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Gardening on sand 2009a


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This lecture was given in August, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Gardening on sand 2009a

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Gardening on Sand August 1st & 4th 2009 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Our mission: to make this garden more water-wise © Project SOUND
  4. 4. What is a sandy soil?  Soil: a combination of sand, silt, clay, minerals and organic matter that also contains some air and water.  Clay soils are sometimes referred to as heavy soils and sandy soils are called light.  Sandy soils contain high proportions (60% or more) of larger (sand) particles. Many ‘sandy soils’ are actually sandy loams – wonderful garden soils © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Tests for sandy soil: sedimentation test  Fill a quart jar 2/3 full with water  Add dry soil (break up clods) until water is within 1” of top of jar.  Put the lid on the jar and shake it energetically until everything is swirling around. Then set it aside and let it settle, and mark layers until the water clears.  The layers indicate just how much sand, silt and clay make up your soil. © Project SOUND
  6. 6. The sedimentation  Sand Layer: settles in 1-2 minutesprocess  Allow suspended soil to settle for about a minute.  Mark the side of the jar at the top of the layer that has settled out.  Silt Layer: settles in 1 hour  Set jar aside, being careful not to mix the sand layer; wait ~ an hour.  Mark the top of the Silt Layer on the side of the jar.  Clay layer: settles in ~24 hours  Set jar aside, being careful not to shake or mix the layers that have settled out.  After 24 hours, or when the water is clear (more or less), mark the jar at the The percentage of top of the clay layer. each layer tells you what kind of soil you  Most of the organic matter will be have. floating on the top of the water © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Sandy Soils  Sandy soils are found throughout Southern California, but are very common near the mountain foothills, along rivers and streams, in desert areas and certain coastal areas.  Sandy soils are typically comprised of approximately 80 - 100% sand, 0 - 10% silt and 0 - 10% clay by volume.  Sandy soils are light and typically very free draining, usually holding water very poorly due to very low organic content.  You may want to concentrate on plants that thrive in sandy soils © Project SOUND
  8. 8.  Are also common in SouthernLoam Soils California, particularly in the valleys and flat areas (flood plains) surrounding rivers and streams.  Loam soils are typically comprised of approximately 25 - 50% sand, 30 - 50% silt and 10 - 30% clay by volume.  Loam soils are somewhat heavier than sandy soils  Tend to be fairly free draining, again, due to typically low organic content.  A wide range of plants grow well in loamy soils1:1:1 soils © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Challenges of local sandy soils  Poor moisture retention: Because it retains moisture poorly, plants in sandy soil suffer from drying out quickly  Heat stress: Sandy soil does not moderate heat as well as other soils. It heats up quickly during the day and cools rapidly at night, stressing plants and making it difficult for tender seedlings to thrive.  Infertility: Sandy soil usually does not contain much organic matter, and what is there breaks down more quickly than it does in other types of sandy-garden-soil.html soil, especially in warm climates. Soluble nutrients quickly leach out with rain and irrigation.Fortunately, native plants  pH: coastal and desert sands may be alkalifrom sandy soil regions (pH > 8.0)are well adapted to all ofthese conditions  Rooting: Takes a while for roots to gain enough ‘purchase’ to support larger plants © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Benefits of sandy soils  Easier to plant in  Harder to overwater; less susceptible to ‘El Nino disasters’  Roots grow easily in loose soils  Some native plants are specifically adapted to sandy or rocky soils – these will thrive in your sandy soil! © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Keys to succeeding with sandy soils1. Plant with the rains2. Use the Water Zone system to group plants3. Choose appropriate plants4. Start out with small plants5. Mulch – with appropriate mulch6. Water correctly; monitor7. If fertilizing, low dose & more often © Project SOUND
