Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden  Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants            Project SOUND – 2012 (o...
Hedges & HabitatWater-wise Hedges & Screens   That Provide Habitat          C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake  CSU Dominguez Hills...
What is a mixed hedge or hedgerow?                                                                            A row of tr...
Mixed hedges/hedgerows are not a new                        concept                                                       ...
What are the benefits of hedgerows?                                                  Security – keeping people/ animals  ...
What does a classical hedgerow look like?http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/Habitat/WildAcres/wahedgerows.asp   Looks lik...
But what do hedgerows have to do with urban/       suburban Los Angeles county?  http://www.barrsam.com/ww/index%20012.htm...
Can we really create hedgerows in                           urban/suburban S. California?                                 ...
In fact, our small gardens make hedgerows              even more important                                   Make the mos...
Any habitat is better                                                                                                than ...
The hedge continuum                                                            http://www.nzplantpics.com/cat_hedges.htmht...
To cut or not to cut?                                                           Many native hedge plants                 ...
The formal hedge                                                                               Often composed of a single...
The informal hedge                                                                                                 May co...
The semi-formal     hedge Rely on pruning to maintain  natural shape. Are a little bit more formal –  so appropriate for...
The S. California Garden Hedgerow                                                                                         ...
The new backyard – a clean slate                       60 ft    15 ft (2 shrubs)                               © Project S...
Steps in designing a S. California GardenHedgerow                  Draw a scale map of the area                  Do site...
‘Backbone Shrub’ – the key to a goodhedgerow              Will constitute 40 to 70% percent                              ...
Zone 2 to 2-3 – Northern Coast‘Backbone Shrub’ : Coffeeberry (Frangula/Rhamnus californica)                               ...
How dense to plant the large shrubs?                                      Principles:                                    ...
Zone 2 to 2-3 – Northern Coast                         8-9 large shrubs                                © Project SOUND
But what if we want our hedgerow to be           more drought tolerant – and local?                                       ...
Steps in designing a California BackyardHedgerow                  Draw a scale map of the area                  Do site ...
Western L.A. Co. Palette: Water Zone 2          Large shrubs: backbone candidates                Ceanothus crassifolius:...
Zone 1-2 to 2: local native backbone plants                          http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/rham  ...
Zone 1-2 to 2: local native backbone plantsCercocarpus montanus var. glaber   Prunus ilicifolia                           ...
Planning a hedgerow –             Appropriate for site/compatible                                   with other plants tak...
How do the local backbone shrubs stack up?    Ceanothus species                   Toyon – Heteromeles arbutifolia   Flowe...
How do the local backbone shrubs stack up?Mountain Mahogany - Cercocarpus              Native Cherries - Prunus ilicifolia...
Western L.A. Co. backbone shrub: Toyon                                © Project SOUND
Replacing the old (short) hedgehttp://www.jeunitedrealty.com/listing/2009-robinson-street-%7Cb-redondo-beach-s12013328    ...
How many 8-10 ft backbone shrubs?                                                                      22 fthttp://www.jeu...
How many 8-10 ft backbone shrubs?                                                                                         ...
Replacing the old (short) hedge         5 ft           6 ft                 6 ft                Toyon          Toyon or Mo...
What do we still need?Aesthetics/Human Uses                Habitat   Have                                Have       Sum...
Need 3 more local large shrubs Large shrubs                                                      Filler    Backbone    ...
Possible local filler shrubs   Local Ceanothus                               Nevin’s Barberry – Mahonia neviniiSummer Holl...
Western L.A. County Palette: Water Zone 2   • Toyon - Heteromeles arbutifolia   • Wedgeleaf Ceanothus - Ceanothus cuneatus...
Western L.A. County Palette: Water Zone 2                                  © Project SOUND
What do we still need?Aesthetics/Human Uses          Habitat Have                                Have      Summer flowe...
Western L.A. Co. Palette: smaller species                                    Other                                       ...
Zone 2 (local) backbone shrub: Toyon• Purple Sage - Salvia leucophylla• Western Yarrow - Achillea millefolia• Foothill Nee...
Zone 2 (local) backbone shrub: Toyon• Golden Currant - Ribes aureum• Purple Sage - Salvia leucophylla• Western Yarrow - Ac...
We’ve transformed the old (short) hedge•   Golden Currant: colored flowers/edible berries/contrasting foliage•    Purple S...
Placing smaller shrubs/other small plants                       Plants nearest to the large                        shrubs...
The hedgerow at Heritage Creek   Preserve         © Project SOUND
Sonoran Desert Palette: Water Zone 1-2 to 2 http://www.shannontech.com/ParkVision/JoshuaTree/JoshuaTree4.html   © Project ...
A little less water (Sonoran Desert Palette) Large shrubs                               Smaller shrubs                  ...
Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert backbone shrubshttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm Point-leaf Manzan...
*Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis© 2003 Monty Rickard                     © Project SOUND
Characteristics of Jojoba depend a bit on  the site              Size:                                      3-12 ft tall...
Jojobas is really                                           Soils:  drought tolerant                                     ...
Jojoba is gaining popularity as a                                                            water-wise shrub             ...
* Desert Olive – Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens    USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database                                         ...
Desert Olive: large                                                                          shrub or small tree?         ...
Desert Olive is very                                                                       undemanding                    ...
Flowers are reminiscent of Forsythia                                                                                      ...
Desert Olive is a true olive                                                                     Family: Oleaceae (Olive ...
Can be pruned and                                                                               shaped, even hedged       ...
* Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes© 2002 Charles E. Jones                                 © Project SOUND
* Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes                                                                           s Channel...
Baja Desert-thorn: typical Lycium                                        Size:                                          ...
Sweet little flowers                      Blooms: in spring; usually Mar-                        May in our area         ...
