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Heucheras 2015

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Talk on native Heucheras and how to garden with them. Part of the 'Out of the Wilds & Into Your Garden' series.

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Heucheras 2015

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2015 (our 11th year)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND Heavenly Heucheras: gardening with our lovely native Coral Bells C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve December 5 & 10, 2015
  3. 3. The genus Heuchera  In the Saxifrage Family  All from the Americas (N./Central)  Commonly called ‘Coral Bells’ (for the flowers) and ‘Alumroots’ (for their astringent, alum-like roots)  Similar in appearance  Leaves round to heart-shaped with long petioles  Basel rosette/mound  Small, bell-shaped flowers on wand-like stalk  Hybridize widely in the wild – and in the garden © Project SOUNDhttp://plants.usda.gov/gallery/large/hepu9_001_lvd.jpg
  4. 4. The Saxifrages - Family Saxifragaceae © Project SOUND http://montana.plant-life.org/families/Saxifragaceae.htm  Name: ‘stone-breaker’  Most grow either in alpine/arctic areas or in moist, shady forests  ~775 known species in 48 genera; taxonomy – difficult, contentious  Most herbaceous perennials/small shrubs  Flowers perfect (bisexual) with 4 or 5 petals and 5 or 10 stamens.  Floral symmetry – radial (star-shaped)  Many used medicinally  Many are garden favorites, particularly for rock/crevice gardens or for shade http://www.digilibraries.com/html_ebooks/106887/18913/www.digi libraries.com@18913@18913-h@images@img274.jpg
  5. 5. The Saxifrages - Family Saxifragaceae  Mostly Northern Hemisphere: centers of diversity in the Himalayas, East Asia, and Western North America.  The greatest diversity in the Pacific Northwest of North America  Two lineages:  ‘saxifroides’ - true Saxifrages (arctic/alpine)  ‘heucheroids’ – all the rest © Project SOUND  CA genera (all ‘heucheroids’):  Boykinia  Heuchera  Tellima
  6. 6. Saxifragaceae – genetic analysis gives evidence of an old family  Saxifragaceae began to diversify ~38.37 million years ago (Mya; 95% HPD = 30.99–46.11 Mya) in the Mid- Late Eocene  The two major lineages, the heucheroids and saxifragoids, began to diversify ~30.04 Mya (95% HPD = 23.87–37.15 Mya) and 30.85 Mya (95% HPD = 23.47–39.33 Mya), respectively.  Several geographic radiations within Saxifragaceae: one in eastern Asia and multiple radiations in western North America. © Project SOUND
  7. 7. © Project SOUND Heucheras
  8. 8. Saxifrage (and Heuchera) paleobotany  Began in Late Oligocene  Warmer temperature  Much more humid (less water tied up in polar ice)  Survived the Quaternary to the present  ‘Ice Age’ conditions – several glacial and inter-glacial periods  Over-all temperatures are cooler  Overall drier conditions © Project SOUND
  9. 9. © Project SOUND The genus Heuchera – Coral Bells  All have palmately lobed leaves on long petioles and a thick, woody rootstock.  Grow in varied habitats  There is an extensive array of blossom sizes, shapes, and colors, foliage types, and geographic tolerances.  Make good garden plants  Gardeners and horticulturists have developed a multitude of hybrids between various Heuchera and related species. © 2004, Ben Legler
  10. 10. The genus Heuchera  Taxonomy - difficult until now  Few morphologic characters with sufficient variability  Small flowers  Inter-breeding between populations  Much variability even within populations  Unusual geographic distributions  Numbers of accepted species have vacillated between 27 (Rosendahl, 1905) and 72 (Rydberg, 1905), with extensive revisions through the years.  Currently n = 43 © Project SOUND http://www.bonap.org/Most%20Number%20of%20Native%20Species/ Native%20Species%20per%20Genus.html What does this geographic distribution suggest?
  11. 11. Taxonomy of the Heucheras  1840 - Torrey and Gray, first proposed sections  1905 - Rydberg created unranked names that were afterwards interpreted as subsections (validated at that rank in the 1930s by Engler).  1936 - Rosendahl, Butters, and Lakela (last genus monograph) combined these categories into a system of sections and subsections that has been used by later workers. Their sections, largely based on the Torrey and Gray system, have proved artificial.  1984 - arrangement of the eastern species improved by E.F. Wells.  2014 - taxonomy realigned on the basis of combined DNA and morphology (Folk & Freudenstein, 2014; American Journal of Botany).  2015 - three sections, a tentative fourth, with two species that still could not be placed confidently. © Project SOUND Per Axel Rydberg - (1860-1931) http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/libr/f inding_guide/rydberg.asp.html Ryan A. Folk https://sites.google.com/site/ryanheuchera/aboutme
  12. 12. Phylogenomics (phylogeny + genomics)  Phylogeny: the study of the evolution of taxonomic groups  Genomics: the use of modern DNA analysis to study the structure and function of genes  Phylogenomics: a rapidly developing field that uses broad sampling of genetic regions across the genome in order to infer an estimate of the "tree of life" for a set of species.  Four major areas fall under phylogenomics:  Prediction of gene function  Establishment and clarification of evolutionary relationships  Gene family evolution  Prediction and retracing lateral gene transfer. © Project SOUND "CollapsedtreeLabels-simplified" by Original uploader was User:TimVickers, SVG conversion by User:User_A1 - Own work (Original text: Self made.). Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CollapsedtreeLabels- simplified.svg#/media/File:CollapsedtreeLabels-simplified.svg Phylogenomics has recently changed the taxonomy of the Heucheras
