1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                        Hospi...
1/6/2013                                                         Southern Alligator Lizard                                ...
1/6/2013                               The Southern Alligator Lizards                   The Southern Alligator Lizard is...
1/6/2013          Saltbushes : Habitat plants par excellance!                                                             ...
1/6/2013             This is a plant you’ve no doubt seen….                                                               ...
1/6/2013           An easy care plant                                                                          Soils:    ...
1/6/2013                   Lycium species – the Boxthorns -                                                               ...
1/6/2013                                 Wolfberry – Lycium andersonii                                                    ...
1/6/2013                                                                   Flowers make the                               ...
1/6/2013               Western Fence Lizard - Sceloporus occidentalis                                                     ...
1/6/2013                                                                       A word about cats..Interesting fact…lizards...
1/6/2013                    Chamise – Adenostoma fasciculatum                                                             ...
1/6/2013    Chamise and other Chaparral shrubs –                                                                          ...
1/6/2013                                                                                 Low-growing variety & cultivars  ...
1/6/2013                     Guidelines for creating habitat                                                              ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                               Flo...
Hospitable Habitat - Notes
Hospitable Habitat - Notes
Hospitable Habitat - Notes
Hospitable Habitat - Notes
Hospitable Habitat - Notes
Hospitable Habitat - Notes
Hospitable Habitat - Notes
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Hospitable Habitat - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Hospitable Habitat Providing for Ground-living Creatures C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants February 7th & 10th, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND First, you need to know a little bit about What makes for good lizard habitat? the lizards you can hope to attract  Southern Alligator Lizard  Western Fence Lizard  California Legless Lizard The trick is to supply a safe environment that provides what they need to thrive – in short a habitat © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 Southern Alligator Lizard Elgaria multicarinata webbii Alligator Lizard is well-named  Large, smooth scales  Long alligator-like snout  Longitudinal fold on each side of the body © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Take on color of their surroundings  Size:  Up to seven inch body  May have a tail nearly twice the length of its body, makinghttp://www.wildherps.com/species/E.multicarinata.html the largest individuals 21 inches from end to end.  A regenerated tail is shorter and usually a different color from the rest of its body.  Coloration: © 2004 Pierre Fidenci  Varies from brown to yellow ochre.  Adults are marked with dark  Alligator Lizards, especially the males, have large, triangular- crossbands, while juveniles are shaped heads, giving them a formidable appearance. The large not. head and long, snake-like body make a chance encounter in the  Newly molted individuals can woodpile, or under a shrub, startling, to say the least. be very brightly colored  They can bite – but they don’t really want to © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013  The Southern Alligator Lizards  The Southern Alligator Lizard is often range extends from WA to seen in yards and gardens, sometimes central Baja California. In out in the open or in the garage, but southern California usually under piles of wood, rock, or  Alligator lizards are found in other debris. Dont be surprised to almost any natural habitat in find them on your porch or patio – or California (except most of the garage. deserts and very high elevations.) but most frequently  Their diet includes various insects, throughout the coastal plains small animals such as young mice and  Active during daylight, they are birds, tree frogs, and even other frequently seen moving on the lizards. Eats a variety of small ground, and occasionally up in invertebrates. Will also eat small bushes. They are also often lizards and small mammals. Feed mainly found underneath debris, beach on arthropods, snails, and occasionally driftwood, and near human eggs settlements.  