Uses for fruits                                                                             Decorative – plant is very   ...
Plant Requirements    Soils:                          Texture: any well-drained                          pH: any local ...
Lyciums: good in                                                                            water-wise gardens            ...
How do our backbone shrubs stack up?Pointleaf ManzanitaArctostaphylos pungens                                       Desert...
How do our backbone shrubs stack up?Baja Desert-thorn - Lycium brevipes       Jojoba - Simmondsia chinensis   Flowers: sm...
Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn - Lycium brevipes             ...
What do we still need?Aesthetics/Human Uses               Habitat Have                               Have    Summer ber...
Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert native filler shrubshttp://www.unce.unr.edu/programs/sites/nemo/lid/plantlist/plantdetails.asp?ID...
Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert filler shrubsPink Fairyduster – Calliandra eriophylla   Apache Plume - Fallugia paradoxa         ...
*Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi© 2004 James M. Andre                                  © Project SOUND
Desert Lavender is                                                                a woody shrub                           ...
Desert Lavender is a                                                           Soils:typical desert shrub                ...
Flowers are dainty                                                                        Blooms: off and on throughout  ...
Desert Lavender is popular with desert gardeners                                                                 As an at...
Desert Lavender is important for desert                   peoples – to this day                                           ...
Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lave...
* Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa                               © Project SOUND
* Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa                                                                           Desert uplan...
Apache Plume: medium-large desert shrub                                                                              Size...
Flowers and seeds are                             very showy                          Blooms: in spring – April-June in  ...
 Soils:Another desert wash plant        Texture: likes a well-drained                                  soil, but pretty ...
Managing Apache                                                                                 Plume                     ...
Gardeners are discovering                                                                               Apache Plume      ...
* Pink Fairy Duster – Calliandra eriophylla http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CAER                     ...
* Pink Fairy Duster – Calliandra eriophylla                                                                      Sonoran ...
Pink Fairyduster is a nice sized accent shrub                                                                             ...
A plant of desert washes                                     Soils:                                                      ...
Showy accent plant                                                                              As a foundation plant    ...
Shaping Fairydusters                                                                                  Have a good natural...
Placing Sonoran Desert Palette plants:               observe desert wash patterns                                         ...
Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lave...
Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lave...
But maybe pink isn’t your thing…• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lavender – Hy...
Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert filler plants: lots ofchoices                   Smaller shrubs                         Indian M...
* Chuparosa – Justicia californica© 2010 Neal Kramer                                           © Project SOUND
* Chuparosa – Justicia californica                                                       Sonoran/ Western Colorado Desert...
Chuparosa: takes some time to establish                                                                                 S...
 Blooms:Flowers are superb         Main bloom in spring : usually                            Mar-May in western L.A. cou...
Plant Requirements                                                 Soils:                                                ...
Chuparosa in the garden Often used as a showy specimen plant  in desert-themed gardens A must for hummingbird gardens A...
Justicia californica Tecate Gold               Color variants exist in nature               The ‘gold’ variants are basi...
A timeline for S. CA Garden Hedgerows                  Year 1                     Plant large shrubs (backbone & filler ...
Fillers cover, hide and provide habitat                                  © Project SOUND
*Coues Cassia – Senna covesii© 2005 Gene Wagner, RPh.                                        © Project SOUND
*Coues’ Cassia (Desert Senna) – Senna covesii                                                             Sonoran Desert ...
Habitat hedges   2012
Habitat hedges   2012
Habitat hedges   2012
Habitat hedges   2012
Habitat hedges   2012
Habitat hedges   2012
Habitat hedges   2012
Habitat hedges   2012
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Habitat hedges 2012

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This lecture was given in August, 2012 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’.

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Habitat hedges 2012

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Hedges & HabitatWater-wise Hedges & Screens That Provide Habitat C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSU Dominguez Hills & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve August 4 & 7, 2011 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. What is a mixed hedge or hedgerow?  A row of trees/shrubs & other plants that separate agricultural fields  A narrow planting strip that grows along field borders, fence lines, property boundaries and waterwayshttp://blog.histouries.co.uk/2011/03/28/hedges-and-hedgerows-in-england/  A living fence  A small ecosystem that has all the key ingredients that an animal needs to survive: food, shelter, nesting and denning sites. © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Mixed hedges/hedgerows are not a new concept  Hedgerows have long played an important role in agriculture.  Since Bronze Age people first used them to divide fields, mark property boundaries and control livestock in Europe more than 5,000 years ago, farmers around the worldhttp://www.ehow.com/info_12000999_traditional-hedge-laying.html have appreciated the benefits hedgerows provide © Project SOUND