  13. 13. Maximum likelihood cladogram for the total-evidence data set (morphology + DNA) Inset: ML cladogram with proportional ML branch lengths; legend: major taxonomic groups in the current study. Ryan A. Folk, and John V. Freudenstein Am. J. Bot. 2014;101:1532-1550 www.amjbot.org
  14. 14. Eastern Heucheras  Clear Pacific Northwest origin for Heuchera itself.  Eastern species:  At least once from the Pacific Northwest  At least twice from Rockies? © Project SOUND http://www.bonap.org/Most%20Number%20of%20Native%20Species/ Native%20Species%20per%20Genus.html
  15. 15. Sect. Heuchera • Subsect. Heuchera (= subsect. Americanae; across the eastern US) • H. americana • H. caroliniana • H. pubescens • H. alba • H. longiflora • H. richardsonii • Subsect. Parvifoliae (Great Basin, southern Basin and Range, northern Rockies) • H. parvifolia • H. wootonii • H. soltisii • Subsect. Novomexicanae (Southern Basin and Range; white flowers) • H. novomexicana • H. glomerulata • H. eastwoodiae • H. inconstans © Project SOUND
  16. 16. 13 California native Heuchera species  Heuchera abramsii – San Gabriel alumroot*  Heuchera brevistaminea - Mt. laguna alumroot*  Heuchera caespitosa - Urn-flowered alumroot*  Heuchera chlorantha - Green flowered alumroot  Heuchera cylindrica - Roundleaf alumroot  Heuchera hirsutissima - Shaggy haired alumroot*  Heuchera maxima - Island alumroot*  Heuchera merriamii - Merriam's alumroot  Heuchera micrantha - Alum root  Heuchera parishii - Parish's alumroot*  Heuchera parvifolia - Littleleaf alumroot  Heuchera pilosissima – Seaside alum root  Heuchera rubescens - Pink alumroot *rare, with limited range © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states with legends, based on the maximum likelihood total-evidence tree. Ryan A. Folk, and John V. Freudenstein Am. J. Bot. 2014;101:1532-1550 www.amjbot.org California species
  18. 18. Sect. Rhodoheuchera © Project SOUND • Subsect. Hemsleyanae (Sierra Madre of Mexico) • H. longipetala • H. acutifolia • H. mexicana • Subsect. Rosendahliae (northern Sierra Madre Occidentale) • H. rosendahlii • H. wellsiae • Subsect. Rubescentes • H. rubescens • H. parishii (may fit better in the following section) • Subsect. Elegantes (Transverse Ranges of California, and the nearby Laguna Mountains) • H. abramsii • H. elegans • H. caespitosa • H. hirsutissima • H. brevistaminea • H. pulchella (placement tentative) • Subsect. Sanguineae (primarily Sierra Madre Occidental, outliers in the northernmost Sierra Madre Oriental, southernmost Basin and Range) • H. lakelae • H. sanguinea
  19. 19. Sect. Holochloa • Subsect. Villosae (unglaciated eastern US) • H. villosa • H. puberula • H. missouriensis • H. parviflora • Subsect. Micranthae (Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada) • H. micrantha • H. maxima • H. pilosissima • Subsect. Cylindricae (Northern Rockies and adjacent areas) • H. chlorantha • H. cylindrica © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Saxifrage (and Heuchera) paleobotany  Began in Late Oligocene  Warmer temperature  Much more humid (less water tied up in polar ice)  Survived the Quaternary to the present  ‘Ice Age’ conditions – several glacial and inter-glacial periods  Over-all temperatures are cooler  Overall drier conditions © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Three main strategies to survive drastic environmental changes 1 . Move – to places where conditions are better 2. Evolve – change so as to survive the changed situations 3. Hang on – in places that continue to have the right conditions © Project SOUND
  22. 22. *Tall alumroot - Heuchera chlorantha © Project SOUND © Rod Gilbert Native to forests of WA, OR
  23. 23. Sect. Holochloa • Subsect. Villosae (unglaciated eastern US) • H. villosa • H. puberula • H. missouriensis • H. parviflora • Subsect. Micranthae (Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada) • H. micrantha • H. maxima • H. pilosissima • Subsect. Cylindricae (Northern Rockies and adjacent areas) • H. chlorantha • H. cylindrica  Incertae sedis • H. glabra • H. merriamii © Project SOUND
  24. 24. © Project SOUND *Roundleaf alumroot – Heuchera cylindrica
  25. 25.  British Columbia and Alberta south to northeastern California and east to northern Nevada, Wyoming, and Montana.  In CA – Modoc county only © Project SOUND *Roundleaf alumroot – Heuchera cylindrica http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?HECY2 © 2012, Ray Izumi
  26. 26. © Project SOUND Roundleaf alumroot: lush-appearing foliage  Size:  ~ 1 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded, evergreen perennial  Foliage all basal; fairly tight rosette  Foliage smooth to glandular/ hairy  Foliage:  Medium green, lobed leaves with succulent appearance  Lush, tidy appearance  Roots: short taproot - 18 inches or less © 2004, Ben Legler
  27. 27. Flowers in the genus Heuchera © Project SOUNDhttp://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/301Manhart/Dicots/R osidae/Sax/Sax.html http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/geos581/lec_ 14.html  Hypanthium (floral cup) is prominent – green, white or pink colored; shape varies from urn- to bell- or trumpet-shaped  Petals are often diminutive, white or pink  Male sexual parts (stamens) either extend out beyond petals (are exserted) or do not.
