus in the garden  Accent plant in/around pools  Planted among stones  As a container plant  Erosion control – along streams  In moist areas in general – bio- swales, wet areas in lawns  Good nesting, hiding cover for birds http://www.cjb.unige.ch/BotSyst/APG2/Commelinid/100_JUN_13.jpg http://www.paradiseenvironments.com/images/New/POND S-GRIFFITH%20JUNCUS.JPG
  58. 58. © Project SOUND Spiny rush – Juncus acutus ssp. leopoldii ©2006 Steve Matson
  59. 59. © Project SOUND Spiny rush – Juncus acutus ssp. leopoldii http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi- bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8238,8239,0,8241 http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Juncus_acutus_leopoldii.htm http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Juncaceae/Juncus%20acutus.htm  Coastal CA to Baja, Sonoran Desert, S. America  Locally: Long Beach (Bryant Ranch), Redondo, Wilmington, Catalina Island  Moist saline places, coastal salt marsh, alkali seeps and alkali sink  CNPS List 4.2 (watch)  AKA ‘Leopold’s Rush’, ‘Wiregrass’
  60. 60. © Project SOUND Spiny rush is…rush-like but not spreading  Size:  2-3 ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Bunching rush  Stems cylindrical with sharp tips (handle with care)  Similar to a shortJuncus textilis (Basket rush)  Foliage:  Medium green to gray-green  Release compounds that inhibit algal growth  Extensive use in basketry (coiled baskets), woven mats & thatching
  61. 61. © Project SOUND Flowers to the side  Blooms: with warmth of spring – usually Apr-June in S. Bay  Flowers:  Rather pretty close up – but very small  Clustered on flowering stem to the side of stem  Wind pollinated – sexual parts designed for that  Seeds:  Seedpod brown, round & shiny  Mostly spread via water  Birds eat seeds (incl. songbirds like warblers)  Vegetative: slow spread via stout rhizomes©2004 Steve Matson http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Juncus_acutus_leopoldii.htm http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Juncaceae/Juncus%20acutus.htm
  62. 62. © Project SOUND Wet soils at least part of the year  Soils:  Texture: any, but prefers clays  pH: any local, including alkali, salty  Light: full sun to semi-shady  Water:  Winter: needs good moist soils – can take seasonal flooding; can even grow in shallow standing water  Summer: likes occasional to regular water (Water Zones 2 to 3 best; can take 1-2)  Fertilizer: none needed, but fine with leaf mulch  Other: fine growing with associates like Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), Narrowleaf willow, Mulefat and others ©2009 Robert Steers ©2011 Chris Winchell
  63. 63. © Project SOUND Spiny rush  Good for wet/dry transition zones (rain garden edges)  Works well in shallow ponds, water treatment wetlands  Sometimes used as barrier plant  Excellent pot plant; dramatic accent plant  Used in basket making ©2011 Chris Winchell http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Juncus_acutus_leopoldii.htm http://lostinthelandscape.com/tag/juncus-acutus-ssp-leopoldii/
  64. 64. Rushes & other plants: the problem of supply  Basket-makers (California native and others) suffer from a severe decrease in habit for basket materials  Importance of planting native species in preserves, larger public gardens and other public places © Project SOUND http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=24035 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Junc us_acutus_leopoldii.jpg
  65. 65. Inspiration: S. California marshes (salt- brackish and freshwater) © Project SOUND http://ccber.ucsb.edu/ecosystem/habitats-wetland/salt-marsh
  66. 66. © Project SOUND Salty Susan/ Fleshy Jaumea – Jaumea carnosa http://www.coloradolagoon.org/focl/gallery.html
  67. 67. © Project SOUND Salty Susan/ Marsh Jaumea – Jaumea carnosa http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1464,1465  Coastal region from British Columbia to N. Baja  Always found in marshy or moist places:  Margins of coastal salt marshes and tidal flats where there is protection from wave action  Coastal strand  Bases of sea cliffs  Named after Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire (1772-1845), a French botanist & artist who was interested in practical uses of native plants http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Asteraceae/Jaumea%20carnosa/Jaumea%20carnosa.htm