  5. 5. What are the benefits of hedgerows?  Security – keeping people/ animals in or out  Provide privacy screens and reduce noise  Act as a windbreak  Reduce soil erosionhttp://www.ofnc.ca/trailguide/tour3_e.php  Attract beneficial insects and reduce pests  Provide foods and medicinal plants  Provide materials for crafts  Provide a backdrop for other plants  Increase plant diversity  Provide habitat © Project SOUNDhttp://www.citrona.com/nativeplanthedgerow.htm
  6. 6. What does a classical hedgerow look like?http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/Habitat/WildAcres/wahedgerows.asp Looks like a whole garden in a narrow space  Traditional hedgerows contain a complex mix of evergreen and deciduous plants, including:  Trees/Large shrubs  Smaller shrubs & sub-shrubs/ Vines and climbers  Perennial wildflowers  Grasses  Ferns/ Annual wildflowers © Project SOUND
  7. 7. But what do hedgerows have to do with urban/ suburban Los Angeles county? http://www.barrsam.com/ww/index%20012.htm © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Can we really create hedgerows in urban/suburban S. California? Yes, if we understand that:  We need to consider the appropriate scale of plants  We understand that our hedgerows will be small  We plant the right types of plants to provide the habitat values that are an essentialhttp://www.dietrick.org/projects/bbb.html component of true hedgerows In short, we need to learn how to design S. California Garden Hedgerows © Project SOUND
  9. 9. In fact, our small gardens make hedgerows even more important  Make the most of small spaces by multi-tasking  Screening  Beauty  Functional assets (food, etc)  Habitat  Make good use of limited space by:  Growing plants close togetherS. California Garden Hedgerows  Combining a number ofare essentially wide, carefully different kinds of plantsplanned and densely planted  Making optimal use ofgarden beds vertical space © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Any habitat is better than no habitat  For maximum habitat benefit, a California Backyard Hedgerow should be: http://www.wildwillowdesign.com/residential-landscape-design/featured-projects/napa-1/  At least 20 feet long – the longer the betterhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mechanoid_dolly/4922239063/  At least 8 feet wide – 10-12 ft or more is even better (consider it a large mixed bed)  Contain a mix of large shrubs, smaller shrubs/vines, flowering perennials and grasses  Feature plants native to the local area – or with similar flora/fauna © Project SOUND
  11. 11. The hedge continuum http://www.nzplantpics.com/cat_hedges.htmhttp://www.thisoldhouse.com/toh/photos/0,,1589974,00.htmlformal © Project SOUND
  12. 12. To cut or not to cut?  Many native hedge plants can be pruned or not – the choice is yours  You can even cut one sidehttp://www.ruralni.gov.uk/print/hedge-cutting.jpg and leave the other uncut  Once you choose to cut, you’re committed to cutting  Choosing to cut has consequences http://www.pcorbett.co.uk/hedge-cutting-contractor.htm © Project SOUND
  13. 13. The formal hedge  Often composed of a single type of shrub  Pruned to formal – often geometric - shapeshttp://www.hotgardens.net/hedges.htm  Maintained by regular pruning – often several times a year  Requires plants with certain characteristics:  Moderate growth rate  Densely branched  Fine-textured foliage; small leaves  Can take regular shearinghttp://blogs.move.com/do-it-green/2007/06/06/hedges-a-green-alternative-to-fences/ © Project SOUND
  14. 14. The informal hedge  May contain one or several different species of plants  Plants can differ in size, even shape.http://www.ipswich.gov.uk/Services/Greenways+Countryside+Project/Photos/The+Fonnereau+Way.htm  Are lower-maintenance  Initial shaping may be required  Yearly pruning to maintain general size, promote plant health  May be too large and unruly for home gardens © Project SOUND
  15. 15. The semi-formal hedge Rely on pruning to maintain natural shape. Are a little bit more formal – so appropriate for urban gardens. Work well with many of our native species. Need enough space in the garden to show their form. Are more forgiving; pruning is less crucial. © Project SOUND
  16. 16. The S. California Garden Hedgerow  Is designed to be in scale with local gardens:  At least 20 ft long  At least 8-10 ft wide  Uses CA native plants (at least primarily)  Usually ranges in size from large shrubs (6-10 ft tall) to groundcovers  Provides a screen  Reflects the owner’s desires in design, plant choices, formalityhttp://www.wildwillowdesign.com/residential-landscape-design/featured-projects/napa-1/ © Project SOUND
  17. 17. The new backyard – a clean slate 60 ft 15 ft (2 shrubs) © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Steps in designing a S. California GardenHedgerow  Draw a scale map of the area  Do site assessment: light, etc.  Decide on a plant palette:  N. Calif. Coast – Water Zone 2 to 2-3  Western L.A. Co. – Zone 2  Sonoran Desert – Water Zone 1-2 to 2  Choose a ‘Backbone Shrub’ species; determine number of plants needed  Choose complementary ‘Filler Shrubs’  Complete design with smaller shrubs, sub-shrubs, perennials, grasses & groundcovers © Project SOUND
  19. 19. ‘Backbone Shrub’ – the key to a goodhedgerow  Will constitute 40 to 70% percent of the mixed hedgerow  Should be selected first.  Should be a plant with:  Evergreen foliage  A good growth rate;  Nice, but neutral-looking, foliage  Pest/disease resistance  Appropriate for your site  Added value: flowers/fruit/seeds  Comparison shop before you choose  Compare 3-4 potential Backbone Shrubs before making final selection  Choose the species with the most ‘value’http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Myrica_californica.jpg © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Zone 2 to 2-3 – Northern Coast‘Backbone Shrub’ : Coffeeberry (Frangula/Rhamnus californica) © Project SOUND