  12. 12. 1. Plant with the rains in sandy soils  Why plant with the rains?  Saves water – soils are naturally moist during the critical first few months  Vulnerable plants get the best water possible  Vulnerable plants are not exposed to temperature extremes  Soils are well-saturated – promotes deep/wide root growth  Coincides with native plant’s normal growth cycle; plants are primed to grow at this time © Project SOUND
  13. 13. 2. Group your plants according to Water Zones © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Gardens in Mediterranean climates(including S. CA) have three Water Zones Zone 1 – no supplemental water; soils are dry in summer/fall. May or may not be planted. Zone 2 – occasional summer water; soil is allowed to dry out between waterings Zone 3 – regular water; soil is usually moist to soggy, even in summer. © Project SOUND
  15. 15. The secret of a water-wise garden is to prioritize water needs and group plants with similar requirements Regular waterPretty drydrought-tolerantplants ‘Water-wise’ ; occasional summer water © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Your Water Zone plan directs many other decisions in your garden plan  Choice of plants  Soil amending (if any)  Use/type of mulch  Frequency of watering  Type of ‘irrigation system’ © Project SOUND
  17. 17. This yard has some natural Water Zones Zone 3 – regularly watered © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Amending sandy soils: yes or no?  The best way to amend is with composted organic material  Good/necessary choice for:  Vegetable gardens  Non-native plants  Problems (for native plants)  May change soil pH  Increases nutrient levels – may be too high for many natives  Not needed – many natives are fine with most local sandy soils © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Selective amendment for special areas  Raised beds for vegetable gardens  Planters & pots  Selective amendment of Zone 3 beds © Project SOUND
  20. 20. 3. Choose plants that thrive in sandy soils © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Areas with plants adapted to sandy soils  Local areas:  Coastal strand/sandy bluffs  Coastal Prairie/shrubland  Southern coast (San Diego Co.) & Baja  Northern coast  Particularly good for groundcover plants  Plants will need a little extra water  S. CA deserts © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Beach Bluffs Restoration Project © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Strand/Bluff plants: Zone 1 with some dry-season fog; many are OK with Zones 1 to 2 in sandy soils  Dune Buckwheat  Deervetch  CA poppy  as well as some low-lying plants found mostly quite near the shore:  Red Sand Verbena  Silver Beach Burr  Pacific Cinquefoil  others listed for ‘seaside conditions’ © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Coastal Marsh plants are Zone 2 to 3 plants unique to our low-lying coastal area Many unique plants that can tolerate sandy soils, salt spray & saltwater, flooding Characteristics: short, spreading; mostly herbaceous perennials; can be used alone or as mixed groundcovers © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Contouring for water management andconservation  Small elevation changes (1-3 ft.) in a landscape can work wonders:  Provide a greater range of Water Zones: high areas will be drier – low areas wetter  Allow local native plants to be grown in clay soils – provide better drainage  Allow good use of seasonal rainfall – channel rainwater into depressions (water gardens) or swales © Project SOUND
  26. 26. This yard has some natural Zone 3 areas Could capture more water from the roof Zone 3 – regularly watered © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Salty Susan/ Fleshy Jaumea – Jaumea carnosa © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Salty Susan/ Marsh Jaumea – Jaumea carnosa  Coastal region from British Columbia to N. Baja  Always found in marshy or moist places:  Margins of coastal salt marshes and tidal flats where there is protection from wave action  Coastal strand  Bases of sea cliffs  Named after Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire (1772-,1464,1465 1845), a French botanist & artist who was interested in practical uses of native plants © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Salty Susan is one of several local native coastal groundcovers  Size:  low – generally < 1 ft tall  spreading to 3-5+ ft wide  Growth form:  Low, herbaceous perennial groundcover  Foliage:  Fleshy, succulent  gray-green or blue-green color  Leaves narrow – somewhat like some iceplants  Roots: Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences  Spreads via rhizomes © Project SOUND