  28. 28. © Project SOUND Flowers: a bit different  Blooms: April-Aug. – spring (April- June) in S. California  Flowers:  On upright stalks above the foliage (typical for genus)  Flowers clustered at top of stalks; short flower stems  Flowers cup-shaped; yellow green hypanthium, yellow-white petals  Sexual parts internal  Hummingbirds & bumblebees  Seeds: small, in dry capsule  Vegetative reproduction: via rhizomes http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya
  29. 29. © Project SOUND Remember: this is a Pacific Northwest plant  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained soil  pH: any local  Light: part-shade to shade; full sun only works on N. CA coast.  Water:  Winter: plenty  Summer: keep soil semi-moist; Water Zone 2-3 (let dry out a little between waterings)  Fertilizer: fine with occasional fertilizer and organic mulches  Other: look for mealybugs and mildrew in warm, damp conditions © 2012, G. D. Carr
  30. 30. © Project SOUND Perfect for a green oasis  Watered shady beds with ferns, Iris, perennials, grass-like plants  Along walkways in a woodsy garden  Rock gardens; shady slopes; groundcover under watered trees  As accent/evergreen in containershttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=HECY2 © 2011, Ron Bockelman https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Heuchera_cylindrica_4706.JPG
  31. 31. Heuchera cylindrica ‘Greenfinch’  Available from Annie’s Annuals  Dark green, mottled leaves – pretty groundcover or foliage plant  36” tall (with flower stalks), 24” wide;  Long-stemmed green flowers for floral arrangements – quite the thing!  USDA zones 4-10 © Project SOUND http://www.appeltern.nl/nl/plantenencyclopedie/h euchera_cylindrica_greenfinch_-_purperklokje http://www.heuchera.org/Hostapagina's/G/greenfinch.htm ‘Green Ivory’ has flowers that are ivory- colored http://bloomsofbressinghamplants.com/us/Gardeners/Variet y/Heuchera_Green_Ivory.html&s=1&genus=&common=&va riety=
  32. 32. Why use the ‘tall green’ Heucheras? © Project SOUND To provide vertical interest (much as we use grass-like plants in drier gardens) http://www.seedsite.eu/product/heuchera-cylindrica To create a woodsy feel, like the Pacific Northwest http://zaaisite.nl/info/heuchera_cylindrica.htm
  33. 33. Heucheras can be eaten as food  Young leaves of alumroot are edible when steamed or boiled  They are mildly astringent (drying and tissue-contracting), so may leave you thirsty. © Project SOUND
  34. 34. The lowland, coastal Heucheras of CA look more like the garden Heucheras © Project SOUND © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  35. 35. Sect. Holochloa • Subsect. Villosae (unglaciated eastern US) • H. villosa • H. puberula • H. missouriensis • H. parviflora • Subsect. Micranthae (Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada) • H. micrantha • H. maxima • H. pilosissima • Subsect. Cylindricae (Northern Rockies and adjacent areas) • H. chlorantha • H. cylindrica  Incertae sedis • H. glabra • H. merriamii © Project SOUND
  36. 36. © Project SOUND Small-flower Coral Bells/Crevice Alumroot – Heuchera micrantha Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  37. 37. © Project SOUND Small-flower Coral Bells – Heuchera micrantha  Native in the inner coastal areas of much of California, through the Sierras and Cascades up into to Idaho and British Columbia.  Likes to grow in crevices and in wet rocky areas  Closed-cone Pine Forest, Mixed- evergreen Forest and Redwood Forest.  In other words, more forest-like than we have here in western L.A. Co. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Heuchera+micrantha http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=4171 http://www.swsbm.com/Maps/Maps.html
  38. 38. © Project SOUND Small-flower Coral Bells is a petite Heuchera  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Slow-growing  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Mounded clump  Foliage:  Leaves basal, hairy, medium green with distinctive red veins.  Neat, pleasant and showy  ‘woodsy’ look  Roots: thick, woody © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  39. 39. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: light to medium soils; good drainage  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Some shade probably better in our area  Water:  Winter: needs good rains  Summer: likes somewhat damp soils – Zone 2-3 probably best  Fertilizer:  Best grown in organically rich soils  Add humus; organic (leaf) mulches http://dnr.metrokc.gov/wlr/pi/Go-Native/PlantDisplay.aspx?PlantID=127&PhotoID=366
  40. 40. © Project SOUND Flowers are lovely when massed  Blooms: usually Apr-June in S. CA gardens  Flowers:  Whitish - Pink, tiny, in nodding clusters along stems  Dainty-looking  Very showy when massed; drifts of flowering stalks  Seeds:  Tiny  Fairly easy to propagate  Vegetative reproduction: divide clumps every 3-4 years in spring.Gladys Lucille Smith © California Academy of Sciences
  41. 41. Dividing Heucheras  Divide 3-4 year old Heucheras in spring (when actively growing)  Dig up the clump  Break it into smaller clumps, either by hand or using a stout knife; be sure that each clump has a good root system  Replant divisions, keep well-watered  Discard old woody material  Dividing encourages new growth and more abundant flowering – it also propagates new plants. © Project SOUND http://gardening.lohudblogs.com/2007/11/17/dividing-heuchera- for-a-new-garden/
  42. 42. Heucheras are definite candidates for small gardens  Great in large pots and planters  Nice flower for the shaded rock garden.  Excellent for edging, borders  Good ground cover for a woodland garden © 2004, Ben Legler One of the few groundcovers that will grow under walnut trees. http://www.calfloranursery.com/plants/heuchera-micrantha http://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2013_05 _01_archive.html
  43. 43. Heuchera micrantha var. diversifolia 'Palace Purple'  Source seed was actually the southeast U.S. native Heuchera villosa var. macrorrhiza  Originated in England from seed imported from a U.S. Botanic Garden; introduced to American gardens in 1986  'Palace Purple‘ - first grown at the Queen's palace at Kew Gardens.  First Heuchera to be widely grown here for its dramatic foliage. Received the Perennial Plant Association Plant-of-the-Year award in 1991.  Excellent choice for edge of the border, or in containers (dramatic ‘filler’ plant). © Project SOUNDhttp://notanothergardeningblog.com/2012/09/17 /holy-h-batman/
  44. 44. The love affair with purple foliage  Mostly an Eastern/European gardening phenomenon  Often based on Eastern species and crosses with Tiarellas  Has kept many plant breeders in business  Fills a need in shady gardens that may be a little gloomy in summers with cloudy skies  Contrasting foliage (of the lush variety) is used more in areas with more rainfall © Project SOUND http://leef-tuinen.nl/natuurlijke-achtertuin-oisterwijk/ http://livingfashion.co.nz/variety/tiarella-appalachian-trail/
  45. 45. The leaf colors are amazing… © Project SOUND http://www.greatbiggreenhouse.com/Expert-Advice/Plant-Listings/Perennial-Flowers/Heuchera.aspx
  46. 46. …but they look more appropriate in moist gardens © Project SOUND http://thegardeningcook.com/heuchera/
  47. 47. © Project SOUND *Seaside alumroot – Heuchera pilosissima http://www.larnerseeds.com/file/heuchera-pilosissimajpg
  48. 48.  Endemic to coastal CA from Del Norte Co. in the far north (and S. OR) to Santa Barbara Co.  Wooded, coastal slopes and coastal bluffs below 1000 ft. © Project SOUND *Seaside alumroot – Heuchera pilosissima http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?HEPI3 https://www.flickr.com/photos/polylepis/5731442786 http://www.mostlynatives.com/sites/default/files/heucherapilosissim a.jpg
