Hedges for Habitat - Notes

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Hedges for Habitat - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Hedges & Habitat Water-wise Hedges & Screens That Provide Habitat C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSU Dominguez Hills & Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Madrona Marsh Preserve Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) August 4 & 7, 2011 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND What is a mixed hedge or hedgerow? Mixed hedges/hedgerows are not a new  A row of trees/shrubs & other concept plants that separate agricultural fields  Hedgerows have long played  A narrow planting strip that an important role in grows along field borders, agriculture. fence lines, property  Since Bronze Age people first boundaries and waterways used them to divide fields,http://blog.histouries.co.uk/2011/03/28/hedges-and-hedgerows-in-england/  A living fence mark property boundaries and control livestock in Europe  A small ecosystem that has all more than 5,000 years ago, the key ingredients that an http://www.ehow.com/info_12000999_traditional-hedge-laying.html farmers around the world animal needs to survive: food, have appreciated the benefits shelter, nesting and denning hedgerows provide sites. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 What are the benefits of hedgerows? What does a classical hedgerow look like?  Security – keeping people/ animals in or out  Provide privacy screens and reduce noise  Act as a windbreak  Reduce soil erosionhttp://www.ofnc.ca/trailguide/tour3_e.php  Attract beneficial insects and reduce pests http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/Habitat/WildAcres/wahedgerows.asp Looks like a whole garden in a narrow space  Provide foods and medicinal plants  Traditional hedgerows contain a complex mix of evergreen and  Provide materials for crafts deciduous plants, including:  Provide a backdrop for other plants  Trees/Large shrubs  Increase plant diversity  Smaller shrubs & sub-shrubs/ Vines and climbers  Provide habitat  Perennial wildflowers  Grasses  Ferns/ Annual wildflowers © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.citrona.com/nativeplanthedgerow.htm But what do hedgerows have to do with urban/ Can we really create hedgerows in suburban Los Angeles county? urban/suburban S. California? Yes, if we understand that:  We need to consider the appropriate scale of plants  We understand that our hedgerows will be small  We plant the right types of plants to provide the habitat values that are an essential http://www.dietrick.org/projects/bbb.html component of true hedgerows http://www.barrsam.com/ww/index%20012.htm In short, we need to learn how to design S. California Garden Hedgerows © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 In fact, our small gardens make hedgerows Any habitat is better even more important than no habitat  Make the most of small  For maximum habitat benefit, a spaces by multi-tasking California Backyard Hedgerow  Screening should be:  Beauty http://www.wildwillowdesign.com/residential-landscape-design/featured-projects/napa-1/  Functional assets (food, etc)  At least 20 feet long – the longer the better http://www.flickr.com/photos/mechanoid_dolly/4922239063/  Habitat  At least 8 feet wide – 10-12 ft or  Make good use of limited more is even better (consider it a large mixed bed) space by:  Growing plants close together  Contain a mix of large shrubs,S. California Garden Hedgerows  Combining a number of smaller shrubs/vines, floweringare essentially wide, carefully different kinds of plants perennials and grassesplanned and densely planted  Making optimal use of  Feature plants native to the localgarden beds vertical space area – or with similar flora/fauna © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The hedge continuum To cut or not to cut?  Many native hedge plants can be pruned or not – the choice is yours  You can even cut one side http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/print/hedge-cutting.jpg and leave the other uncut  Once you choose to cut, http://www.thisoldhouse.com/toh/photos/0,,1589974,00.html http://www.nzplantpics.com/cat_hedges.htm you’re committed to cutting  Choosing to cut has formal consequences © Project SOUND http://www.pcorbett.co.uk/hedge-cutting-contractor.htm © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 The formal hedge The informal hedge  Often composed of a single  May contain one or several type of shrub different species of plants  Pruned to formal – often  Plants can differ in size, geometric - shapes even shape.  