Alligator lizards do not typically  After the May mating season, up to 20 bask in the sun out in the open eggs can be laid in June or July. The or on top of a rock like many incubation period is about 55 days, other lizard species. They seem after which the hatching yields tiny to prefer sunny spots with some cover nearby. individuals, rarely more than three inches long from nose to tail. © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDGuidelines for creating habitat for ground-dwellers Atriplex (Saltbush) species provide excellent habitat Provide dense shrub/grass cover –perching, cover & nest sites Provide a brush pile/logs for cover © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 Saltbushes : Habitat plants par excellance! Coast Quailbush - Atriplex lentiformis (ssp. breweri)  Foliage  Attract beneficial insects to the garden - lacewings, ladybugs, and hoverflies  Many weird and fun insects – good plants for insect-watching  Attract butterflies (larval food for some sootywing skippers)  Fall/winter/spring browse for deer, elk  Dense cover for birds, rabbits, just about any ground-dweller  Seeds  Very nutritious food source – high in protein  Eaten by many creatures (including humans): don’t fertilize if you plant tohttp://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/atrlen/plant.jpg eat them – takes up & stores many metals © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Four-wing Saltbush – Atriplex canescens * Four-wing Saltbush – Atriplex canescens  A plant of western U.S.  Dry places from N. Dakota to Mexico  Usually in deserts or dry shrublands/steppe, short-grass prairie  In CA, in dry foothills, deserts http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242100016 (Great Basin, Mojave & Sonoran)  Locally in dry foothills of the San Gabriel’s – interior Coastal Sage Scrub (Antelope Valley; Sunland)  Mojave Desert (Lancaster);  Wide range soils, temperature, etc. – very tough & adaptable  Several varieties http://www.perennialfavoritesnursery.com/native_a-f.html © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3084,3089,3095 © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 This is a plant you’ve no doubt seen…. Four-wing Saltbush: manageable sized shrub  Size:  3-6 ft tall; usually 4-5  4-8 ft wide; can be pruned  Growth form: extremely variable  Mounded woody shrub; old wood very tough  Very densely branched  Quite long-lived – 50+ years  Foliage:  Gray-green; silvery with extruded salt; drought deciduous  Branches gray to white  Leaves small, leathery  Roots: long (to 40 ft) taproot + shallow laterals; very drought tol. – © 2004 Steven Perkins resents moving after established © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.naturesongs.com/vvplants/saltbush.html Flowers are understated… Seedpods, however,  Blooms: usually summer to late fall; are showy may be as early as Apr. or as late as Nov.  Dry pods remain on plants  Flowers: until stripped off by wind  Dioecious (separate male & or eaten by animals – very female plants) but sometimes nutritious monoecious  Pods have ‘4 wings’ – http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/other-plants/plant06.html  Flowers remind of Artemisia; hence the common name small flowers on stalks  Very unusual & can be  Seeds: showy in good years  If planting, be sure to keep dry seeds for 1 yr. ‘ripening’ to  1 large hard seed per pod improve germination  Role of fungi in  Vegetative reproduction: germination process sprouting from younger wood http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/other-plants/plant06.html Project SOUND © © Project SOUNDhttp://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Atriplex&Species=canescens http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atriplex_canescens_inflor.jpg http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages2/gilaflora/a_canescens3.jpg 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 An easy care plant  Soils:  Texture: well-drained; sandy Pruning Saltbushes - easy soils are best  pH: any local including alkali  In the wild, are eaten back (pH 8.0-9.5) extensively by deer, elk,  Tolerates salty soils, water rabbits  In the garden, you are the  Light: browser – with your pruners  Full sun to some shade http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atriplex_canescens_inflor.jpg  Trim back about 1/3 the  Water: length of branches in fall for a  Winter: usually rain will suffice neat look – don’t over-water  don’t cut back into old wood –  Summer: best in Zone 2 in prune like a Salvia gardens (occasional water) –  will rejuvenate the plant needs to be under some water stress  Can also hedge-shear  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils –  For best habitat value, leave http://sep.csumb.edu/class/ESSP303/2008/plants.htm some branches at the base – too rich can kill i.e., leave it pruned as a shrub Branches are brittle – no foot traffic © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://allergy.peds.arizona.edu/southwest/grass_weeds/wingscale.htm Four-wing Saltbush used extensively in Southwestern  As a shrub in commercial plantings KEEPING LIZARDS OUTDOORS – low maintenance/little water  Excellent water-wise hedge  To prevent lizards from entering the home, seal all openings 1/4 inch and larger.  