  30. 30. The flowers are a surprise!  Blooms: spring/summer; usually May-Sept in W. L.A. County  Flowers:  Typical for Sunflower family – many flowers in heads  Both ray & disk flowers are bright yellow  Plants are dioecious – separate male & female plants  Great nectar & pollen source – attracts many insects  Seeds:  Small – Sunflower-like – on female plants  Eaten by birds © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Salty Susan grows on  Soils:  Texture: sandy to clay marsh edges  pH: any local including alkali (pH > 8.0)  Fine with salty soils, seaside conditions; roots exclude salt  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs goo winter water – takes some flooding  Summer: likes a moist soil best – Water Zones 2 to 3  Would be fine with sprinkler overflow, or water from a neighbor’s yard  Fertilizer: none needed; likes © 2008 R.C. Brody poor soils, but light fertilizer won’t kill it © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Salty Susan is a true native groundcover  A replacement for Ice Plant on sandy soils, banks  In naturally wet areas of the garden  Low spots that get very moist in winter  Under birdbath; near ponds  Edges of irrigated areas  As an unusual pot/planter plant  As an excellent addition to a coastal habitat garden © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Grow Salty Susan with other local natives associates for a mixed goundcover  Grasses:  Saltgrass – Distichlis spicata  Thingrass – Agrostis pallens  Carex (sedge) species  Perennial creepers:  Stachys (Woodmints)  Achillea (Yarrow)  Artemisias  Fragaria (strawberry)  And others (see Sandy Soils list) © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Local native plants from Coastal Prairie/scrublands are naturals for Zone 1 to 2 Zone 3 – regularly watered © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Use the Preserve & gardens as sources of inspiration © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Many local native grasses thrive on sandy soils… Thin grass – Agrostis pallens © Project SOUND
  37. 37. ….and don’t forget our annual wildflowers Fiddlenecks Coastal Tidytips Blue Dicks Redmaids Goldfields Miniature Lupine © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Hairy (Coastal) Gumplant – Grindelia hirsutula © 2005 Doreen L. Smith Grindelia hirsutula var. hirsutula © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Hairy (Coastal) Gumplant – Grindelia hirsutula © 2008 Jorg Fleige Grindelia hirsutula var. maritima © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Hairy (Coastal) Gumplant – Grindelia hirsutula  Var. hisutula – coastal, including western L.A. Co., coast near Santa Monica Mtns. var. hirsutula  Var. maritima – north & central CA coast  Both:  Coastal areas; sea bluffs and slopes  Sandy soils var. maritima © Project SOUND,1255,1260,1264
  41. 41. Hairy Gumplant - an herbaceous perennial  Size:  1-3 ft tall (v. maritima 1-2 ft)  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; dies back in fall  Many slender stems from woody rootstock  May be upright or more leaning (maritima)  Foliage:  Blue-green, tinged with red, purple or yellow  More refined-looking than other Grindelia species© 2000 Joseph Dougherty/ © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Flowers are pure gold  Blooms: spring-summer – usually June-Aug in S. Bay  Flowers:  Typical sunflower heads with well-developed ray flowers (maritima has more ray flowers)  Bright golden yellow  Profuse bloomer – even with little summer water  Pollinator magnets!! © 2008 Jorg Fleige  Seeds:  Small, but edible  Birds love them!  Vegetative reproduction: not a real spreader © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Grindelias are useful plants as well  Native American kids chewed the ‘gum’ – latex probably protects young flower buds from predation  Tea from flowers/leaves used for coughs – don’t over-use  Tincture (in alcohol) for skin itches, poison oak  Flowers for green or yellow natural dyes © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Hairy Gumplant – a natural for the perennial bed  At back of mixed flowers beds  Along walls, fences  Fine on slopes  Easy, adaptable & hardy © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Coastal Groundcover Gum Plant - Grindelia stricta venulosa  A.K.A Grindelia arenicola, G.a. pachyphylla, G.s. procumbens  Coastal bluff plant from the bay area.  Low growing - < 1 ft.; spreads nicely as a ground cover  Mix with Baccharis Pigeon Point and Penstemon Margarita BOP on coastal slopes  Likes some summer water – Zone 2 to 2-3; good near Zone 3 areas © Project SOUND