  68. 68. © Project SOUND Salty Susan: one of several local native coastal groundcovers  Size:  low – generally < 1 ft tall  spreading to 3-5+ ft wide  Growth form:  Low, herbaceous perennial groundcover  Foliage:  Fleshy, succulent  gray-green or blue-green color  Leaves narrow – somewhat like some iceplants  Roots:  Spreads via rhizomes http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/marshjaumea.html
  69. 69. © Project SOUND The flowers are a surprise!  Blooms: spring/summer; usually May-Sept in W. L.A. County  Flowers:  Typical for Sunflower family – many flowers in heads  Both ray & disk flowers are bright yellow  Plants are dioecious – separate male & female plants  Great nectar & pollen source – attracts many insects  Seeds:  Small – Sunflower-like – on female plants  Eaten by birds http://www.westernwildflower.com/plant%20index.htm
  70. 70. © Project SOUND Salty Susan grows on marsh edges  Soils:  Texture: sandy to clay  pH: any local including alkali (pH > 8.0)  Fine with salty soils, seaside conditions; roots exclude salt  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs good winter water – takes some flooding  Summer: likes a moist soil best – Water Zones 2 to 3  Would be fine with sprinkler overflow, or water from a neighbor’s yard  Fertilizer: none needed; likes poor soils, but light fertilizer won’t kill it © 2008 R.C. Brody
  71. 71. © Project SOUND Salty Susan is a true native groundcover  A replacement for Ice Plant on sandy soils, banks  In naturally wet areas of the garden  Low spots that get very moist in winter  Under birdbath; near ponds  Edges of irrigated areas  As an unusual pot/planter plant  As an excellent addition to a coastal habitat garden http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3026/2845181216_985fa34707.jpg?v=0 http://www.land8lounge.com/profile/JeremySison
  72. 72. © Project SOUND Alkali heath – Frankenia salina Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  73. 73.  CA to Nevada, Mexico, S. America  Locally: Redondo, Playa del Rey, Dominguez Slough, Long Beach, Catalina & San Clemente Isl. – becoming rare (lost habitat)  On ocean bluffs & mesas, beach margins, upper edges of salt & brackish marshes  AKA Yerba reuma © Project SOUND Alkali heath – Frankenia salina http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4362,4363,4365 ©2009 Neal Kramer ©2009 Neal Kramer
  74. 74. © Project SOUND Typical plant of salty/brackish local areas  Size:  1-3 ft tall (water; salinity)  1-3+ ft wide (spreads)  Growth form:  Half-woody (sub-shrub)  Mounded to sprawling; many- branched  Forms mat-like clumps  Stress-deciduous  Foliage:  Usually gray-green  Leaves small, waxy; edges roll under in drought  Salt crystals on leaves  Tea from plant used for colds Gary A. Monroe, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database ©2009 California State University, Stanislaus http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Plants%20of%20Upper%20Newport%20Bay%20(Robert%20De%20 Ruff)/Frankeniaceae/Frankenia%20salina.htm
  75. 75. © Project SOUND Flowers: small & cute  Blooms: usually summer – anytime from May to Oct.  Flowers:  Small - 1/4 - 1 in. – and solitary  Tubular – fused petals  Purple-pink – very nice up close but not obvious from distance  Good nectar source  Seeds: small, brown  Vegetative reproduction: spreads via rhizomes ©2002 Franco Folini ©2008 Margo Bors
  76. 76. © Project SOUND Alkali heath: simple requirements  Soils:  Texture: any local, incl. clays  pH: any local (wide range – 6-9)  Light: prefers full sun; probably OK with some shade  Water:  Winter: fine with seasonal flooding  Summer: looks best with occasional summer water (Water Zone 2 or 2- 3); taper off water in fall.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: high salt tolerance ©2009 Neal Kramer http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/frankenia-grandiflora
  77. 77. © Project SOUND Excellent ground cover  Life-friendly groundcover in areas that are seasonally moist  Around rain garden or vegetated swale – excellent  Around watered lawn, pond/pool or other moist area Image by R.C. Brody
  78. 78. Mixed local groundcover for rain garden © Project SOUND  Marsh baccharis – Baccharis douglasii  Saltwort – Batis maritima  Carex praegracilis  Saltgrass -Distichlis spicata  Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum  Alkalai Heath - Frankenia salina  Salty susan – Jaumea carnosa  Spiny rush – Juncus acutus leopoldii  Sea lavender - Limonium californicum  Mimulus guttatus  Pickleweed - Salicornia virginica http://ccber.ucsb.edu/ecosystem/habitats-wetland/salt-marsh