In plants with a desert plant  Check areas such as corners of doors and windows,http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Atriplex&Species=canescens palette – used like Salvias or around water pipes, electrical service entrances, Coyote Bush - silvery color ventilation screens, water pipes, etc.  Tight-fitting door seals, with no gaps at the edges, are  For erosion control important prevention measures.  As a fire-retardant plant – with a  Unlike rats and mice, lizards cannot gnaw through little summer water wood and other common building materials.  For re-claiming mine tailings &  A number of materials can be used to seal access other environmental problems points, including insulating foam, caulking, flashing, and steel wool.  Also used as dye plant (yellow & ‘Navajo Black’ & medicine (emetic) http://www.delange.org/FourwingSaltbush/FourwingSaltbush.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Lycium species – the Boxthorns - California Boxthorn – Lycium californicum are also excellent habitat shrubs  Dense, thorny foliage – good for perching, hiding & nesting  Flowers  Fruits – eaten by birds, ground- dwellers – high in vitamin C (in Solanaceae, like tomatoes) http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Lycium_californicum.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Wolfberry – Lycium andersonii Right at home on the bluffs…  Fine with salty soils, salt-spray, high winds & blowing sand  Habitat is disappearing – on CNPS ‘rare’ watch list © 2005 James M. Andre© 2004 Michael Charters © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Wolfberry – Lycium andersonii Charles Lewis Anderson, M.D. – a man  Plant of Southwestern deserts with a passion for Nevada plants and desert foothills  Name commemorates Charles Lewis Anderson, MD (1827-  Locally in Mojave Desert – tho’ a 1910). Anderson practiced medicine in Carson City NV during report from PV the years 1862-1867.  Dry, stony hills, mesas in desert  Amazingly, in spite of all of his other endeavors, he foundhttp://www.graniteseed.com/seeds/seed.php?id=Lycium_andersonii and creosote bush scrub – usually the time to pursue his lifelong interest in botany. He was one along washes of the very first botanists to collect extensively in Nevada  Many of the plants he collected turned out to be new to science when examined by Asa Gray of Harvard, to whom Anderson sent all his Nevada specimens.  Anderson wrote the first flora of Nevada, and in its introduction observed: "the country is as rich in vegetable novelties as it is at all times in mineral wealth."http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7636,7637 © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDWolfberry is a typical Boxthorn – all quite similar looking  Size:  usually 4-6 ft tall; to 10-12 ft  to 10 ft wide; slow – probably long- lived, even in water-wise gardens  Growth form:  Mounded woody shrub  Very densely branched – good cover; thorns  Foliage:  Small, fleshy leaves – larger with some water  Very different look from other foliage – nice accent plant  Roots: deep; surface roots also – typicalGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences desert shrub; re-sprouts after fire or major damage/pruning http://www.schweich.com/imagehtml/IMGP2394sm.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Flowers make the Fruits – think tomato desert bloom  Were used extensively as food  Blooms: in spring (Mar-May); by native desert peoples: only depends on timing of winter rains eat fully ripe fruits  Raw  Flowers:  Dried – raisin fashion  Purple to white  Cooked for a sauce  Dried and used as flavoring for  Small – but very nice shape & soups, stews lots of them - showy  Dried as a ‘leather’  Good hummingbird plant  Very high in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio- active compounds. Fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit.  Birds and small animals eat http://www.nps.gov/plants/sos/bendcollections/images/Lycium%20andersonii_JPG.jpg fruits & seeds – desert packrats store them © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  Soils: Garden uses for Easy to grow with  Texture: must be well-drained – Boxthorns benign neglect sandy or gravelly is best  pH: any local is fine  Water-wise hedges  Fine with salty soils, water,  As an accent plant; flowers & maritime exposures foliage, red fruits  Light:  As a container plant  Full sun is best  As all-round good habitat  Will take light shade (or some © 1998 Larry Blakely plants: food, cover, nest afternoon shade) in hot gardens sites.  