  46. 46. California/Big Gum PlantGrindelia camporum var. bracteosa © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Include Gumplants in your garden because of..  Attractive flowers Mar-Oct  Balsamic aroma  Tolerates any soil – well- drained is best  Drought tolerance; but can take some extra water  Easy to grow  Highly attractive for  Bees  Butterflies  Other insects (beetles; other unusual insects)  Birds (seeds) © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Managing Gum Plants is easy  Requires little water while blooming – Zone 1-2 to 2  Cut back in fall to shape – can tolerate heavy pruning  Some species are self- incompatible – so plant more than one plant for seed production  Other than that, require little care © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Watering in sandy soils is different 1. Know your soil’s drainage properties (the perc test) 2. Use appropriate mulch (organic or inorganic) to: 1. Decrease water loss 2. Minimize soil heating 3. Water for longer periods & less often 1. Use droplet type sprinklers, drip, trickle, soaker hose 2. Aim for 45 min-1 hr per session (to 1 inch water) 3. Encourage deep rooting 4. Monitor your soil moisture, particularly in hot, windy weather © Project SOUND
  50. 50. How fast is the drainage in your sandy soil? – conduct a ‘perc test’  Soil texture/Drainage Soil type Approximate time to drain Hard-pan or days sodic soils Clay 3-12 hours Loam 20-60 minutes dig hole 1 ft x 1 ft Sandy Loam 10-30 minutes fill with water and let drain Sand cant fill the fill hole again, measure hole, drains time for water to drain too fast © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Some areas are naturals for Zone 1 Hot, dry & difficult to waterThere are a wide range of local, S. coast & desert perennials/shrubs © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Desert Mallow – Sphaeralcea ambigua © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Desert Mallow – Sphaeralcea ambigua  Southwestern U.S. including CA, Nevada, Utah, Arizona to Mexico  Dry, rocky slopes, canyon walls & sandy wash edges  Creosote bush scrub, pinyon-juniper woodland, both deserts (Mojave & Sonoran) © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Desert Mallow is really an attractive sub-shrub  Size:  to 3 ft tall (to 5 ft. with water)  to 3 ft wide  Growth form:  Sub-shrub – partly woody  Mounded to slightly sprawling form – many thin, wand-like branches  Short-lived – but will reseed  Foliage:  Gray-green; velvety soft  Leaf shape is typical mallow.  Many people are allergic to the Desert Mallow; often called "Hierba Muy Mala" in SpanishFoliage is good Desert Tortoise food © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Flowers remind one of Hollyhocks  Blooms:  Spring is usual bloom season (Mar-May), following rains  May bloom off and on throughout year in garden  Flowers:  Showy mallow blooms along the stems  Color- usually ‘apricot’ (another name is Apricot Mallow), but differs with variety  Nectar & pollen attract butterflies, hummingbirds, any other insects © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Flowers of many colors…. var. rosacea vars ambigua & monticola © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Desert Mallow is easy…  Soils:  Texture: sandy or rocky – needs good drainage  pH: any local, including alkali  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: plant in winter; be sure it gets adequate winter water  Summer: Zone 2-3 for first year; Zone 1-2 to 2 thereafter. Blooms more with water.  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; use inorganic mulch  Other: Cut back to 6” every year or so – wear protection! © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Desert Mallow is versatile in the garden  Lovely addition to mixed beds – place appropriate for size  Excellent for water-wise garden, particularly in sandy/rocky soils; most drought-tolerant Sphaeralcea  Good for desert-themed gardens  Good choice for containers  Great on dry slopes, hot gardens; not for very foggy areas  Protect roots from gophers (cage) if present © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Considerations when choosing Globemallows (Sphaeralceas) & other Mallows  Choose when in bloom; wide variety of flower color, leaf characteristics  Hybridization can be an issue; deadhead if you don’t want seedlings  Use of local species/ varieties when appropriate © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Cultivar ‘Louis Hamilton’  Beautiful rose ‘Louis Hamilton’ colored blooms.  