  79. 79. Marsh baccharis – Baccharis douglasii © Project SOUND
  80. 80. But what about something a little bigger… © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Mulefat – Baccharis salicifolia Does OK even in pretty dry times
  82. 82. © Project SOUND Emory Baccharis – Baccharis emoryi http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/dudleyl2.htm
  83. 83. © Project SOUND Emory Baccharis – Baccharis emoryi http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,781,784  Plant of the southwest, from CA to Utah & Texas, S. to Baja  In CA - deserts, S.CA mountains and S. Coast  In our area: Coastal prairies, coastal shrublands and coastal sage scrub  Grows in sandy areas near streams, washes or salt marshes up to 2000‘  Species name honors Major William H. Emory (1811-1887). American soldier and later Director of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey
  84. 84. © Project SOUND Emory Baccharis makes a nice large shrub  Size:  4-12 ft tall (usually < 9 ft)  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub  Many erect, stiff stems  Outer branches may droop a bit  Foliage:  Bright to dark green  Leaves small, like Coyote Bush  Stress deciduous – will retain leaves in Zone 2 to 3  Roots: fibrous; good soil-binding qualitieshttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/emorybaccharis.html
  85. 85. © Project SOUND Emory Baccharis: like a cross between Coyote Bush & Mule Fat  Growth form:  Tall & lean – like Mule Fat  Leaves:  Shaped like Coyote Bush – but longer  Color – between the two  Flowers:  More like Coyote Bush http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/emorybaccharis.html B. emoryi B. pilularis
  86. 86. © Project SOUND Flowers are dioecious  Blooms: fall - usually Aug-Oct in S. Bay (like Coyote Bush)  Flowers:  Male flowers: a few ray flowers make it look like 4th of July fireworks; buff  Female: fluffy, brushlike; white  Both: excellent food source for bees, butterflies in fall  Seeds:  Small; wind-borne  Vegetative reproduction: yes http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/emorybaccharis.html
  87. 87. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained; great for sandier soils  pH: any local, including alkali  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: usually fine with rain only; tolerates seasonal flooding  Summer: Zone 2 to 2-3; needs more water than Mulefat or Coyote Bush  Fertilizer: none needed; fine with organic mulches  Other: good salt tolerance http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/emorybaccharis.html
  88. 88. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Baccharis shrubs  As foundation plants or in back of mixed beds  As small ‘trees’ in small yards  Trained along fences or walls; as a screen or large hedge  Excellent for erosion control, on slopes or stream banks  Excellent habitat plants: attracts all sorts of birds, insects – food & cover, nesting http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/emorybaccharis.html All are easy to grow!!
  89. 89. But, do I have to let my rain garden go dry in summer/fall? © Project SOUND http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/82/7sigma_RainGarden_66.JPG http://classiclandscapesnc.com/recent-project-6.asp
  90. 90. © Project SOUND Pointed rush – Juncus oxymeris
  91. 91.  Several disjunct populations from British Columbia Canada to Baja.  Locally on Catalina Island and in the San Gabriel Mtns.  In moist areas: lakeshores, riverbanks, moist meadows and seasonally wetlands between 300 and 6700 ft. elevation © Project SOUND http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=11169&flora_id=1 Pointed rush – Juncus oxymeris http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8238,8239,8294
  92. 92. © Project SOUND Juncus oxymeris – medium-sized rush  Size:  2-3 ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Rush – clumping to slowly spreading  Fast growth; dies back in drought – evergreen with water  Foliage:  Medium green  Leaves somewhat flattened on edge toward stem Image © 2005, Ben Legler
  93. 93. © Project SOUND Flowers are pretty  Blooms: in spring/summer – May to August  Flowers:  In loose (open) groupings along branched flowering stalks  Tan-rust color – quite striking  Seeds: seed capsules have beak-like tip  Vegetative reproduction: spreads via rhizomes – not vigorous ©2013 Jake Ruygt Image © 2005, Ben Legler