  21. 21. How dense to plant the large shrubs?  Principles:  Need some overlap – no gaps  Need to insure that the death of one shrub doesn’t leave a gap  Want it to fill in as quickly as possible 4-6 ft on center  Don’t want to over-crowd species1-2 ft that normally have room to stretch  Rules of thumb:  1-2 foot overlap between adjacent mature large shrubs  Example: 8 ft wide shrubs are 4 ft radius/8 ft diameter planted 4 to 6 feet apart © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Zone 2 to 2-3 – Northern Coast 8-9 large shrubs © Project SOUND
  23. 23. But what if we want our hedgerow to be more drought tolerant – and local? http://earthfriendlylandscapes.blogspot.com/2010/07/planting-with-hedges-in-california.html No problem – we’ve got a wealth of large evergreen shrubs native tohttp://nativeson.com/annotated_catalog/qcatalog.htm western L.A. County Lemonadeberry - Rhus integrifolia © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Steps in designing a California BackyardHedgerow  Draw a scale map of the area  Do site assessment: light, etc.  Decide on a plant palette:  N. Calif. Coast – Water Zone 2 to 2-3  Western L.A. Co. – Water Zone 2  Sonoran Desert – Water Zone 1-2 to 2  Choose a ‘Backbone Shrub’ species; determine number of plants needed  Choose complementary ‘Filler Shrubs’  Complete design with smaller shrubs, sub-shrubs, perennials, grasses & groundcovers © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Western L.A. Co. Palette: Water Zone 2  Large shrubs: backbone candidates  Ceanothus crassifolius: white/gray  Ceanothus cuneatus: white/green  Ceanothus megacarpus : white/green  Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber: ins/green  Heteromeles arbutifolia: white/green  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. ilicifolia: white/green  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii: white/green © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Zone 1-2 to 2: local native backbone plants http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/rham http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/sp naceae/ceanothus/ceanothus-cuneatus/ ecies/Ceanothus_megacarpus_megacarpus.ht mCeanothus crassifolius Ceanothus cuneatus Ceanothus megacarpus http://www.flickriver.com/photos/mechanoid_dolly/sets/72157624828039022/ Heteromeles arbutifolia © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Zone 1-2 to 2: local native backbone plantsCercocarpus montanus var. glaber Prunus ilicifolia © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Planning a hedgerow –  Appropriate for site/compatible with other plants take time in planning  Size  Light  Soils  Water needs  Aesthetic considerations  Foliage characteristics: color, texture, etc.  Flowers: color, season, etc.  Fruits/seeds: color, season, etc.  Other benefits  Scent; edible; medicinal; etc.  Habitat value  What species: insects, birds, etcRemember, your hedgerow  What they provide: food, shelter,will be around for a long time nest sites, perches © Project SOUND
  29. 29. How do the local backbone shrubs stack up? Ceanothus species Toyon – Heteromeles arbutifolia Flowers: abundant, white, spring  Flowers: abundant, cream, summer Fruits: insignificant looking  Fruits: showy, red in winter Other: soap; dye  Other: dye; medicinal Aesthetic: pretty; neat,  Aesthetic: neat; nice green color; evergreen; well-known can prune to tree shape; well-known Hedge characteristics: good;  Hedge characteristics: good; dense dense & take semi-formal hedging & take formal/informal hedging Habitat: bees: good; birds: cover  Habitat: insects – good; birds – & fruits/seeds cover, nest, fruits © Project SOUND
  30. 30. How do the local backbone shrubs stack up?Mountain Mahogany - Cercocarpus Native Cherries - Prunus ilicifolia Flowers: seeds showy  Flowers: masses of white, spr/su Fruits: no  Fruits: edible cherries, fall Other: medicinal; dye  Other: fruit; medicinal; dye Aesthetic: pleasant; neutral  Aesthetic: shiny leaves, good color, background; white bark; can be pretty flowers, fruits tree-like  Hedge characteristics: excellent, Hedge characteristics: informal formal/informal, narrow screens or formal; easy to maintain  Habitat: bees – excellent; Pale Habitat: bees – excellent; birds – Swallowtail host plant; Project SOUND © birds – perch, nest, cover, seeds
  31. 31. Western L.A. Co. backbone shrub: Toyon © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Replacing the old (short) hedgehttp://www.jeunitedrealty.com/listing/2009-robinson-street-%7Cb-redondo-beach-s12013328 © Project SOUND
  33. 33. How many 8-10 ft backbone shrubs? 22 fthttp://www.jeunitedrealty.com/listing/2009-robinson-street-%7Cb-redondo-beach-s12013328 © Project SOUND
  34. 34. How many 8-10 ft backbone shrubs?  Place one shrub at each end – each 5 ft in from edge  12 feet remain 6 ft  You have room for a total of 3 plants – 6 ft planted 6 feet on 22 ft center  You might want to:  Use just a backbonehttp://www.jeunitedrealty.com/listing/2009-robinson-street-%7Cb-redondo-beach-s12013328 species for lg. shrub  Choose a filler shrub that looks similar to the backbone © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Replacing the old (short) hedge 5 ft 6 ft 6 ft Toyon Toyon or Mountain Toyon Mahogany © Project SOUND
  36. 36. What do we still need?Aesthetics/Human Uses Habitat Have  Have  Summer flowers  Summer nectar  Winter red berries  Winter fruits  Dye/medicinal plant  Good cover/nest sites Need  Need  Winter/spring color -flowers  Seeds  Colored flowers  ? Fruits:  ? Different foliage  Grass: nests; seeds; Skipper habitat © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Need 3 more local large shrubs Large shrubs  Filler  Backbone  Arctostaphylos glauca  Ceanothus spinosus  Ceanothus crassifolius: white/gray  Comarostaphylis  Ceanothus cuneatus: white/green diversifolia  Ceanothus megacarpus : white/green  Cornus glabrata  Crossosoma californicum  Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber:  Garrya veatchii ins/green  Mahonia nevinii  Laurel Sumac (Malosma  Heteromeles arbutifolia: white/green laurina) ??  Rhamnus crocea  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. ilicifolia:  Rhus integrifolia white/green  Quercus berberidifolia  Prunus ilicifolia ssp. lyonii: white/green  ? Xylococcus bicolor © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Possible local filler shrubs Local Ceanothus Nevin’s Barberry – Mahonia neviniiSummer Holly Spiny ReberryComarostaphylis diversifolia Rhamnus crocea © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Western L.A. County Palette: Water Zone 2 • Toyon - Heteromeles arbutifolia • Wedgeleaf Ceanothus - Ceanothus cuneatus • Summer Holly - Comarostaphylis diversifolia © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Western L.A. County Palette: Water Zone 2 © Project SOUND