  49. 49. © Project SOUND Seaside heuchera: medium-size & hairy  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen, herbaceous perennial  Mounded form – spreads slowly via short rhizomes  Foliage:  Leaves medium green, grape- like, rounded with slight lobing  Long petioles  All very hairy, glandular  Roots: shallow
  50. 50. © Project SOUND Flowers: unusual shape  Blooms: spring - usually Mar- May in S. CA gardens  Flowers:  On upright stalk typical of genus  Flowers small, urn-shaped  Hypanthium (floral cup) green to pink, very hairy  Petals small, white-pink  Sexual parts exerted  Attract hummingbirds  Seeds:  Many small, in dry capsule ©2007 Neal Kramer
  51. 51. © Project SOUND Requirements: typical for N. Coastal species  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils; fine in sand  pH: slightly acidic (5.0-7.0) best  Light:  Part-shade to quite shady in S. CA (grows in forests right along the damp Northern coast)  Water:  Winter: needs good rains/irrigation  Summer: moist soils – probably the most water-loving native Heuchera  Fertilizer: low needs, but yearly dose of ½ strength fertilizer wouldn’t hurt  Other: organic mulches fine
  52. 52. © Project SOUND One of the best for places with regular water  Shady borders, planters  Lining walkways  Woodland-themed gardens  As an attractive pot plant https://sites.google.com/site/ryanheuchera/heuchera-pilosissima https://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/7020331907 http://www.larnerseeds.com/file/heuchera-pilosissimajpg
  53. 53. Native coastal Heucheras work well in gardens  Cultural requirements ‘garden friendly’:  Soils: adaptable; heavy clays can be problem  pH: neutral or slightly acid  Water: moderate to regular  Size/shape is good for bed borders  Evergreen foliage © Project SOUND http://www.wmwd.watersavingplants.com/GWImage.php?image=199 &source=gt
  54. 54. ‘Lillian’s Pink’ (H. pilosissima x H. sanguinea)  Selected for the garden by Ron Lusko; introduced by Cal Flora Nursery  Named after Lillian Henningsen, (first appeared in as a chance seedling in her garden).  1-2 ft. tall & wide; upright compact habit  Larger, darker flowers than most Heuchera (due to H. sanguinea parent)  Excellent in part-shade; a bit more drought tolerant than H. pilosissima (occasional/ moderate water) © Project SOUND http://www.mostlynatives.com/plants/heuchera- lillians-pink
  55. 55. What’s the appropriate mulch for heucheras?  As always, depends on what is the natural mulch:  Northern Forest species – mosses; leaf mulch  Coastal Forest species – organic mulch, but not too thick  Crevice/S. CA species – gravel or other inorganic mulch  Always trade-off between the benefits of mulch and the risk of fungal disease (roots & leaves) © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Heuchera merriamii : a mystery solved  This species occurs in the Siskiyou Mountains of northern California.  Flowers are very similar to those of H. maxima and H. pilosissima  While previously these species have been classified together, they do not appear to be closely related. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Sect. Holochloa • Subsect. Villosae (unglaciated eastern US) • H. villosa • H. puberula • H. missouriensis • H. parviflora • Subsect. Micranthae (Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada) • H. micrantha • H. maxima • H. pilosissima • Subsect. Cylindricae (Northern Rockies and adjacent areas) • H. chlorantha • H. cylindrica  Incertae sedis • H. glabra • H. merriamii © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Heucheras grow in several CA mountain ranges  Cascade/Klamath/Modoc  Coastal Ranges  Sierra Nevada Range ____________________  Transverse Ranges  Peninsular Ranges © Project SOUND http://www.sanandreasfault.org/CaGeo.html
  59. 59. H. maxima is unique among S. California Heucheras  Native to the N. Channel Islands  Is similar – and related to – the Central/Northern CA species in Section Holochloa © Project SOUND http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/heuchera/heuchera_socal.html#pix
  60. 60. Island Alumroot – Heuchera maxima J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  61. 61. Island Alumroot in nature  Moist shady areas in chaparral and coastal sage scrub on N. Channel Islands:  Moist, shady, north-facing canyon bottoms,  Canyon walls  Moist cliffs  Seacliffs  Low elevations http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ASP/CPC_ProfileImage.asp?FN=2240a
  62. 62. Island Alumroot: somewhat similar to northern coastal species  Growth form: clumping – low mounds of leaves on long petioles  Foliage: leaves rounded or heart-shaped, may be variegated  Roots: long taproot – more drought tolerant than non-CA species Flowers: late winter-mid-spring  White to light pink  Bell-shaped  On long stems well above the foliage
  63. 63. Growth requirements – Island Alumroot  Sun: full sun on the coast, part shade anywhere  Soils:  Any well-drained – sandy is best  Any pH except very acidic  Nutrients: organic supplements, mulches are useful  Water:  Regular water to establish  Two to four times a month (especially in summer and at inland locations) to keep plants green and lengthen bloom.  Are fairly drought tolerant in shady sites – just look a little raggedy with summer drought http://www.gardenbuddies.com/forum/messages/4314/6145.html
  64. 64. Regular maintenance of Heuchers  Mulch with appropriate mulch  Watch for known pests/diseases:  Slugs/snails  Mealybugs  Scale insects  Fungal disease (root)  Mildew  Remove dead foliage and flowering stalks  Fertilize containerized plants (and those grown in sandy soils) with ½ strength fertilizer once a year  Divide every 3-5 years – when flowering decreases © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Versatile plant in the garden  Woodland and shade gardens or borders  For cut flowers  Habitat for bees and hummingbirds  As a groundcover in shady parts of the garden, including under trees (oaks & pines)  In pots & containers (2 ft deep or more) http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_pag e/heuchera_maxima.htm http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=0164 http://www.plantmaster.com/gardens/eplant.php?plantnum=24193
  66. 66. Design: Mass plantings or accent plant?  Mass plantings – utilize the principle of repetition  Accent plantings - utilize the principle of contrast  All Heucheras are splendid when used either way © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Floral color – two looks from Heucheras  Modern architecture  Dark areas of the garden  With other, competing floral colors  Old-fashioned, cottage garden  Natural landscapes (true California look); woodsy look © Project SOUND ‘in your face’ red https://www.pinterest.com/pin/325033298082321235/ https://www.sbbg.org/easy-8 ‘soothing and natural’ pink
  68. 68. Coastal Heucheras: perfect choice for a woodsy garden © Project SOUND http://watersmartsdlandscaping.org/GWImage.php?image=70 &source=gt&index=6&page=1 Heuchera & Wild strawberry (Fragaria) http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-65eAbg4g7aU/UXNz8QW- HlI/AAAAAAAAHPc/coVuxLJdql0/s1600/aristolochia -heuchera-fern-closer.jpg Border a lawn for the feel of a woodland opening http://bgm.stanford.edu/groups/grounds/special/ca_native_chart Pair with water-loving native ferns
  69. 69. Heucheras & grass- like plants are naturals together  N. CA grass species  Sedges (Carex) species  Rushes (Juncus) species © Project SOUND http://www.junescott.net/garden-friendly-california-natives/ http://www.pasadena.watersavingplants.com/GWImage.php?image=885&so urce=gg&index=2&page=6 ‘Opal’ & ‘Wendy’ https://thehumanfootprint.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/more-great-reliable-plants-for- california-landscapes/