Great in dry garden or on slope.  Stops traffic when in full bloom. © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Other perennials for sandy/rocky soils:  Penstemons  Asclepias (Milkweeds)  Eriogonum (Buckwheats)  Erysimum (Wallflowers)  And many, many more © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Perhaps some local native shrubs might be nice… © Project SOUND
  63. 63. San Clemente Island Bush Mallow - Malacothamnus clementinus © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Succeeding with San Clemente Mallow  Light: full sun to part-shade  Soils: any  Water: little needed once established; don’t over-water  Nutrients: little needed – pioneer species  The shrub is a vigorous resprouter, sending runners up to 3 meters from a parent shrub  Cut back when starts to look raggedy © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Chaparral Mallow – Malacothamnus fasciculatus © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Chaparral Mallow – Malacothamnus fasciculatus  Coastal ranges and desert mtn. ranges from N. CA to Baja  Common shrub throughout chaparral and coastal sage scrub  Dry slopes and fans to about 2500‘; also on,5073,5079 disturbed ground  AKA ‘Mendocino Mallow’ © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Chaparral Mallow in the wild  Large shrub of the foothills  Locally on Catalina Isl, Griffith Park, Santa Monica Mountains © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Chaparral Mallow is a mounding large shrub  Size:  4-12 ft tall depending on site  Usually 4-6 ft wide; spreading to 12 ft on optimal sites  Growth form:  Mounded woody shrub  Quick to moderate growth  Long, wand-like branches  Somewhat drought-deciduous  Foliage:  Blue-green to gray-green; fuzzy hairs  Typical mallow leaves  Roots: spreads via rhizomes © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Flowers a lovely lavender-pink  Blooms:  Long and variable bloom season; mostly in warm weather  Usually May-Aug in S. Bay; can be longer with summer water  Flowers:  Typical mallow flowers  Color: pale pink, lavender  Very showy Attracts wide range of insects,  hummingbirds; excellent habitat plant  Note: foliage is larval food for West Coast Lady,Western checkered skipper, Large White Skipper and Gray Hairstreak  Seeds: eaten by birds; also good cover © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any from sandy to clay  pH: any local; not really alkali  Light:  Full sun to part shade; fine with some afternoon shade  Water:  Winter: needs good water  Summer: none to little once established (Zone 1-2 to 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: can be lightly sheared to shape; but will attain large size © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Chaparral Mallow makes a good screen  Great for large blooming hedge or screen; best semi-formal to informal  As a large foundation plant or over walls/fences  At backs of large beds  Great on dry hillsides, along roadways, other neglected plances  Great with natural companions: Baccharis pilularis, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Diplicus aurantiacus, Salvia apiana and Yucca whipplei. © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Cultivar ‘Casitas’ An upright habit - 6-8’ tall and wide. Soft gray-green foliage and whitish pink/lavender flowers in profusion in the summer. Ever-green Selected for garden use 05_046.html sitas.htm © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Jones (Slender) Bush Mallow - Malacothamnus jonesii © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Can we use a narrow living screen to break the yard up a little? © Project SOUND
  75. 75. * Southern Flannelbush – Fremontodendron mexicanum © Project SOUND