  94. 94. © Project SOUND A rush that just loves water  Soils:  Texture: likes clays  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: fine with seasonal flooding  Summer: best with regular water (Water Zone 2-3 to 3)  Fertilizer: none; but would benefit from organic mulch, leaf mulch.  Other:  will spread. Contain or manage spread by cutting out sprouts in spring.  Tolerates salt; compaction Image © 2005, Ben Legler
  95. 95. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Pointed Rush  As interesting and attractive pot plant – easy to maintain (divide yearly)  In moist areas of the garden:  At lawn edges  Where irrigation provides summer water  Around fountains, pools/ponds  In rain garden or vegetated swale – very pretty  To stabilize wet banks  Small butterflies perch; birds eat the seeds
  96. 96. Yearly maintenance: tidying & dividing © Project SOUND
  97. 97. Juncus can easily be propagated by divisions or plugs  Good, easy way to get variants of known characteristics  No need to treat them gently – very tough  Will establish quickly – well-established within 6-12 monthshttp://www.triffidpark.com.au/htm_pages/photogallery/waterplant_juncus.jpg
  98. 98. © Project SOUND Lippia (Common lippia) – Phyla nodiflora ©2009 Keir Morse
  99. 99.  Southern half of the U.S. to the tropics  California coast, foothills, Central Valley & Sonoran Desert  Locally: Catalina & San Clemente Isl.; ?Santa Monica Mtns; near San Gabriels  Wide range of wet places including ditches and roadways to beaches and fields  AKA ‘Fogfruit’, ‘Frogfruit’ © Project SOUND Lippia (Common lippia) – Phyla nodiflora http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?PHNO2 http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- 02vCWopoaDQ/TZ1pAEQEEYI/AAAAAAAAENo/GC3Pqlm5jJ4/s1600/lippia_nodiflora +jardinitis+1.jpg
  100. 100. Verbenaceae – the Verbena family  ~75 genera and 3,000 species  Herbs, shrubs, and trees  Mostly tropical and warm temperate regions  Vervain/Verbena, Lantana, Lippia (Frog Fruit), and Chase Tree (Vitex) are grown as ornamentals. © Project SOUND Vitex http://www.tree-land.com/trees_vitex_shoal_creek.asp
  101. 101. © Project SOUND Lippia is a tough little groundcover  Size:  6 inches tall  Spreading to 3+ ft wide  Growth form:  Low-growing, part-woody groundcover; fire-resistant if watered  Dense, tough – takes some foot traffic  Foliage:  Medium green, sometimes red- tinged  Leaves simple, toothed  Larval food source for Common Buckeye butterfly©2007 Neal Kramer ©2012 Jean Pawek
  102. 102. © Project SOUND Flowers are adorable  Blooms: late spring into fall – off and on  Flowers:  Tiny, bell-shaped pink-white  Open sequentially (typical Verbena family)  Insect pollinated; center remains yellow until pollinated  Good nectar source – attracts many butterflies, bees  Seed pods: inconspicuous  Vegetative reproduction: stems root where they touch the ground ©2009 Keir Morse
  103. 103. © Project SOUND Lippia Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any – sandy to clay  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun (best)  Part-shade  Water:  Winter: tolerates seasonal flooding  Summer: needs at least moderate water (Water Zone 2- 3 to 3) for good appearace  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils, but fine with light fertilizer  Other: edge to limit incursion; can be mowed (4 inch) when not in bloom ©2012 Jean Pawek ©2014 John Doyen
  104. 104. © Project SOUND Excellent groundcover  As a lawn substitute – mowed or not – or around pavers  As a groundcover or mixed groundcover with Achillea, Frankenia, Jaumea  On banks, slopes; in pots  For rain gardens/swales http://jardin-sec.pagesperso- orange.fr/Pages%20photos/Frankenia%20+%20Phyla.htm http://jardin-sec.pagesperso-orange.fr/images/Photos/Phyla%20nodiflora%201.jpg http://www.gardensandplants.com/uk/plant.aspx?plant_id=2435
  105. 105. © Project SOUND *Rose mallow – Hibiscus lasiocarpus http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=HILA6
  106. 106.  Native to much of the southeastern United States, as well as parts of California and northern Mexico  In CA, limited to part of Sacramento and Great Central Valleys; rare in CA  Borders of sloughs, ponds & ditches; wet woods in lowland areas © Project SOUND *Rose mallow – Hibiscus lasiocarpus http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Hibiscus lasiocarpus http://www.everwilde.com/BONAP-Wildflower- Maps/Hibiscus-lasiocarpos-Distribution-Map.gif http://s44.photobucket.com/user/PWSierra/media/vishnu/Hibiscuslasiocarpus2.jpg.html