  70. 70. http://www.thegardengeek.com/content/heuchera-maxima-giant-heuchera http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/Native-plants-in-containers.html Understated elegance as an accent plant
  71. 71. Heucheras in containers  No special potting soil except for those that need extra gravel  Shallow roots – don’t need a deep container (except H. maxima)  Elegant alone – or in mixed containers © Project SOUND http://www.enjoycontainergardening.com/heucheras-in- container-gardens.html http://awaytogarden.com/the-best-heuchera-and-how-to-grow-them/ Heucheras and moisture- loving native ferns make a fetching combination
  72. 72. Heucheras have the potential to hybridize  Doesn’t occur often in the wilds due to geographic separation  Happens all the time in gardens  Hybridizers also make specific crosses, choosing parent plants with particular characteristics  H. maxima is often chosen:  Larger overall size  Large leaves  Large, open flowers  Relative drought tolerance © Project SOUND Heuchera maxima (tall), H. sanguinea (dark pink) & H. elegans (lighter pink) http://kristamaxwell.com/garden/photos.html
  73. 73. The quest for a better pink….  Native plants will frequently produce hybrids with closely related exotic plants. Quite a number of such cases are well documented.  Heuchera sanguinea (from Arizona) has hybridized with the following natives:  H. elegans,  H. hirsutissima,  H. maxima  H. pilosissima  H. merriamii (pringlei) © Project SOUND
  74. 74. *Arizona Coral Bells - Heuchera sanguinea  Native to S.e. AZ, s.w. NM, N. Mexico  Grows in moist, shady, foothill woodlands  Has the most outrageous bright pink/red flowers – used to produce red cultivars © Project SOUND http://loghouseplants.com/plants/shop/heuchera- sanguinea-ruby-bells-coral-bells/ ‘Ruby Bells’ https://www.pinterest.com/pin/74098356341543411/ http://notanothergardeningblog.com/tag/foliage-plants/
  75. 75. Lee Lenz and the ‘RSABG Hybrids’  In the 1950s, Lee Lenz (Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden) started hybridizing Heuchera maxima with Heuchera sanguinea (Arizona/NM species) to create garden hybrids.  Became known as the "Rancho Santa Ana hybrids". Breeding program continues.  The hybrids inherited their large stature and tall flowering stems from Heuchera maxima while getting larger indidual flower size and darker colors from Heuchera sanguinea.  Exibited hybrid vigor, making them great garden plants. In the garden, they are essentially treated like H. maxima: shade and some summer water. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.monrovia.com/plant-catalog/plants/3389/santa-ana-cardinal- coral-bells/
  76. 76. Heuchera 'Genevieve'  Introduced in 1974; named after the wife of Percy Everett, who was the garden horticulturalist at the time  Dark green leaves that have silvery markings with magenta flowers.  Renowned for its pink flowers, strong stature and very long bloom season. © Project SOUND https://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/8117898828 http://www.magicgrowers.com/plantDetail.php?plantId=0000980175
  77. 77. Heuchera 'Opal'  One of the original Lenz hybrids  Soft hairy pale green leaves  Clean white flowers with the hint of a rose blush.  Use ‘Opal’ in woodland settings, in mass under trees, as an edging or border plant. © Project SOUND http://www.magicgrowers.com/plantDetail.php?plantId=0000980499 http://www.sb.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=207&return=l11
  78. 78. Heuchera ‘Santa Ana Cardinal’  Robust, durable plant introduced in 1958.  Large size (about 2 feet tall by 2 feet wide)  Shiny green foliage, similar to Heuchera 'Genevieve' but the gray mottling on the leaves is not as pronounced.  Vibrant red flowers on stems up to 3 feet tall.  Hardy to about 10 degrees F. © Project SOUND http://www.gardeningwithnatives.com/pcc_planting.html http://wildsuburbia.blogspot.com/2010_11_01_archive.html
  79. 79. Heuchera 'Susanna'  Introduced in 1974 and named for the garden's founder, Susanna Bixby Bryant  Shiny green foliage with large leaves  Profusion of vibrant red flowers on stems up to 3 feet high in spring and summer. © Project SOUND http://www.suncrestnurseries.com/calnatives_show.php?id=heucsu http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/heu_SU.htm
  80. 80. Heuchera ‘Wendy’  Introduced by John Dourley (RSABG) in 1984.  Open rosettes of pale green leaves and elegant tall sprays bearing rosy- pink flowers.  Not extremely long lived but worth replanting every 3-5 years. © Project SOUND http://godetia.com/dirt/closet/heuchera.jpg https://thehumanfootprint.wordpress.com/tag/california-natives/
  81. 81. Heuchera 'Rosada'  Not a Rancho Santa Ana introduction  Similar to 'Wendy' but has smaller soft pink and white flowers on a shorter stems  Durable old cultivar that is thought to have been in the University of California, Davis Arboretum for over 30 years before introduced to horticulture in 1991. © Project SOUND http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/heu_RO.htm http://www.goldrushnursery.com/index.cfm/fuseactio n/plants.plantDetail/plant_id/283/index.htm
  82. 82. Sect. Holochloa • Subsect. Villosae (unglaciated eastern US) • H. villosa • H. puberula • H. missouriensis • H. parviflora • Subsect. Micranthae (Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada) • H. micrantha • H. maxima • H. pilosissima • Subsect. Cylindricae (Northern Rockies and adjacent areas) • H. chlorantha • H. cylindrica  Incertae sedis • H. glabra • H. merriamii © Project SOUND
  83. 83. The S. CA Heucheras: look closely With the exception of H. maxima, all the rest are alpine species. How did that happen? © Project SOUND http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/heuchera/heuchera_socal.html#pix
  84. 84. Three main strategies to survive drastic environmental changes 1 . Move – to places where conditions are better 2. Evolve – change so as to survive the changed situations 3. Hang on – in places that continue to have the right conditions © Project SOUND
  85. 85. The S. CA Heucheras: water-loving plants in a climate that became dry © Project SOUND Coastal species (Sect. Holochloa) became truly coastal The rest ultimately retreated to very specialized alpine places, where water was still available
  86. 86. H. caespitosa has the widest geographic distribution of the S. CA species © Project SOUND http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/heuchera/heuchera_socal.html#pix It also has a wide elevation distribution
  87. 87. © Project SOUND * Tufted alumroot – Heuchera caespitosa
  88. 88. * Tufted alumroot – Heuchera caespitosa © Project SOUND http://herbaria4.herb.berkeley.edu/eflora_display.php?tid=91750  Western Transverse Ranges in Kern, San Bernardino, Tulare, and Ventura counties, and in the Outer South Coast Ranges, southern Sierra Nevada foothills, and southern Sierra Nevada  Rocky areas, 4500'-8000', San Gabriel Mts  Red Fir Forest, Yellow Pine Forest In so many ways, Tufted alumroot bridges the coastal species to the west and the alpine species of the eastern Transverse and Peninsular Ranges
  89. 89.  AKA: Urn-flowered alumroot  Attribution: Alice Eastwood  One of the rare Heucheras.  Previously lumped with some other S. CA species into H. elegans - but those recently classified as H. caespitosa are different:  H. caespitosa is tetraploid.  There are also some subtle aspects of floral form that distinguish them, all of which require fresh or rehydrated material. © Project SOUND * Tufted alumroot – Heuchera caespitosa Ryan Folk (2011-2015).