  41. 41. What do we still need?Aesthetics/Human Uses Habitat Have  Have  Summer flowers  Winter red berries  Summer nectar  Dye/medicinal plant  Winter fruits  Winter/spring color –  Good cover/nest sites flowers  Fruits: more variety Need  Need  Colored flowers  Seeds  ? Different foliage  Grass: nests; seeds;  Mid- and low-growing Skipper habitat species © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Western L.A. Co. Palette: smaller species  Other  Achillea millefolium Smaller shrubs  Artemisia californica  Amorpha californica var. californica  Boykinia rotundifolia  Brickellia californica  Grindelia stricta var. platyphylla  Lycium californicum  Salvia spathacea  Ribes aureum  Solanum wallacei  Ribes indecorum  Solidago californica  Salvia leucophylla  Tauschia arguta  Salvia mellifera  Venegasia carpesioides  Native grasses © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Zone 2 (local) backbone shrub: Toyon• Purple Sage - Salvia leucophylla• Western Yarrow - Achillea millefolia• Foothill Needlegrass - Nassella lepida © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Zone 2 (local) backbone shrub: Toyon• Golden Currant - Ribes aureum• Purple Sage - Salvia leucophylla• Western Yarrow - Achillea millefolia• Foothill Needlegrass - Nassella lepida © Project SOUND
  45. 45. We’ve transformed the old (short) hedge• Golden Currant: colored flowers/edible berries/contrasting foliage• Purple Sage : scented foliage (herb) /colored flowers/nectar/seeds/ gray foliage• Western Yarrow: flowers/beneficial insects/seeds/medicinal © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Placing smaller shrubs/other small plants  Plants nearest to the large shrubs should overlap the large shrubs – 1 ft overlap – you will prune these as if they are an extension of the large shrubs  Plants further from the large shrubs can be spaced further apart or overlapped – depends on the plants and your personal taste © Project SOUND
  47. 47. The hedgerow at Heritage Creek Preserve © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Sonoran Desert Palette: Water Zone 1-2 to 2 http://www.shannontech.com/ParkVision/JoshuaTree/JoshuaTree4.html © Project SOUND
  49. 49. A little less water (Sonoran Desert Palette) Large shrubs  Smaller shrubs  Abutilon palmeri  Backbone  Acalypha californica  Arctostaphylos pungens  Encelia farinosa  Forestiera pubescens var.  Justicia californica pubescens  Sphaeralcea ambigua  Lycium brevipes  Simmondsia chinensis  Other  Filler  Ericameria nauseosa  Calliandra eriophylla  Geraea canescens  Fallugia paradoxa  Mirabilis multiflora vars glandulosa and pubescens  Hyptis emoryi  Nolina bigelovii  Lycium andersonii  Penstemon eatonii  Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia  Penstemon palmeri  Prunus andersonii  Viguiera parishii © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert backbone shrubshttp://www.delange.org/ManzanitaPointleaf/ManzanitaPointleaf.htm Point-leaf Manzanita Jojoba - Simmondsia chinensis Arctostaphylos pungens Lycium brevipes http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result. http://seedsofsuccess.smugmug.com/keyword/pubescens/1/11 php?id_image=1004 53460478_2UbVe#!i=279467734&k=Y7pqc Desert Olive - Forestiera pubescens © Project SOUND
  51. 51. *Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis© 2003 Monty Rickard © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Characteristics of Jojoba depend a bit on the site  Size:  3-12 ft tall (usually 6-10 ft)  6-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Large woody shrub or small tree (larger forms in wetter sites)  Many branches; dense – provides good cover  Foliage:  Thick, leathery gray-green leaves  Evergreen except in severe drought; deer & rabbits eat it  Leaves move through day to minimize sun exposure  Roots: deep taproots; don’t disturb© 2005 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Jojobas is really  Soils: drought tolerant  Texture: well-drained; sandy or rocky best  pH: any local (6.0-8.0)  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Takes hot exposures  Water:  Winter: no flooding, but needs good soil replenishment  Summer: best with occasional water (Zone 1-2 to 2) but can be treated as Zone 1  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: use an inorganic mulchhttp://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=3245 (crushed rock; coarse sand) © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Jojoba is gaining popularity as a water-wise shrub  Really hardy – great for places that get little Remind you a maintenance (street bit of olive trees! medians; roadsides)  Can be used as a small treehttp://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/speci  Makes wonderful water-wise hedges, screens, windbreakses/sich.htm  Informal – little or no pruning  Formal – clipped or hedged (after seed production)  Hedgerow foundation plant © Project SOUND
  55. 55. * Desert Olive – Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Desert Olive: large shrub or small tree?  Size:  10-15+ ft tall; mod. long-lived  12-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub/tree; lovely gray USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database bark ; moderate growth rate  Somewhat mounded shape – reminds me of Laurel Sumac – but may be almost vine-like  Densely branched, some thorny; hard wood (used for tools)  Foliage:  Winter deciduous  Bright green/gray-green leaves – yellow color in fallhttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=FOPUPhttp://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=739  Roots: naturally clump-forming © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Desert Olive is very undemanding  Soils:  Texture: any, but well-drained best  pH: any local (6.0-8.0)  Light: full sun to part-shade;  Water:  Winter: needs enough for ground- water replenishment  Summer: regular water first year; then Zone 1-2 to 2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: tolerates heat, high winds, moderate soil salinityhttp://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo © Project SOUND%20Pages/forestiera%20pubescens.htm