  107. 107. © Project SOUND Rose mallow: attractive native hibiscus  Size:  4-6 ft tall  3-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Mostly erect to somewhat sprawling sub-shrub; wood brittle  Clonal ; fast-growing  Dies back in winter  Foliage:  Light green; hairy  Large, heart-shaped leaves  Nice, tropical appearance http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=HILA6
  108. 108. © Project SOUND Flowers are fantastic  Blooms: in spring & summer; usually May-Sept. with summer water  Flowers:  Large (4-8” across); fragrant  White hibiscus flowers with a scarlet/magenta center  Extremely showy in bloom  Attracts hummingbirds, butterflies  Makes nice cut flower  Seeds: easy to start from seed (like Lavatera)  Vegetative reproduction: yes http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=HILA6 http://www.hazmac.biz/090629/090629HibiscusLasiocarpus.html
  109. 109. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: most  pH: any local  Light: full sun (best) to part- shade  Water:  Winter: likes plenty of water  Summer: requires regular water (Water Zone 2-3 to 3)  Fertilizer: happy with organic mulch; would take a little low- dose fertilizer once a year  Other:  Tolerates summer heat http://queerbychoice.livejournal.com/713021.html http://www.tarleton.edu/Departments/range/Grasslands/Tallgrass%20Prairie%20%28Coastal%2 9/tallgrassprairieCostal.html
  110. 110. © Project SOUND Rose mallow: hibiscus  Any place in garden that gets regular water including flower beds, rain gardens/swales, around pond/pool  Often used as shrub near lawns  Attractive in a large pot http://ozarkedgewildflowers.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Hibiscus-Lasiocarpus1.jpg http://www.prairiestarflowers.com/Images/Prairie%20Bloom/hibiscus_Lasiocarpus_grp.jpg http://i757.photobucket.com/albums/xx218/itsnotworkitsgardening/July%202014/IMGP8478_a_z ps6a8b7b22.jpg
  111. 111. © Project SOUND American/Western dogwood – Cornus sericea ©2006 Shawn DeCew
  112. 112.  Canada/northern U.S. into CA  Locally in San Gabriel Mtns, ? Santa Monica Mtns  Riparian areas and other moist sites  AKA ‘Redosier dogwood’ © Project SOUND American/Western dogwood – Cornus sericea ©2013 Jean Pawek Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College Var. occidentales Var. sericea
  113. 113. © Project SOUND Redosier dogwood: handsome shrub  Size:  5-20 ft tall  5-20 ft wide  Growth form:  Large shrub or small, multi- trunked tree  Loose form; many-branched  Winter-deciduous  Lovely red bark on younger branches  Foliage:  Leaves simple, bright green – fall color in colder areas  Larval food for Spring Azure butterfly ©2013 Jean Pawek ©2012 Gary A. Monroe http://www.sevenoaksnativenursery.com/native-plants/trees-and- shrubs/cornus-sericea-ssp-occidentalis/
  114. 114. © Project SOUND Flowers/fruits are white  Blooms: usually late spring, sometimes into summer  Flowers:  Small, fragrant white flowers in dense, flat clusters  Very showy – lots of clusters  Pollinated by bumble bees (primary) native bees, flies, butterflies  Fruits: white to blue-white; showy summer-winter; birds eat  Vegetative reproduction:  Spreads via stolons; may form dense clumps ©2012 Gary A. Monroe ©2013 Jean Pawek
  115. 115. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: not particular; clays are fine  pH: any local  Light: part-shade (under taller trees or with some afternoon shade)  Water:  Winter: fine with seasonal flooding  Summer: needs some summer water – Zone 2 to 3  Fertilizer: use an organic mulch  Other:  plant where gets good circulation – susceptible to fungal diseases  Prune out oldest 25% of branches in winter ©2013 Jean Pawek
  116. 116. © Project SOUND Dogwood in gardens  Commonly used in places that get a little extra water – rain gardens, swales, etc.  Makes a nice shrub under irigated trees  Can be used for hedges - coppice©2013 Jean Pawek http://plantsciences.montana.edu/horticulture/PS231/VCTT/area10/area10b/Cornus_sericea.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ritpN9lX6K4/TdneUv-oFtI/AAAAAAAAI9Q/7J- 7GTytxTA/s1600/DSC04605.JPG