  90. 90. © Project SOUND Tufted alumroot: a smaller, mountain form  Size:  < 1 ft tall  < 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Low-growing evergreen perennial; diminutive  Extends via rhizomes; mat- forming with age  Foliage:  Medium to darker green  Leaves rounded, geranium-like  Shorter petioles  Roots: not too deep; doesn’t need much soil The mountain native tend to be very cold-resistant. But many of them (particularly those with wider elevation range) still do well in our lowland gardens
  91. 91. © Project SOUND Charming flowers  Blooms: May-July  Flowers:  On typical long flower spikes  Hypantheum very elongated  Pale pink color overall; petals are large for genus  Extremely showy species – used often in hybrids  Great for hummingbirds  Seeds:  Small & brown in dry capsule http://www.hazmac.biz/041018/041018HeucheraCaespitosa.html
  92. 92. © Project SOUND Plant of rocky slopes  Soils:  Texture: well-drained, rocky best  pH: any local  Light: part-shade to shady in western L.A. county.  Water:  Winter: needs plenty  Summer: twice a month to regular  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; fertilize container plants ½ strength, once a year in spring.  Other:  Inorganic mulch  Prune off dead leaves, stems  Watch for mealy bugs, mildew  Plant on berm for better drainage
  93. 93. © Project SOUND Small, Tufted alumroot  Lovely choice for containers  Tuck into crevices between rocks, in dry-stone walls  Shady groundcover on slopes  Rock gardens; perennial beds http://jaysullivan.org/socal/alumre.htm
  94. 94. Heuchera caespitosa ‘Bella Blanca’  Selected and introduced by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden  2-4 in. high; 4-8 in. wide; bright green leaves spreading to form a very dense mat.  6-10 inch stems display snow white flowers in late spring.  Long blooming season with additional moisture.  Compact growth and small size make it perfect for container and rock gardens. © Project SOUND http://www.suncrestnurseries.com/calnatives_show.php?id=heucebb AKA Heuchera elegans ‘Bella Blanca’
  95. 95. Lots was happening during the Pleistocene (Ice Age – 1.8 mya to 10,000 ya)  To the North, severe climatic changes had major impacts on fauna and flora.  Climate effects were less severe in California, but still significant:  5 major glacial episodes: Sierras Nevadas  The L.A. Basin had periods with at least twice as much rain as currently (more like the climate of Monterrey – cooler and foggier)  Oak & pine woodlands extended down to lower elevations in western S. CA  The climate was probably pretty good for the S. CA Heucheras © Project SOUND http://www.perceptions.couk.com/glacials.html http://geologycafe.com/eros ion/glaciers.html
  96. 96. But conditions varied widely between glacial and inter-glacial periods…and S. CA ultimately became mostly warm & dry Except for little islands (N. Channel Islands; ‘sky islands’ in the mountains), the conditions were no longer ideal for Heucheras © Project SOUND
  97. 97. The easternmost local Heucheras… Demonstrate the role of isolated ‘islands’ in the development of species © Project SOUND http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/heuchera/heuchera_socal.html#pix
  98. 98. Sect. Rhodoheuchera © Project SOUND • Subsect. Hemsleyanae (Sierra Madre of Mexico) • H. longipetala • H. acutifolia • H. mexicana • Subsect. Rosendahliae (northern Sierra Madre Occidentale) • H. rosendahlii • H. wellsiae • Subsect. Rubescentes • H. rubescens • H. parishii (may fit better in the following section) • Subsect. Elegantes (Transverse Ranges of California, and the nearby Laguna Mountains) • H. abramsii • H. elegans • H. caespitosa • H. hirsutissima • H. brevistaminea • H. pulchella (placement tentative) • Subsect. Sanguineae (primarily Sierra Madre Occidental, outliers in the northernmost Sierra Madre Oriental, southernmost Basin and Range) • H. lakelae • H. sanguinea
  99. 99. The S. CA mountain species are different enough to warrant a separate Section  Growth characteristics differ from their coastal siblings  Their cold tolerance is phenomenal  And their growth needs require that we treat them somewhat differently than the coastal species © Project SOUND
  100. 100. © Project SOUND *San Gabriel alumroot – Heuchera abramsii ©2005 Charles E. Jones
  101. 101. © Project SOUND *San Gabriel alum root – Heuchera abramsii http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?HEAB Ryan Folk (2011-2015) Ryan Folk (2011-2015)  San Gabriel Mountains (San Antonio Peak area)  Grows among the rocks and crevices high in the coniferous forests, at 9,000 - 11,000m above sea level  Good cold tolerance – true alpine species
  102. 102. © Project SOUND Heuchera abramsii: a tiny alpine species  Size:  6 inches tall  to 1 ft wide (spreading)  Growth form:  Mat-like herbaceous perennial – spreads via rhizomes  Foliage all very low; winter deciduous  Foliage:  Leaves rounded, deeply- lobed  Geranium-like; few hairs  Roots: relatively shallow http://navigate.botanicgardens.org/weboi/oecgi2.exe/INET_ECM_ DispPl?NAMENUM=48599#images https://sites.google.com/site/ryanheuchera/heuchera-abramsii http://tchester.org/temp/110721/heuchera/heuc hera_abramsii_1_3_crop_70.jpg
  103. 103. © Project SOUND Flowers among the prettiest in CA Heucheras  Blooms: summer in its native habitat; usually spring (May- June) at lower elevations  Flowers:  Dense flowers on upright flower stalks (typical of genus)  Hypantheum tubular/urn- shaped and very bright pink.  Petals white/pale pink  Very showy in bloom – amazing!  Attracts hummingbirds  Seeds: many small, dark brown seeds in dry capsule. http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/abramsalumroot.html