  58. 58. Flowers are reminiscent of Forsythia  Blooms:  Spring: usually Feb/Mar. in western L.A. County – depends on http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/4DMG/Trees/Shrubs/mexpriv.htm night temperatures  Often flowers before plants leaf out – like Forsythia  Flowers:  Tiny and rudimentary, but lots of them  Clustered along branches – quite showy & sweet-scented (like all olives)  Important nectar source for nectar insects (mostly native bees & butterflies) © Project SOUNDhttp://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/forestiera%20pubescens.htm
  59. 59. Desert Olive is a true olive  Family: Oleaceae (Olive Family)  trees or shrubs comprising about 30 genera and 600 species  Many members of the family are economically significant. Includes: Forestiera & http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo %20Pages/forestiera%20pubescens.htm   The olive (Olea europaea) - important for fruit and oil  The ashes (Fraxinus) - tough wood  Forsythia, lilacs (Syringa), jasmines (Jasmonium), privets (Ligustrum), are valued as ornamental plants  Important habitat plants: food, shelter & nesting sites (pollinator insects; larval food for Hairstreaks, Sphinx Moth; many birds & animals eat fruit and utilize shelter)http://tree-species.blogspot.com/2007/11/olive-tree.html  The ‘olives’ of Forestiera may sometime be an important source of olive oil.European Olive - Olea Europaea © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Can be pruned and shaped, even hedged  Can be sheared to a reasonable hedge  Mix with other species in mixed hedge or hedgerowhttp://www.coopext.colostate.edu/4DMG/Trees/Shrubs/mexpriv.htm  Very adaptable and useful – could probably even be espaliered  Limit water to provide better shape © Project SOUND http://flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2640329338/in/set-72157605994561368/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2973733432/
  61. 61. * Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes© 2002 Charles E. Jones © Project SOUND
  62. 62. * Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes  s Channel Islands, western Sonoran Desert  CA and NW Mexico  Coastal bluffs, canyons, below 2000’ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7636,7639© 2010 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Baja Desert-thorn: typical Lycium  Size:  8-12 ft tall  8-12 ft wide  Growth form:  Large, woody shrub  Mounded, densely branching (good for hedges)© 2010 Aaron Schusteff  Stout thorns  Gray-brown bark  Foliage:  Small, rounded leaves  Succulent, pale green  Evergreen or drought deciduous © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Sweet little flowers  Blooms: in spring; usually Mar- May in our area  Flowers:  Masses of small, white to© 2010 Neal Kramer purplish flowers  Sweet and old-fashioned  May be almost hidden by leaves  Attract bees, butterflies and hummingbirds  Fruits:  Like tiny tomatoes  Abundant and showy © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Uses for fruits  Decorative – plant is very pretty when fruiting  Birds love the fruits – you’ll know when they’re ripe  Human uses: http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Lycium_brevipes.html  Dried  Fresh, as a snack  Cooked for tomato-like sauces © Project SOUNDhttp://www.abdnha.org/pages/03flora/family/solanaceae/lycium_brevipes.htm
  66. 66. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun  Fine with reflected heat  Water:  Winter: be sure it gets good winter moisture  Summer: best with occasional water – Zone 1-2 to 2 will keep it green  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic mulch (gravel; DG; crushed rock; etc.) © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Lyciums: good in water-wise gardens  For tall hedges, hedgerows and screens: semi-formal to informal (can be pruned to shape; even hedge-trimmed)  Pruned up as a small tree http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Lycium_brevipes.html  Good shrub for attracting wide range of wildlife:  Nectar  Fruits  Dense cover, nesting sites © Project SOUNDhttp://www.desertmuseumdigitallibrary.org/public/detail.php?id=ASDM08603
  68. 68. How do our backbone shrubs stack up?Pointleaf ManzanitaArctostaphylos pungens Desert Olive - Forestiera pubescens  Flowers: yellow; spring; sweet Flowers: white; early spring  Fruits: edible olives (need M/F) Fruits: edible berries; pretty  Other: Other: medicinal; dye  Aesthetic: attractive shape, Aesthetic: attractive form, bark; pretty big foliage; ?? Mixed with others  Hedge characteristics: informal Hedge characteristics: informal, to semi-formal semi-formal  Habitat: very important habitat Habitat: bird – hummingbirds, for wide range of insect and fruit, cover, nest sites bird species © Project SOUND
  69. 69. How do our backbone shrubs stack up?Baja Desert-thorn - Lycium brevipes Jojoba - Simmondsia chinensis Flowers: small, purple - spring  Flowers: insig./ insects Fruits: edible, tomato-like (small)  Fruits: not really showy; edible Other: edible berries  Other: medicinal Aesthetic: striking berries; a bit  Aesthetic: nice color and shape – informal looking like an shrubby olive tree Hedge characteristics: best left  Hedge characteristics: excellent semi-formal for berries – formal to informal Habitat: excellent for insects,  Habitat: excellent for insects, fruit/insect-eating birds birds, small animals © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn - Lycium brevipes © Project SOUND
  71. 71. What do we still need?Aesthetics/Human Uses Habitat Have  Have  Summer berries – red  Cover/nesting sites  Edible fruits  Summer fruits/fall nuts Need  Spring nectar plants  Spring/summer flower color  Need  Scented flowers/foliage  Seeds  More edibles  More larval food sources  More foliage variability (butterflies & moths)  Mid- to low height range  More nectar/pollen sources © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert native filler shrubshttp://www.unce.unr.edu/programs/sites/nemo/lid/plantlist/plantdetails.asp?ID=38 http://wolf.mind.net/swsbm/Images/New10-2003.html Prunus andersonii Lycium andersonii © 1998 Larry Blakely http://www.andydownunder.com/nature_profiles?id=129 Hyptis emoryi © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert filler shrubsPink Fairyduster – Calliandra eriophylla Apache Plume - Fallugia paradoxa © Project SOUND