  117. 117. Native Americans use Dogwood extensively  Berries: cooked with other fruits & dried for food  Bark & root bark formerly used extensively as medicinal:  Decoction drank for headaches, diarrhea, coughs, colds & fevers  Used externally as a wash for sore eyes, infections, rashes and ulcers  Bark fiber used to make cordage  Powdered bark used as toothpaste  Leaves dried & smoked  Pliable branches used in basketry © Project SOUND http://www.talltreesgroup.com/Cornus%20Sericea.jpg Bark mixed with Cedar ashes use to make a red dye
  118. 118. Cornus sericea 'Flaviramea’  Bark is a lovely bright golden yellow © Project SOUND http://depts.washington.edu/uwbg/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/P1010052.jpg
  119. 119. Cornus sericea 'Kelseyi'  Very low-growing – 1-3 ft  Produces many stems from its base at ground level, producing a thicket that makes a leafy mound.  Bright red stems  Used primarily as woody ground cover  Monrovia nursery & many on- line sources © Project SOUND http://www.learn2grow.com/plants/cornus-sericea-kelseyi-images-large-90672/ http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/images/cosek3625.jpg
  120. 120. Cornus sericea 'Silver and Gold'  Striking foliage color  Smaller size  Grow Native Nursery (Claremont) has © Project SOUND http://awaytogarden.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/cornus-silver-and-gold-.jpg http://pics.davesgarden.com/pics/2009/05/30/gapchwillow/bd1254.jpg
  121. 121. © Project SOUND Narrow-leaf Bedstraw – Galium angustifolium ssp. angustifolium
  122. 122. © Project SOUND Narrow-leaf Bedstraw makes a good background perennial plant  Size:  1-3 ft tall  Spreading to perhaps 4 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounding herbaceous perennial  Usually dies back completely in summer  Stems are weak, sprawling  Foliage:  Light green  Leaves narrow, in tufts  Roots: fibrous http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/narrowleavedbedstraw.html
  123. 123. © Project SOUND Bedstraws add a touch of green in spring  As an interesting container plant  With other Zone 2 natives:  Annual & perennial wildflowers  Native grasses  Even some native ferns  Great plant for under oaks – other shady spots  Does well on shady slopes
  124. 124. © Project SOUND White Alder – Alnus rhombifolia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Alnus_rhombifolia_NPS.jpg
  125. 125. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any – not fussy  pH: any local  Light: anything from full sun to quite shady; depends on how much water you give it.  Water:  Winter: good, moist soil  Summer: fairly regular water; Zone 2-3 or 3 – 2 if your neighbor waters  Fertilizer: likes a richer soil; fine with fertilizer, etc.  Other:  Use organic mulch, self-mulch or grasses  Strong roots can wreck sidewalks, concrete Watch for flathead borers – can kill
  126. 126. © Project SOUND Garden uses for White Alder  As a shade tree – in a lawn  As an accent plant – takes a while to become really large  In large installations: parks, schools, commercial plantings  Excellent bird habitat tree; good for stream beds, swales http://www.pitzer.edu/offices/arboretum/tongva_garden/plants/08-alnus_rhombifolia.htm
  127. 127. And that ends our consideration of water infiltration © Project SOUND http://raingardenartsblog.com/2012/07/16/rain-garden-project/ http://i.feedtacoma.com/erik/city-tacomas-rain-garden-part/ http://lighthousesdesignbuildstudio.blogspot.com/2010_11_09_archive.html
  128. 128. © Project SOUND http://www.megcoughlindesign.com/wordpress/kayaportfolio/2012-awards-4/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rain_garden#mediaviewer/File:7sigma_RainGarden_66.JPG http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/ahbe_landscape_architects_wins_2008_a ia_california_council_honoraward_for_u/ http://seattleidothat.com/local/Washington/Seattle/Ballard
  129. 129. Many good on- line resources © Project SOUND  I did a whole section of postings on ‘Harvesting Rain’ on Mother Nature’s Backyard blog (Spring 2013).  Tree People website  Many others specific to California and the Southwest http://www.madrono.org/san-francisco-landscape/water/stormwater/#.VImei9HTlD8
  130. 130. We hope you’ll want to visit Mother Nature’s Backyard © Project SOUND I’ll be on hand to discuss: next Saturday (1/10) – 9:00 to noon and Sunday (1/11 – 1:00-4:00 Plant sale Feb. 14 & 15
  131. 131. © Project SOUND We hope you’ll be inspired to harvest a little rain (now legally) in your own yard

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