  76. 76. * Southern Flannelbush – Fremontodendron mexicanum  Current range: Sand Diego Co & Baja  Former range: to Los Angeles Co  Locally present in dry canyons  Chaparral, southern,7708,7712 oak woodland, around 1500‘  Always within ~ 15 mi. of the ocean © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Southern Flannelbush: a large shrub  Size:  6-20 ft tall – usually 15-20 ft. at maturity  10-15+ ft wide  Growth form:  Stout woody shrub  Upright to sprawly; can be shaped, espaliered but will attain large size  Fast-growing  Branches have dark gray bark  Foliage:  Gray-green; very hairy (irritating to skin)  Roots: resent moving © Project SOUND
  78. 78. * CA Flannelbush – Fremontodendron californicum ssp. californicum © Project SOUND
  79. 79. * CA Flannelbush – Fremontodendron californicum ssp. californicum  Widespread: western CA from AZ to Baja  Locally in San Gabriel Mtns  Dry, mostly granitic,7708,7709 slopes, rocky ridges to 6000-7000  In chaparral, oak and yellow pine woodland, pinyon-juniper woodland © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  80. 80. Flowers are well- known favorites  F. californicum has more showy flowers  Blooms: in spring - usually Apr/May in our area, but varies with temperature, rains.  Flowers:  Large and showy  Golden-yellow with orange  Just cover the plant  Seeds:  Abundant seeds in hairy cabpules © Project SOUND
  81. 81.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: must be very well- drained – prone to root-rots  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade (F. mexicanum takes more shade)  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: no or very little (only in sandy soils); Zone 1 or 1-2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: once established it will do well in sandy soils with proper watering; F. mexicanum X F. californica hybrids are best adapted for garden life © Project SOUND
  82. 82. ‘California Glory’  Size: to 20 ft tall & wide  Large, lemon- yellow flowers of F. californicum  Fast-growing; early flowering  Longest history of garden use © Project SOUND
  83. 83. ‘Pacific Sunset’  Typical large size  Does a little better in clays  Very showy © Project SOUND
  84. 84. ‘San Gabriel’  Probably the largest cultivar  Very showy, large flowers © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Fremontia californium var.decumbens X F. californicum ‘Ken Taylor’  Smaller size (8 ft x 8 ft)  Shape: more sprawling – like a tall groundcover  A bit more garden tolerant  Fewer flowers – but still showy © Project SOUND
  86. 86. F. californicum ssp. decumbens  Quite low-growing; < 2 ft tall  Flowers more orange, less showy © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Managing Fremontias  Light prune in summer to encourage blooming  Can prune and shape in Fall/winter  Remember to wear long sleeves, gloves & eye protection  Remember: will grow to ultimate size – so place accordingly © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Garden uses for Fremontias  As a large accent shrub  Trained as a small tree – looks nice all year  Espaliered along a wall or fence  Hard-to-water places  For erosion control on slopes  Wonderful paired with Ceanothus  Inner bark powder used to treat wounds, sore throats  Remember: it gets big © Project SOUND
  89. 89. The front yard needs a makeover as well…Evergreen plants from the Northern CA coast are goodchoices for sandy front yards © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Chaparral Whitethorn – Ceanothus leucodermis© 2004 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Chaparral Whitethorn – Ceanothus leucodermis  Foothills of the Coastal Ranges and Sierra Nevadas from Mexico the N. CA  an important component of many chaparral, coastal sage, and oak (Quercus spp.) woodlands of southern California.  Generally found on dry, rocky or sandy slopes below 5,500 to 6,000 feet,6589,6624 © Project SOUND
  92. 92. The genus Ceanothus  ~50–60 species of shrubs (most common) or small trees  In buckthorn family Rhamnaceae.  Mostly in North America, the center of its distribution in California (some species in the eastern United States/Canada, and others extending as far south as Guatemala).  The majority of species are evergreen  Ceanothus species are easily identified by their unique leaf-vein structure. Leaves have three very prominent parallel veins extending from the leaf base to the outer margins of the leaf tips and the leaves are ovate in shape.  The roots of most species have red inner root bark © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Genus Ceanothus  The flowers are tiny, in large, dense clusters that are reported to be intensely fragant (said to resemble the odor of "boiling honey in an enclosed area”.  The seeds can lie dormant for hundreds of years, and Ceanothus species are typically dependent on forest fires to trigger germination of its seeds © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Chaparral Whitethorn – really?© 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Chaparal Whitethorn – large & shrubby  Size:  6-12 ft tall  6-10 ft wide © 2004 Michelle Cloud-Hughes  Growth form:  Dense, mounded shrub  Stiffly erect, evergreen  Twigs white, thorn-tipped  Foliage:  Leaves gray-green, attractive & neat-looking  Highly flammable  Roots:  To 21+ ft deep © 2005 Steven Perkins  Sprouts from stem after a fire © Project SOUND