  74. 74. *Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi© 2004 James M. Andre © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Desert Lavender is a woody shrub  Size:  3-8+ ft tall  3-8+ ft wide  Growth form:  In nature (with little water) a compact, branching upright shrub  Drought-deciduous to evergreen  Gray bark  Slow growth (with little water  Foliage:  White-green to gray green; hairy  Simple leaves; lavender scent when crushed or after rainhttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/violets/violet10.html © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Desert Lavender is a  Soils:typical desert shrub  Texture: must be well- drained; sandy or rocky  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun needed for dense foliage  Tolerates reflected heat – good for very hot place in garden  Water:  Once established, give occasional water (Zone 1-2)  Withhold water in late summer/fall  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilshttp://caornamentalnativeplants.org/desert_lavender.jpg © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Flowers are dainty  Blooms: off and on throughout the year, but most heavily in spring  Flowers:  Tiny; in clusters  Lavender to purple; typical shape for Mint family  Scented of lavender  A bee, butterfly & hummingbird magnet!!  Seeds: small; plant in spring – no treatment © 2004 James M. Andrehttp://www.delange.org/Lavender/Lavender.htm © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Desert Lavender is popular with desert gardeners  As an attractive accent shrub near patios and walks  In a habitat garden; try it as an informal or sheared hedge  As a delightful addition to the ‘Evening Garden’ – color & scent make it attractive day & night http://www.delange.org/Lavender/Lavender.htm © Project SOUNDhttp://www.mswn.com/Plant%20Info%20Sheets/Hyptis%20emoryi.pdf
  79. 79. Desert Lavender is important for desert peoples – to this day  Dried foliage used to make a calming tea, season foods  Infusions of flowers and leaves used for inflammatory and infectious conditions  A poultice of crushed leaves makes an antibacterial dressing for wounds  ‘Fragrant natural cleansing bar, with the healing qualities of Desert Lavender (Hyptis emoryi) and organic jojoba oil extracted from the seeds of Simmondsia—both native to the desert Southwest--partner here with the best French lavender essence to achieve moisturizing aromatherapy as youhttp://www.flordemayoarts.com/pages/soapinfolavender.html bathe.’  Dried foliage has been used instead of mothballs - fragrance is said to repel moths © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi © Project SOUND
  81. 81. * Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa © Project SOUND
  82. 82. * Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa  Desert uplands from 3,500 to 7,500 feet  Throughout all four south-western deserts -- Mojave, Chihuahuan, Great Basin, and Sonoran  In CA, Joshua Tree Woodland, Pinyon-Juniper Woodlandhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6721,6722  Fallugia is a monotypic genus of shrub containing the single species Fallugia paradoxa  Introduced into cultivation in California by Theodore Payne; Avail even through Monrovia Nursery © 2009 Lee Dittmann © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Apache Plume: medium-large desert shrub  Size:  4-8+ ft tall  5-10+ ft wide  Growth form:  Semi-evergreen to evergreen – depends on water  Mounded form; many shrubby G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database slender branches – good cover for birds, etc.  Shreddy gray-brown bark  Foliage:  Small, deeply-lobed leaves  ‘fine textured’ appearance – looks good with other shrubs  Roots: spreads by root suckeringPatrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database with abundant waterProject SOUND © © 2007 Jason E. Willand
  84. 84. Flowers and seeds are very showy  Blooms: in spring – April-June in our area  Flowers:  Give a good clue that this plant is in the Rose family  2 inch pure white flowers like a wild rose – ooh la la  Like a rose, attracts many insects (butterflies, bees, etc.)  Seeds:© 2010 James M. Andre  Have fluffy tails – very showy on the plant  Fade from pink to gold as they mature © Project SOUND
  85. 85.  Soils:Another desert wash plant  Texture: likes a well-drained soil, but pretty adaptable  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade – perfect for hedgerow  Water:  Winter: supplement if needed  Summer: likes occasional © 2009 Lee Dittmann summer water, but very drought tolerant when established – Water Zone 1-2 to 2 (about once a month)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic mulch or very thin organic© 2006 Heath McAllister © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Managing Apache Plume  Prune in late fall/winter  Prune to shape & promote blooms (blooms on new growth)http://desertedge.blogspot.com/2011/06/plant-trinity-abq-to-el-paso.html  Selective deep pruning of old branches (3 years or older)  Shortening of younger ones (up to ½ of length)  Hedge pruning/tip pruning in summer – makes it neater, too  Prune to rejuvenate  Cut oldest woody stems to the ground to rejuvenate © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Gardeners are discovering Apache Plume  As an accent plant in desert- themed gardens for beauty & habitat value  As a foundation shrub  In informal hedges/hedgerows © 2002 Gary A. Monroe  In very hot, dry situations (parking lots; roadways) http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/fallugia-paradoxa© 2003 Charles E. Jones http://www.nazflora.org/Fallugia_paradoxa.htm © Project SOUND
  88. 88. * Pink Fairy Duster – Calliandra eriophylla http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CAER © Project SOUND
  89. 89. * Pink Fairy Duster – Calliandra eriophylla  Sonoran Desert from CA & Baja to W. Texas  Dry, gravelly slopes & mesas ; often in beds of intermittent streams, bajadas, washes, etc. - rocky, sandy  In Spanish, Cabeza de angel refers to an angels head or angels hairhttp://www.graniteseed.com/seeds/seed.php?id=Calliandra_eriophylla http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/i_and_i/flowers/fairy_duster/fairy_duster.html © Project SOUND http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CAER
  90. 90. Pink Fairyduster is a nice sized accent shrub  Size:  3-5+ ft tall (depends on water)  4-6+ ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub  Mounded/upright to sprawling; can grow around existinghttp://www.public.asu.edu/~camartin/plants/Plant%20html%20files/calliandraeriophylla.html shrubs  Light-colored bark  Foliage:  Bright to medium green  Binnately pinnate – small pinna (like Acacia)  Roots: nitrogen-fixing bacteria; rhizomatous – will slowly spread © 2005 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy http://www.fourdir.com/p_fairy_duster.htm © Project SOUND