Maintained by regular pruninghttp://www.hotgardens.net/hedges.htm – often several times a year http://www.ipswich.gov.uk/Services/Greenways+Countryside+Project/Photos/The+Fonnereau+Way.htm  Are lower-maintenance  Requires plants with certain  Initial shaping may be characteristics: required  Moderate growth rate  Yearly pruning to maintain  Densely branched general size, promote plant  Fine-textured foliage; small health leaves  Can take regular shearing  May be too large and unruly for home gardenshttp://blogs.move.com/do-it-green/2007/06/06/hedges-a-green-alternative-to-fences/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The semi-formal The S. California Garden Hedgerow hedge  Is designed to be in scale with local gardens:  Rely on pruning to maintain  At least 20 ft long natural shape.  At least 8-10 ft wide  Are a little bit more formal –  Uses CA native plants (at so appropriate for urban least primarily) gardens.  Work well with many of our  Usually ranges in size native species. from large shrubs (6-10 ft tall) to groundcovers  Need enough space in the garden to show their form.  Provides a screen  Are more forgiving; pruning  Reflects the owner’s is less crucial. desires in design, plant choices, formality © Project SOUND http://www.wildwillowdesign.com/residential-landscape-design/featured-projects/napa-1/ © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 The new backyard – a clean slate Steps in designing a S. California Garden Hedgerow  Draw a scale map of the area  Do site assessment: light, etc.  Decide on a plant palette: 60 ft  N. Calif. Coast – Water Zone 2 to 2-3  Western L.A. Co. – Zone 2  Sonoran Desert – Water Zone 1-2 to 2 15 ft (2 shrubs)  Choose a ‘Backbone Shrub’ species; determine number of plants needed  Choose complementary ‘Filler Shrubs’  Complete design with smaller shrubs, sub-shrubs, perennials, grasses & groundcovers © Project SOUND © Project SOUND‘Backbone Shrub’ – the key to a good Zone 2 to 2-3 – Northern Coasthedgerow  Will constitute 40 to 70% percent of the mixed hedgerow  Should be selected first.  Should be a plant with:  Evergreen foliage  A good growth rate;  Nice, but neutral-looking, foliage  Pest/disease resistance  Appropriate for your site  Added value: flowers/fruit/seeds  Comparison shop before you choose  Compare 3-4 potential Backbone Shrubs before making final ‘Backbone Shrub’ : Coffeeberry (Frangula/Rhamnus californica) selection  Choose the species with the most ‘value’http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Myrica_californica.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 How dense to plant the large shrubs? Zone 2 to 2-3 – Northern Coast  Principles:  Need some overlap – no gaps  Need to insure that the death of one shrub doesn’t leave a gap  Want it to fill in as quickly as possible 4-6 ft on center  Don’t want to over-crowd species 1-2 ft that normally have room to stretch  Rules of thumb:  1-2 foot overlap between adjacent 8-9 large shrubs mature large shrubs  Example: 8 ft wide shrubs are 4 ft radius/8 ft diameter planted 4 to 6 feet apart © Project SOUND © Project SOUND But what if we want our hedgerow to be Steps in designing a California Backyard more drought tolerant – and local? Hedgerow  Draw a scale map of the area  Do site assessment: light, etc.  Decide on a plant palette:  N. Calif. Coast – Water Zone 2 to 2-3  Western L.A. Co. – Water Zone 2  Sonoran Desert – Water Zone 1-2 to 2  Choose a ‘Backbone Shrub’ species; determine number of plants needed http://earthfriendlylandscapes.blogspot.com/2010/07/planting-with-hedges-in-california.html  Choose complementary ‘Filler Shrubs’ No problem – we’ve got a wealth of large evergreen shrubs native to  Complete design with smaller shrubs,http://nativeson.com/annotated_catalog/qcatalog.htm western L.A. County sub-shrubs, perennials, grasses & groundcovers Lemonadeberry - Rhus integrifolia © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Western L.A. Co. Palette: Water Zone 2 Zone 1-2 to 2: local native backbone plants  Large shrubs: backbone candidates  Ceanothus crassifolius: white/gray  Ceanothus cuneatus: white/green  Ceanothus megacarpus : white/green  Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber: http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/rham naceae/ceanothus/ceanothus-cuneatus/ http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/sp ecies/Ceanothus_megacarpus_megacarpus.ht ins/green m Ceanothus crassifolius Ceanothus cuneatus Ceanothus megacarpus  Heteromeles arbutifolia: white/green  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. ilicifolia: white/green  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii: white/green http://www.flickriver.com/photos/mechanoid_dolly/sets/72157624828039022/ © Project SOUND Heteromeles arbutifolia © Project SOUND Zone 1-2 to 2: local native backbone plants Planning a hedgerow –  Appropriate for site/compatible with other plants take time in planning  Size  Light  Soils  Water needs  Aesthetic considerations  Foliage characteristics: color, texture, etc.  