  104. 104. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: excellent drainage  pH: any local  Light:  Shade to part-sun  Water:  Winter: plenty of water  Summer: don’t over-water; let dry out between waterings (Water Zone 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; ½ strength fertilizer once a year in containers.  Other: gravel mulch; don’t water in hot, moist conditions. http://www.wrightmanalpines.com/plant/heuchera-abramsii
  105. 105. Perfect plant for rock & crevice gardens  As a unique specimen plant in containers  In a rock garden  Tucked into crevices in a crevice garden or dry-stone wall http://wildgingerfarm.com/plant-list/plants-f---h/heuchera-abramsii.html
  106. 106. Growing Heucheras from seed  Harvest seeds after the seed pods become dry but before the pods have opened. Seeds are tiny – don’t worry about removing all the chaff  Ideal growing medium: 1:1 seed starter mix and vermiculite or perlite. Moisten until damp.  Sprinkle seeds thinly – don’t over-seed.  Water with fine mist  Cover pot(s) with clear plastic bag  Keep moist in bright shade  Be careful to not damage root when repotting © Project SOUND http://www.hazmac.biz/041018/041018HeucheraCaespitosa.html
  107. 107. The quest for the perfect dainty hybrid  In the 1980s Dara Emory (Santa Barbara Botanic Garden) used small montane species native to California crossed with Heuchera sanguinea  The results became known as the "Canyon hybrids“  ‘Canyon Delight’ and ‘Canyon Pink’ were the first products of Dara Emery’s breeding program to develop small-leafed, compact coral bells with showy flowers. Both are F1 crosses of H. elegans and a H. sanguinea hybrid. © Project SOUND https://www.sbbg.org/classes-events/lectures-symposia/dara-emery-2015
  108. 108. Heuchera ‘Canyon Pink’  Low growing with gray mottled lobed leaves.  Flowers are a rose pink with lighter centers and the bloom period occurs in the spring and summer.  Created by Dara Emery; introduced by the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden in 1985. This was the first of the gardens Heuchera introductions and remains as one of the best.  Heuchera sanguinea X H. rubescens.  Several of the more recent Quartet Series such as H. 'Canyon Melody', H. 'Canyon Duet' and H. 'Canyon Chimes' have 'Canyon Pink' as one parent. © Project SOUND http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdispla y.asp?plant_id=834
  109. 109. ‘Canyon Delight’  Early Dara Emory hybrid  Small (4-6"H x 6-12"W) with a 1" x 1" green leaf  Deep pink flower.  Grows and performs best in drier shady conditions. It will tolerant regular water in well drained soil. © Project SOUND http://www.faroutflora.com/tag/heuchera-canyon-delight/ https://www.sbbg.org/explore-garden/garden-sections-displays/arroyo http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Heuchera/
  110. 110. The ‘Canyon Series’ Heucheras  Dara Emery made many crosses with H. sanguinea and our small mountain natives. The best were introduced by Santa Barbara Botanic Garden.  Dozens of beautiful hybrids which combined the dense, small hummocks of the natives with flower colors ranging from white to deep, rosy pink.  All have smaller flowers than H. sanguinea, but usually many more  Do well in gardens given shade and regular water © Project SOUND ‘Canyon Chimes’ – a later hybrid https://www.sbbg.org/learn-discover/gardening-with-natives/sbbg-cultivars
  111. 111. Heuchera ‘Canyon Quartet Series’  Dara Emery hybrids created in 1993; released by the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden after Mr. Emery's death.  Patents have been applied for by the Garden on all of these cultivars. © Project SOUND  Canyon Duet' - bicolored flowers  'Canyon Bell' - Shorter red flowers in middle of wheelbarrow  'Canyon Chimes' Tall red flowers in front of the wheelbarrow  'Canyon Melody' - Smaller plant pink with exerted white
  112. 112. Heuchera x abramsii ‘Canyon Duet’ (PP13,280)  Dara Emery hybrid between ‘Canyon Delight’ and H. abramsii  Released in 2001 as part of the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden ‘Quartet’ Series.  Mat-like evergreen perennial 5 inches tall by 1 foot or more wide with small, 1 ¼-inch wide leaves.  Bi-colored flowers of dark pink and white rise above the foliage on 12- 18 inch tall stems in mid spring.  Shade to part-sun/regular summer water  Tolerant of a wide variety of soil types. Hardy to around 10° F. © Project SOUND http://www.srgc.net/forum/index.php?topic=9157.75 http://www.learn2grow.com/plants/heuchera-canyon-duet-canyon- series-pp13280-images-large-134192/
  113. 113. The easternmost local Heucheras… Demonstrate the concept of islands and speciation © Project SOUND http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/heuchera/heuchera_socal.html#pix
  114. 114. *Parish (Mill Creek) alumroot - Heuchera parishii © Project SOUND ©2010 Gary A. Monroe Native to San Bernardino Mountains; available from Santa Barbara Botanic Garden
  115. 115. © Project SOUND * Shaggy haired alumroot – Heuchera hirsutissima
  116. 116.  Peninsular Ranges (San Jacinto Mountains, n Santa Rosa Mtns)  Upper montane Red Fir coniferous forest, subalpine forest, 7000'- 11,000' © Project SOUND * Shaggy haired alumroot – Heuchera hirsutissima http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?HEHI4 http://jaysullivan.org/socal/alumrpa2.htm
  117. 117. © Project SOUND Shaggy-haired alumroot: small, alpine  Size:  < 1 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Mat-forming herbaceous perennial  Low-growing; flat rather than mounded  Spreads via rhizomes  Foliage:  Leaves rounded, lobed, grape-like in appearance  Roots: Relatively short.