  91. 91. A plant of desert washes  Soils:  Texture: loves sandy/rocky soils but fine in any well-drained  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun for best flowering  Will take light shade  Water:  Winter: needs adequate  Summer:  Best looking with occasional water (Zone 1-2 or 2) but very drought tolerant  Some water in Aug.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; inorganic mulch Glenn and Martha Vargas © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Showy accent plant  As a foundation plant  A water-wise accent shrub  As an informal hedge – or for erosion control on slopes  Even in large containers  Consider for Asian or Desert- http://www.flickr.com/photos/36517976@N06/4307505066/ themed gardens © Project SOUNDhttp://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Calliandra_eriophylla.html
  93. 93. Shaping Fairydusters  Have a good natural shape – can leave as is  Tip-prune during growing season to produce fuller shrub  Lightly prune to shape in late springhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/36517976@N06/4307505066/ http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/caleri.htm SOUND © Projecthttp://www.avondale.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=1346&return=b_aC
  94. 94. Placing Sonoran Desert Palette plants: observe desert wash patterns  Notable patterns:  Masses of plants contrast other plant masses  Colorhttp://www.biology.ed.ac.uk/archive/jdeacon/desbiome/sonoran.htm  Evergreen vs. deciduous  Simplicity  Spacing to conserve water © Project SOUNDhttp://localism.com/az/phoenix/sonoran_foothills
  95. 95. Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi• Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa• Pink Fairyduster – Calliandra eriophylla © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Zone 1-2 (Sonoran) backbone shrub: Jojoba• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi• Apache Plume – Fallugia paradoxa• Pink Fairyduster – Calliandra eriophylla © Project SOUND
  97. 97. But maybe pink isn’t your thing…• Jojoba – Simmondsia chinensis• Baja Desert-thorn – Lycium brevipes• Desert Lavender – Hyptis emoryi © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Zone 1-2: Sonoran Desert filler plants: lots ofchoices  Smaller shrubs  Indian Mallow - Abutilon palmeri  California Copperleaf -Acalypha californica  Desert Encelia - Encelia farinosa  Rabbitbush - Ericameria nauseosa  Chuparosa - Justicia californica  Desert Mallow - Sphaeralcea ambigua  Other  Coues’/Desert Senna – Cassia covesii  Geraea canescens  Mirabilis multiflora vars glandulosa and pubescens  Nolina bigelovii  Penstemon eatonii  Penstemon palmeri © Project SOUND
  99. 99. * Chuparosa – Justicia californica© 2010 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  100. 100. * Chuparosa – Justicia californica  Sonoran/ Western Colorado Desert plant: CA, AZ & N. Mexico  Dry, sandy or rocky soils, washes from 1000-4000 ft elevation  Introduced into cultivation in California byhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?JUCA8 Theodore Payne.  AKA: Beloperone; Hummingbird Bush http://agentmary.wordpress.com/category/california-sights/ Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Chuparosa: takes some time to establish  Size:  3-6 ft tall  4-8+ ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded sub-shrub from a woody basehttp://www.solano.watersavingplants.com/eplant.php?plantnum=2065&return=l8_p2  Stems green, becoming gray/hairy  Takes 4-5 years to ‘fill out’  Foliage:  Bright green succulent leaves in spring  Cold & drought deciduous – usually leafless most of the year in nature© 2002 Charles E. Jones © Project SOUND
  102. 102.  Blooms:Flowers are superb  Main bloom in spring : usually Mar-May in western L.A. county  Blooms off and on through fall with rains/irrigation  Flowers: hummingbird flowers  Tubular, red (may be orange or even yellow)  Lots of them along the stems  Attract hummingbirds like magnets – let the battles begin!  Sparrows bite off the flowers and eat the nectar-filled bases  Flowers edible: raw or cooked – taste ‘cucumber-like’  Seeds:  No pre-treatment needed to© 2010 Neal Kramer grow from seed © Project SOUND
  103. 103. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained/sandy soils best, but tolerant  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun; if using in a hedgerow, plant on the south of west- facing side  Water:  Winter: supplement if needed; don’t over-water clays  Summer: likes occasional water – Zone 1-2 to 2 (will become very large with more water)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic mulch bestJ. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Chuparosa in the garden Often used as a showy specimen plant in desert-themed gardens A must for hummingbird gardens As a filler plant in a low-water hedgerow In large pots/containers © Project SOUND
  105. 105. Justicia californica Tecate Gold  Color variants exist in nature  The ‘gold’ variants are basically like the standard red-flowered species, but with yellow flowers  Look for more variants in the future © Project SOUND http://www.huntingtonbotanical.org/WhatsInBloom/april07/Page4.html
  106. 106. A timeline for S. CA Garden Hedgerows  Year 1  Plant large shrubs (backbone & filler shrubs)  Plant cover species: grasses, annuals, herbaceous groundcovers  Weed, weed, weed  Selective pruning: health; fullness in fast-growing species  Year 2-4  Replace large shrubs if needed  Add smaller species as hedgerow size/shape is revealed  Weed, weed  Prune for fullness during growth season © Project SOUND
  107. 107. Fillers cover, hide and provide habitat © Project SOUND
  108. 108. *Coues Cassia – Senna covesii© 2005 Gene Wagner, RPh. © Project SOUND
  109. 109. *Coues’ Cassia (Desert Senna) – Senna covesii  Sonoran Desert (San Diego, Imperial, Riverside, San Bernardino Co.), NV, AZ, N. Mexico  Dry, sandy desert washes, slopes from 1,000 to 3,500 feet elevation  Named after Dr. Elliott Coues 1842-1899, noted ornithologist who was stationed by the U.S. government at Fort Whipple in 1864, author ofhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4205,4207 Birds of the Colorado Valley Robert Potts © California Academy of Sciences http://www.nazflora.org/Senna_covesii.htm © Project SOUND

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