Flowers: color, season, etc.Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber Prunus ilicifolia  Fruits/seeds: color, season, etc.  Other benefits  Scent; edible; medicinal; etc.  Habitat value  What species: insects, birds, etc Remember, your hedgerow  What they provide: food, shelter, will be around for a long time nest sites, perches © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013How do the local backbone shrubs stack up? How do the local backbone shrubs stack up? Ceanothus species Toyon – Heteromeles arbutifolia Mountain Mahogany - Cercocarpus Native Cherries - Prunus ilicifolia Flowers: abundant, white, spring  Flowers: abundant, cream, summer  Flowers: seeds showy  Flowers: masses of white, spr/su Fruits: insignificant looking  Fruits: showy, red in winter  Fruits: no  Fruits: edible cherries, fall Other: soap; dye  Other: dye; medicinal  Other: medicinal; dye  Other: fruit; medicinal; dye Aesthetic: pretty; neat,  Aesthetic: neat; nice green color;  Aesthetic: pleasant; neutral  Aesthetic: shiny leaves, good color, evergreen; well-known can prune to tree shape; well-known background; white bark; can be pretty flowers, fruits Hedge characteristics: good;  Hedge characteristics: good; dense tree-like  Hedge characteristics: excellent, dense & take semi-formal hedging & take formal/informal hedging  Hedge characteristics: informal formal/informal, narrow screens Habitat: bees: good; birds: cover  Habitat: insects – good; birds – or formal; easy to maintain  Habitat: bees – excellent; Pale & fruits/seeds cover, nest, fruits  Habitat: bees – excellent; birds Swallowtail host plant; birds – – perch, nest, cover, seeds perch, nest, cover, seeds © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Western L.A. Co. backbone shrub: Toyon Replacing the old (short) hedge http://www.jeunitedrealty.com/listing/2009-robinson-street-%7Cb-redondo-beach-s12013328 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013How many 8-10 ft backbone shrubs? How many 8-10 ft backbone shrubs?  Place one shrub at each end – each 5 ft in from edge  12 feet remain 6 ft  You have room for a total of 3 plants – 6 ft planted 6 feet on 22 ft center 22 ft  You might want to:  Use just a backbone http://www.jeunitedrealty.com/listing/2009-robinson-street-%7Cb-redondo-beach-s12013328 species for lg. shrub  Choose a filler shrub that looks similar to the backbonehttp://www.jeunitedrealty.com/listing/2009-robinson-street-%7Cb-redondo-beach-s12013328 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Replacing the old (short) hedge What do we still need? Aesthetics/Human Uses Habitat  Have  Have  Summer flowers  Summer nectar 5 ft 6 ft 6 ft  Winter fruits  Winter red berries  Dye/medicinal plant  Good cover/nest sites Toyon Toyon or Mountain Toyon Mahogany  Need  Need  Winter/spring color -flowers  Seeds  Colored flowers  ? Fruits:  ? Different foliage  Grass: nests; seeds; Skipper habitat © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Need 3 more local large shrubs Possible local filler shrubs Large shrubs  Filler  Backbone  Arctostaphylos glauca  Ceanothus spinosus  Ceanothus crassifolius: white/gray  Comarostaphylis  Ceanothus cuneatus: white/green diversifolia  Ceanothus megacarpus : white/green  Cornus glabrata  Crossosoma californicum Local Ceanothus  Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber:  Garrya veatchii Nevin’s Barberry – Mahonia nevinii ins/green  Mahonia nevinii  Laurel Sumac (Malosma  Heteromeles arbutifolia: white/green laurina) ??  Rhamnus crocea  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. ilicifolia:  Rhus integrifolia white/green  Quercus berberidifolia  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii: white/green  ? Xylococcus bicolor Summer Holly Spiny Reberry © Project SOUND Comarostaphylis diversifolia Rhamnus crocea © Project SOUND Western L.A. County Palette: Water Zone 2 Western L.A. County Palette: Water Zone 2 • Toyon - Heteromeles arbutifolia • Wedgeleaf Ceanothus - Ceanothus cuneatus • Summer Holly - Comarostaphylis diversifolia © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Western L.A. Co. Palette: smaller speciesWhat do we still need?  