  118. 118. © Project SOUND Pastel pink flowers  Blooms: summer in the mountains; May-June at lower elevations  Flowers:  Flower spikes more slender, open than some species  Floral tube flaring, pale pink; petals even paler, and whole becoming quite pale with age  Very glandular-hairy  Attracts hummingbirds  Seeds: small, dark brown in dry capsule
  119. 119. © Project SOUND Shade & drainage  Soils:  Texture: well-drained, rocky, but tolerates clay  pH: slightly acidic (5.0-7.0)  Light:  Part-shade to shade; no hot afternoon sun; heat tolerant  Water:  Winter: good; supplement  Summer: occasional to regular; Zone 2-3 probably optimal to keep foliage green.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; ½ strength for pot-grown plants.  Other: prune out dead leaves, stems; watch for mealybugs, mildew.
  120. 120. © Project SOUND Small Heucheras  Borders; shady, narrow places  Rock/crevice gardens  In dry-stone walls and other places with crevices  In containers ©2009 Thomas Stoughton ©2002 Charles E. Jones ©2003 Charles E. Jones
  121. 121. Heuchera hirsutissima 'Santa Rosa'  Originally collected in the mountains near Palm Springs, CA (~ 8,700 ft.).  Low mounds of scalloped leaves  Showy 1 ft. spikes of reddish pink (or white?) flowers in late spring.  Best in part sun; very well drained soils with occasional to moderate water  Cold hardy to -20 degrees F.  Suncrest Growers propagates – Try Deep Roots or International Nurseries (they could probably order) © Project SOUND
  122. 122. Heucheras as medicinal plants  Roots most common part used  Primarily used as an astringent  Control bleeding – cuts, abrasions  Skin wash (for sores/rashes and as a skin toner)  Eye wash  Cramps; baby’s colic (also for animals)  Mouth wash for sore throat, mouth sores  Horses’ saddle sores  Other (general) uses:  General tonic  Fever  ‘heart troubles’  ‘liver troubles’  Venereal diseases © Project SOUND https://waysofthewhorl.wordpress.com/2011/04/03/natural- dyeing-take-one-alum-mordanting-with-heuchera-plants/
  123. 123. H. rubescens: another unique Heuchera © Project SOUND http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/heuchera/heuchera_socal.html#pix
  124. 124. © Project SOUND *Pink alumroot – Heuchera rubescens ©2002 Larry Blakely
  125. 125.  Native to the west: SE OR south to CA; east to southern ID, CO then south to NV, UT, AZ, NM, N. Mexico  In S. CA, grows in Peninsular Ranges, Riverside/San Diego Counties.  Dry, rocky places; 6000-11,000 ft. © Project SOUND *Pink alumroot – Heuchera rubescens Gary A. Monroe, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?HERU http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx ?flora_id=1&taxon_id=250065957 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ f/f7/California_Coast_Ranges.png
  126. 126. Sect. Rhodoheuchera © Project SOUND • Subsect. Hemsleyanae (Sierra Madre of Mexico) • H. longipetala • H. acutifolia • H. mexicana • Subsect. Rosendahliae (northern Sierra Madre Occidentale) • H. rosendahlii • H. wellsiae • Subsect. Rubescentes • H. rubescens • H. parishii (may fit better in the following section) • Subsect. Elegantes (Transverse Ranges of California, and the nearby Laguna Mountains) • H. abramsii • H. elegans • H. caespitosa • H. hirsutissima • H. brevistaminea • H. pulchella (placement tentative) • Subsect. Sanguineae (primarily Sierra Madre Occidental, outliers in the northernmost Sierra Madre Oriental, southernmost Basin and Range) • H. lakelae • H. sanguinea
  127. 127. Mountains: U.S. West and Mexico  Sierra California (Baja, Mexico) and the Peninsular Ranges are contiguous  These and the Transverse Ranges are a result of plate tectonics © Project SOUND https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Geographic_Map_of_Mexico.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Usa_edcp_relief_location_map.png
  128. 128. © Project SOUND Pink alumroot: tidy, mat-like perennial  Size:  ~6 inches tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Small mound, becoming mat-like  Very low-growing, but some variability in size, leaf characteristics  Foliage:  Small, medium to dark green, rounded leaves  Great variability in hairiness  Roots: relatively short roots Sheri Hagwood, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College.
  129. 129. © Project SOUND Pink & white flowers  Blooms: April to Sept. along it’s wide range. Likely April-June at lower elevations. L.A. County.  Flowers:  On slender, 1 ft. stalks  Small flowers are pink/white; not as showy as some, but pleasant  Flowers bell-shaped, with exserted stamens; hairy  Great for hummingbirds  Seeds: small dark seeds in dry capsule  Vegetative reproduction: via short rhizomes ©2000 Gary A. Monroe ©2002 Larry Blakely
  130. 130. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: very well-drained  pH: slightly acidic (5.0-7.0)  Light: shade to part-shade; no hot afternoon sun  Water:  Winter: needs plenty  Summer: best with regular water; Water Zone 2-3 to 3.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils, but OK with regular garden practices. ½ strength yearly in containers.  Other:  Inorganic mulch  Consider planting on slope or near rocks ©2009 Gary A. Monroe Sheri Hagwood, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  131. 131. © Project SOUND Small perennial  As an attractive pot plant, along or mixed pot  In rock gardens, crevices  Around a shady birdbath  Small, evergreen groundcover  Borders for planted beds; along pathways©2009 Gary A. Monroe ©2002 Larry Blakely ©2011 Barry Breckling
  132. 132. Heuchera rubescens 'Yosemite'  Natural cultivar  Clusters of small white flowers atop 1 foot tall stalks appear in spring.  Leaves are roundish and lobed.  Wonderful perennial for a woodland garden or under oaks.  Part-shade to shade; occasional water  Available at Theodore Payne & through El Nativo Growers © Project SOUND http://www.easttennesseewildflowers.com/gallery/inde x.php/California-2012---Yosemite-Mammoth-Lakes
  133. 133. Resources on gardening with Heucheras © Project SOUND http://ecx.images- amazon.com/images/I/51jQvNC6GgL._SX336_BO1,204,203,20 0_.jpg http://www.finegardening.com/book-giveaway-container-gardening-all-seasons
  134. 134. Other Heuchera Resources  Heuchera Research site – Ryan Folk https://sites.google.com/site/ryanheuchera/home  Phylogenetic relationships and character evolution in Heuchera (Saxifragaceae) on the basis of multiple nuclear loci - Ryan A. Folk and John V. Freudenstein http://www.amjbot.org/content/101/9/1532.full © Project SOUND
  135. 135. 2016 – ‘Green Oases in Dry Gardens’ © Project SOUND http://www.bayareaecogardens.org/GWImage.php?image=398&source=gg&index=11&page=2

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