Water:  Winter: rains usually suffice; don’t over-water in clay soils  Summer: quite drought tolerant; looks best in Zone1-2http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Lycium_andersonii to 2 in garden setting  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – remember, it’s a desert plant © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Western Fence Lizard - Sceloporus occidentalis Fence Lizards are sometimes called ‘Bluebellies’ longipes  2-4 inch body (snout-vent length); total length of about 8-9 inches  Brown to black in color (the brown may be sandy or greenish)  Most distinguishing character is their bright blue belly; ventral side of the limbs are yellow.  Also have a blue patch on their throat. This bright coloration is faint or absent in both females and juveniles. Gold-speckled one from PV © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Probably our most Some people are a little afraid of lizards… commonly seen lizard  Found in a wide variety of open, sunny habitats, including woodlands, grasslands, scrub, chaparral, forests, along waterways, next to ponds, and around suburban dwellings.  Diurnal. Often seen basking in the sun on rocks, downed logs, trees, fences, and walls.  Active when temperatures are warm, becomes inactive during periods of extreme heat or  The Western fence lizard eats beetles, flies, cold. Probably active all year when temperatures are caterpillars, ants, other insects, and spiders. favorable and there is sun for basking.  If youre bigger than the lizard, it is a friend. - If the lizard is bigger than you....run!http://www.wildherps.com/species/S.occidentalis.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 A word about cats..Interesting fact…lizards are indeed our friends  Western Fence Lizards may reduce the incidence of Lyme Disease in their range! It has recently been discovered that when infected ticks feed on the blood of these lizards, the Lyme disease spirochetes they carry are destroyed. In areas with Western Fence Lizards, about 5 percent of http://hannahgreenfield.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/bobcat.jpg http://www.pbase.com/griff42/image/48377834 ticks carry the disease, while in other areas 50  Western Fence Lizards commonly sun themselves percent of ticks harbor the disease. on paths, rocks, and fence posts, and other high places. Unfortunately, this behavior makes them —Reported by the NY Times News Service, April 19, 1998. an easy target to predation by snakes, birds, and even some mammals, like cats. They protect themselves by employing their fast reflexes, © Project SOUND which is common in many other lizards. © Project SOUND Guidelines for creating habitat Chamise – Adenostoma fasciculatum  Provide sunning spots – with cover close by  Leave some areas relatively ‘human-free’ for most of the day © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Chamise – Adenostoma fasciculatum Typical Chaparral site with Chamise  Foothills of CA south to Baja – including Channel Islands  Dry slopes & ridges; chaparral & mesas below 5,000 ft.  Most common chaparral species throughout the foothills and coastal mountains of California - present in ~ 70% ofhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Adenostoma+fasciculatum California chaparral.  Also called ‘Greasewood’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-fasciculatum Chamise blooming in Santa Monica Mtns Chamise – a typical Chaparral shrub  Size:  6-10+ ft tall & wide  size really depends in water  Growth form:  Dense, mounded shrub – excellent cover plant for habitat  Many stiff branches; bark is red- brown (young) to peeling-gray (older wood) – wood ‘greasy’ Steven Perkins @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Foliage:  Leaves needle-like – in bundles (fascicles) – hence the name ‘fasciculatum’  Aromatic; can be deciduous in drought  Roots: sprouts from a burl after fires – rejuvenation pruning © 2008 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 Chamise and other Chaparral shrubs – Flowers - really showy born to burn  Blooms: any time from Feb-June;  Small, dry, resinous usually April-May in the Madrona leaves Native Plant Garden  Shreddy bark  Flowers:  Small, tubular white/cream  Oily wood flowers  5 petals – looks like member  Dead branches of Rose family  Ability to re-sprout  Blooms clustered on long readily from a flowering branches – literally sprouting stem/root 1000’s of blooms (the burl)  Attracts insect pollinators  Seeds:© 2008 BonTerra ConsultingIn nature, Chamise burns every 10-40 years; stems older than about 50  Hard coats – require acid scarification or briefyears are exceedingly rare, but individual plants may be quite old exposure to heat. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Chamise is one  Soils: Chamise: might be right tough shrub  Texture: any as long as it is fairly well-draining for your garden  pH: any local  Excellent choice for slopes – good erosion control  Light:  Full sun  Brightens up an area in bloom  Water:  Nice background plant – interesting foliage shape, color  Winter: don’t over-water  Summer: very drought  Can be hedged or used as a tolerant, but better with screen occasional summer water (Zone 1-2 or 2) – keeps it green  Of course, a great cover plant for all sorts of ground-  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils dwellers – birds, lizards, small  Other: pinch low-growing forms mammals (rabbits, etc.). to keep low – will need severe pruning to rejuvenate – you’re the  Teas/salves from foliage/bark ‘fire’ used for skin infections; branches for arrow shafts http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-fasciculatum http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/chamise.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/adenostoma-fasciculatum 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 Low-growing variety & cultivars The California Towhee - Pipilo crissalis make nice woody groundcovers  ‘Black Diamond’  Dark green foliage  Low-growing; can be used as a groundcover or bonsai ‘Black Diamond’  ‘San Nicolas’  Truly prostrate form from San Nicolas Islandhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/3358077566/in/set-72157621930969588/Adenostoma fasciculatum var. prostatum © 2007 Tom Greer tbphotos@comcast.net © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Identifying your CA Towhee Habitat for CA Towhee  Length: 7.25 inches  Preferred habitats include shady  Conical bill underbrush, open woods, pinyon-  Dark eye juniper woodlands, and suburban gardens.  Brown crown  Likes dense cover and leaf litter.  Buffy throat Leaf litter is good for many birds as well as most California © 2007 Ron Wolf  Black ring of spots on native plants. breast  The California Towhee forages in  Pale gray underparts the leaf litter by scratching,  Brown upperparts with both feet at once, in a fast hopping motion.  Rusty undertail coverts  They feed on seeds and insects  Long tail within the leaf litter or occasionally on berries or seeds  Juvenile (Spring to Fall) in bushes. © 2008 Kim Cabrera heavily streaked below © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 Guidelines for creating habitat * Parajo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pajaroensis  Let native plants go to seed or fruit  Leave leaf litter if possible. Provides a home for insects – food © 1995 Dan Post for ground-dwellers © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Parajo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos pajaroensis Parajo Manzanita – exceptionally attractive  Size:  Endemic to Santa Cruz and  4-8+ ft tall Monterey counties in the Monterey Bay region  6-8 ft wide  Maritime chaparral on deep  Growth form: to shallow, sandy soils or  Woody shrub/small tree sandstone outcroppings -  Mounded/sprawling to erect sometimes on edges of Oak  Typical red bark Woodlands  evergreen  Foliage:  Used as one parent in  Leaves dense, somewhat several horticultural hybrid erecthttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Arctostaphylos+pajaroensis cultivars – very attractive  Color: blue-green – with red- foliage orange tips to new growth  Very attractive-looking © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 Flowers are fantastic –  Soils: of course! Plant Requirements  Texture: likes a sandy soil – comes form N. CA coast  pH: very slightly acid best – 6.0-  Blooms: winter - usually Dec-Feb 7.0 in western L.A. Co.  Light:  Flowers:  Full sun to part-shade  Typical small flowers of manzanita – urn-shaped  Water:  Light to darker pink  Winter: don’t over-water  Thousands at one time – this is http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2994359348/  Summer: best with occasional among the showier flowerers water (Zone 1-2 or 2), but quite  Hummingbird magnet drought tolerant near coast  Fragrant!  Fertilizer: none; use an organic  Fruits: mulch  Edible  Other: looks best with little  Loved-by fruit-eaters of all pruning, but can be shaped – even sorts kept below 3 ft.© 2004 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Parajo Manzanita is great for coastal gardens ‘Sunset’  Prune up for a small, dense tree – good nesting sites  Hybrid - A. pajaroensis x A. hookeri  Use as a specimen/accent shrub ssp. hookeri – very attractive year-round,  Very colorful new foliage http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-pajaroensis-paradise-manzanita with sculptural shape http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157608574988902/  Low-growing – to about 3-4 ft  Chosen for garden hardiness  As an all-round habitat plant – winter nectar, fruits and cover- nest sites  Has an ‘old-fashioned look’ – perfect for Edwardian or Victorian garden  Nice addition to a scent garden http://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2009_01_01_archive.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/2994359348/ 16