Other  Achillea millefoliumAesthetics/Human Uses Habitat  Smaller shrubs  Artemisia californica  Amorpha californica var. californica  Boykinia rotundifolia Have  Grindelia stricta var.  Have  Brickellia californica  Summer flowers platyphylla  Lycium californicum  Winter red berries  Summer nectar  Salvia spathacea  Ribes aureum  Dye/medicinal plant  Winter fruits  Solanum wallacei  Ribes indecorum  Good cover/nest sites  Solidago californica  Winter/spring color –  Salvia leucophylla Fruits: more variety  Tauschia arguta flowers   Salvia mellifera  Venegasia carpesioides  Native grasses Need  Need  Colored flowers  Seeds  ? Different foliage  Grass: nests; seeds;  Mid- and low-growing Skipper habitat species © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Zone 2 (local) backbone shrub: Toyon Zone 2 (local) backbone shrub: Toyon • Golden Currant - Ribes aureum • Purple Sage - Salvia leucophylla • Purple Sage - Salvia leucophylla • Western Yarrow - Achillea millefolia • Western Yarrow - Achillea millefolia • Foothill Needlegrass - Nassella lepida • Foothill Needlegrass - Nassella lepida © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 We’ve transformed the old (short) hedge Placing smaller shrubs/other small plants  Plants nearest to the large shrubs should overlap the large shrubs – 1 ft overlap – you will prune these as if they are an extension of the large shrubs  Plants further from the large shrubs can be spaced further apart or overlapped – depends on the plants and• Golden Currant: colored flowers/edible berries/contrasting foliage your personal taste• Purple Sage : scented foliage (herb) /colored flowers/nectar/seeds/ gray foliage• Western Yarrow: flowers/beneficial insects/seeds/medicinal © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The hedgerow at Sonoran Desert Palette: Water Zone 1-2 to 2 Heritage Creek Preserve © Project SOUND http://www.shannontech.com/ParkVision/JoshuaTree/JoshuaTree4.html © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 A little less water (Sonoran Desert Palette) Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert backbone shrubs Large shrubs  Smaller shrubs  Abutilon palmeri  Backbone  Acalypha californica  Arctostaphylos pungens  Encelia farinosa  Forestiera pubescens var.  Justicia californica pubescens  Sphaeralcea ambigua  Lycium brevipes  Simmondsia chinensis http://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm  Other Point-leaf Manzanita Jojoba - Simmondsia chinensis Arctostaphylos pungens Lycium brevipes  Filler  Ericameria nauseosa  Calliandra eriophylla  Geraea canescens  Fallugia paradoxa  Mirabilis multiflora vars glandulosa and pubescens  Hyptis emoryi  Nolina bigelovii  Lycium andersonii  Penstemon eatonii  Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia  Penstemon palmeri  Prunus andersonii  Viguiera parishii http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result. http://seedsofsuccess.smugmug.com/keyword/pubescens/1/11 php?id_image=1004 53460478_2UbVe#!i=279467734&k=Y7pqc Desert Olive - Forestiera pubescens © Project SOUND © Project SOUND *Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis Characteristics of Jojoba depend a bit on the site  Size:  3-12 ft tall (usually 6-10 ft)  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Large woody shrub or small tree (larger forms in wetter sites)  Many branches; dense – provides good cover  Foliage:  Thick, leathery gray-green leaves  Evergreen except in severe drought; deer & rabbits eat it  Leaves move through day to minimize sun exposure  Roots: deep taproots; don’t disturb © 2005 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © 2003 Monty Rickard © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 Jojobas is really  Soils: Jojoba is gaining popularity as a drought tolerant  Texture: well-drained; sandy or water-wise shrub rocky best  pH: any local (6.0-8.0)  Really hardy – great for  Light: places that get little  Full sun to part-shade Remind you a maintenance (street  Takes hot exposures bit of olive trees! medians; roadsides)  Water:  Can be used as a small tree  Winter: no flooding, but needs  Makes wonderful water-wise good soil replenishment http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/speci hedges, screens, windbreaks es/sich.htm  Summer: best with occasional water (Zone 1-2 to 2) but can be  Informal – little or no treated as Zone 1 pruning  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Formal – clipped or hedged (after seed production)  Other: use an inorganic mulchhttp://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=3245 (crushed rock; coarse sand)  Hedgerow foundation plant © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Desert Olive: large * Desert Olive – Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens shrub or small tree?  