  96. 96. A cloud of blooms in spring  Blooms: in spring, Apr-June  Flowers:  Many tiny flowers, in clusters typical for Ceanothus  Color: usually very light blue or white  Showy, sweet scent  Attract numerous pollinators  Fruits: usual small, sticky fruits of genus – birds like them & the seeds  Dense foliage provides good cover and nesting sites for birds © Project SOUND
  97. 97. Whitethorn thrives in sandy soils  Soils:  Texture: sandy or rocky; needs well-drained soil  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: regular winter rain; plant needs ~ 15 inches of rain per year  Summer: can be tricky; Zone 2 for first year, then Zone 1 or 1-2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; low nitrogen mulch (oak leaves, redwood bark, pine or oak shreddings)  Other: if happy, it will live many© 2003 Christopher L. Christie years – if not, 2-4. © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Garden uses for Chaparral Whitethorn  Good choice for large screen, hedgerow  Showy specimen plant – year-© 2003 Christopher L. Christie round  Excellent choice for habitat  Great for slopes, hillsides, erosion control on steep slopes  Anywhere else you’d like a shrub Ceanothus © Project SOUND © 2005 Steven Perkins
  99. 99. ‘L.T. Blue’ hybrid may be easier in garden setting  L.T. stands for leucodermis X thyrsiflorus  8 tall, 4 wide.  Gets most of its characteristics from Ceanothus leucodermis  white bark  medium blue flower,  glossy rounded leaves  extremely drought tolerant and smells good.  Ceanothus thyrsiflorus parent contributes uniformity and garden tolerance. © Project SOUND
  100. 100. Torrey Pine – Pinus torreyana © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Torrey Pine – Pinus torreyana  Current distribution: two small popuations - the coast at Del Mar in San Diego County, and the E end of Santa Rosa Island; rarest U.S. pine  Former distribution: probably along much of CA coast into OR  The only southern California coastal pine forest  Forests merge with coastal sage scrub, chaparral, dune scrub, and coastal salt marsh  Torrey pine has adapted to a harsh environment of poor soils and little moisture. The climate is maritime with low winter rainfall and frequent fogTorrey Pine has been cultivated in California since 1858-59 © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Torrey Pine – an opportunist  Size:  30-40 ft tall in nature; to 100+ ft. in garden setting  15-20 ft wide  Growth form:  Shape depends on conditions  Fast or slow growing depending on water  Long-lived (to 150 years in wild); evergreen  Excellent habitat plant  Foliage:  Long, gray-green needles – like Canary Isl. Pine  Fairly ‘open’ – not dense  Roots: extensive & deep © Project SOUND © 2003 BonTerra Consulting
  103. 103. Cones are large  Blooms: Jan-Feb in S. CA  Flowers:  Fairly insignificant  Male flowers produce wind- blown pollen  Cones:  On trees at least 12-15 years age  Fairly large  Slow release of seeds (over years)  Birds (jays) disperse seeds in wild © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Torrey Pine is  Soils: undemanding  Texture: sandy or rocky; well-drained  pH: any local except very alkali  Light:  Full sun along coast  Part-shade is ok, particularly for young trees  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: quite adaptable; Zone 1-2 to 2. In nature gets fog drip, so best along coast  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © Project SOUND
  105. 105. Torrey Pine is great choice for sandy soils  As an alternative to Canary Island & Italian Stone Pines Canary Island Pine Just remember, it’s large Italian Stone Pine © Project SOUND
  106. 106. If you live in a sandy soil area, get out and see what’s thriving © Project SOUND
  107. 107. Remember: your sandy soil is an asset! © Project SOUND