Size:  10-15+ ft tall; mod. long-lived  12-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub/tree; lovely gray USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database bark ; moderate growth rate  Somewhat mounded shape – reminds me of Laurel Sumac – but may be almost vine-like  Densely branched, some thorny; hard wood (used for tools)  Foliage:  Winter deciduous  Bright green/gray-green leaves – yellow color in fall USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FOPUP http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=739  Roots: naturally clump-forming © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 Desert Olive is very undemanding Flowers are reminiscent of Forsythia  Soils:  Blooms:  Texture: any, but well-drained best  Spring: usually Feb/Mar. in western L.A. County – depends on  pH: any local (6.0-8.0) http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/4DMG/Trees/Shrubs/mexpriv.htm night temperatures  Light: full sun to part-shade;  Often flowers before plants leaf out – like Forsythia  Water:  Winter: needs enough for ground-  Flowers: water replenishment  Tiny and rudimentary, but lots of  Summer: regular water first year; them then Zone 1-2 to 2  Clustered along branches – quite showy & sweet-scented (like all  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils olives)  Important nectar source for  Other: tolerates heat, high winds, nectar insects (mostly native bees moderate soil salinity & butterflies)http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/forestier © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDa%20pubescens.htm http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/forestiera%20pubescens.htm Desert Olive is a true olive Can be pruned and  Family: Oleaceae (Olive Family) shaped, even hedged  trees or shrubs comprising about 30 genera and 600 species  Many members of the family are  Can be sheared to a economically significant. reasonable hedge Includes: Forestiera & http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pa  ges/forestiera%20pubescens.htm  Mix with other species in  The olive (Olea europaea) - important for mixed hedge or hedgerow http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/4DMG/Trees/Shrubs/mexpriv.htm fruit and oil  The ashes (Fraxinus) - tough wood  Forsythia, lilacs (Syringa), jasmines  Very adaptable and (Jasmonium), privets (Ligustrum), are useful – could probably valued as ornamental plants even be espaliered  Important habitat plants: food, shelter & nesting sites (pollinator insects; larval  Limit water to provide food for Hairstreaks, Sphinx Moth; better shape many birds & animals eat fruit and utilize shelter) http://tree-species.blogspot.com/2007/11/olive-tree.html  The ‘olives’ of Forestiera may sometime be an important source of olive oil. European Olive - Olea Europaea © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2640329338/in/set-72157605994561368/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2973733432/ 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 * Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes * Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes  s Channel Islands, western Sonoran Desert  CA and NW Mexico  Coastal bluffs, canyons, below 2000’ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7636,7639 © 2002 Charles E. Jones © 2010 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Baja Desert-thorn: typical Lycium Sweet little flowers  Size:  8-12 ft tall  Blooms: in spring; usually Mar-  8-12 ft wide May in our area  Growth form:  Flowers:  Large, woody shrub  Masses of small, white to purplish flowers  Mounded, densely branching © 2010 Neal Kramer (good for hedges)  Sweet and old-fashioned© 2010 Aaron Schusteff  Stout thorns  May be almost hidden by leaves  Gray-brown bark  Attract bees, butterflies  Foliage: and hummingbirds  Small, rounded leaves  Fruits:  Succulent, pale green  Like tiny tomatoes  Evergreen or drought  Abundant and showy deciduous © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16

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