Extraordinary Scents - Notes


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Extraordinary Scents - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Extraordinary Scents Native Plant Scents for Potpourri and More C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve May 5 & 8, 2012 Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Do you ever wish you knew more about how to use your native plants? http://www.sepulvedaba sinwildlife.org/vegeman age.html Smell is a potent wizard that transports us across a thousand miles and all the years we have lived. - Helen Keller © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 Smell is our most primitive sense Floral scent is often the most powerfully sensual experience in the garden  Memories recalled by smells  The scent-sensing part of often feel more vivid and the brain is very ancient emotional than those associated with sights,  Floral memories can last a sounds and tastes. lifetime – and are among the strongest memories  Unlike the other sense organs, the nose sends  Not all people experience information directly to the the same scent in the same limbic system, a primitive way: part of the brain concerned  Biologic differences – with memory and emotion. http://www.altmd.com/Articles/Aromatherapy--Encyclopedia-of-Alternative-Medicine different receptors  The memories that particular scents evoke © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDDespite their complexity, plant scents can be as The experience of scent is individualistic recognizable as their other attributes  Yet some scents have been  The human nose is capable of purported to cause certain recognizing 10,000 scents. effects for a long time – and in many different  Scent in plants comes from cultures: volatile oils found in the glands of flowers, leaves,  Lavender – calming branches, seeds, bark, and, in  Mint – energizing some cases, roots.  Sage can reduce mental fatigue, stress and mental  More than 3,000 chemically exhaustion. different oils have been identified from at least  Is there a chemical basis eighty-seven families of for these effects? plants. http://www.allure.com/beauty-trends/blogs/daily-beauty-reporter/2011/10/the- floral-fragrance-note-both-you-and-he-will-love.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 Practitioners of aromatherapy say ‘yes’ Traditional  Simple  Hanging herbs methods of using  Simmering herbs  An aromatherapy garden focuses on the scents of the plants scented foliage  Scented wood for drawers and flowers in it. The scents are the basis for the essential  Bath ‘teas’ oils used in aromatherapy.  Hand rubs  Essential oils are volatile (from the Latin volare, meaning to  Slightly more complex fly), which means they evaporate at or above room  Smudge sticks temperature.  Sachets/scent pillows  Heat releases the fragrance of the oils (essentially the  Bath salts plants perfume or flavor), hence the more noticeable  Potpourri/infusers fragrances generated by a walk through a summer garden. In  Infused oils for massage the winter these fragrances are less noticeable as the cooler air prevents easy evaporation of the oils from plants.  Scents/flavors/oils  Hydrosols and essential oils  A scentless garden would have amazed the ancient Greeks,  Soaps Romans, Persians – even the Victorians!  Candles  Perfumes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND CA native essential oils and other products – * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens commonly available for purchase  Salvia apiana  Salvia mellifera  Achillea millefolia  Balsam fir  Juniperhttp://www.artisan-aromatics.com/sunshop/catalog/artisan-essential-oils-/yarrow--milfoil-62.html  Bay Laurel  Monterey Cypress  Incense Cedar http://www.wildrootbotanicals.com/html/essential_stan.html J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens Incense Cedar: a true N. American Cedar  Size:  Montane forests from  Commonly 40 to 70 ft. with age Oregon south through – may be much taller California to northern Baja  10-25+ ft wide California, Mexico and east  Growth rate fast up to 20 ft. to western Nevada  Locally in San Gabriel Mtns.  Growth form:  Woody tree  On mesic sites including  Can live 500+ years http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?157,158,159 riparian habitats in mixed- evergreen, yellow-pine J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Bark thick, furrowed, cinnamon- brown –later gray forests, 2000-7000 feet  Foliage:  Bright green; in flattened sprays of scale-like leaves  Very aromatic  Roots: taproots and shallow laterals © 2005 Steven Perkins © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Flowers are unusual Incense Cedar:  Soils: not demanding  Texture: likes a deep, well-drained loam – takes most  Blooms: winter/spring  pH: any local – wide range (5.5-8.0)  Flowers:  Light: full sun to part-shade  Separate male an female cones (on same tree)  Water:  Female cones urn-shaped –  Winter: good, deep water small but noticeable  Summer: amazingly drought tolerant; good in Water Zone 2 once  Seeds: established  Take 1 year to develop  Female cones split open  Fertilizer: very tolerant (decorative) releasing seeds  Other: likes an organic mulch  Vegetative reproduction:  Does well in a wide range of  Tip-propagate from current year’s growth in fall conditions © 2010 Ryan GilmoreCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Incense Cedar is a Human uses of Incense Cedar magnificent tree  Flavoring  Good choice for evergreen tree in  Leaves used to flavor acorn meal large yards, parks, business parks,  Medicinal schools & other large areas  Leaves decocted to treat stomach ailments  Used as a large screen  Foliage steamed to treat nasal congestion and colds  Other  Wood used for shelters by native Californians  Wood still used as insect-resistant lumber, fence posts, railroad ties, venetian blinds, greenhouse benches, siding, decking, cedar chests, pencils © 2012 Daniel Passarini and shingles.  Roots and bark used for basket-making © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://shriverfarms.com/default.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calocedrus_decurrens http://www.panoramio.com/photo/37860873 Monterey Cypress - Why do cedars & junipers have unique,Cupressus macrocarpa earthy or ‘woodsy’ scents  Cedar oil (cedarwood oil; Cypress oil) is an essential oil derived from the foliage, and sometimes the wood and roots, of various types of conifers, most in the pine or cypress botanical families.  The most important cedar oils are produced from distilling wood of junipers and cypresses (Juniperus and Cupressus spp. - family Cupressaceae), rather than true cedars (Cedrus spp., of the family Pinaceae).  Similar oils are distilled, pressed or chemically extracted in small quantities from wood, roots http://www.hardtofinditems.com/cedar-oil-32oz.html and leaves from plants of the genera Calocedrus. Citriodora © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013  Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex What makes up the ‘scent of Cedar’? What are compounds characterized by a strong odor and are formed by aromatic plants as ‘essential oils’? secondary metabolites.  The main components of  Chemically, essential oils are very complex cypress oil are a-pinene, natural mixtures which can contain about camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, 20–60 components at quite different d-3carene, myrcene, a- concentrations. They are characterized by terpinene, terpinolene, linalool, 2–3 major components at fairly high bornyl acetate, cedrol and concentrations (20–70%), compared to other components present in trace cadinene amounts.  The main components of  Generally, these major components Incense Cedar oil are: δ-3- determine the biological properties of the carene, limonene, α-pinene, essential oil. The components include two terpinolene, α-fenchyl acetate, groups with different biosynthetical with some cedrol. origins: the main group is composed of terpenes, and the other of aromatic and aliphatic constituents, all characterized by their low molecular weight. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  Various essential oils have been usedEssential oils medicinally at different periods in history. The distillation process: the most common Medical applications proposed by those who method for extracting essential oils sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries.  Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle http://www.baldwins.co.uk/blog/2011/07/how-is-essential-oils-produced/ flame, or burned as incense. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Hydrosols and ‘Floral Waters’  An organic compound (a monoterpene) alpha-Pinene  Contains a reactive four-membered  Made by distilling the whole plant; ring; very reactive. contain not only essential oils, but  Found in the oils of many species of many other water soluble components many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential  More true to the essence of the plant oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and a more complete representation of it, chemically.  Known for its growth-inhibitory activity. α-pinene inhibits early root  Contain the same medicinal properties growth and causes oxidative damage in as the essential oils, but not as root tissue through enhanced concentrated, so it can be used in generation of ROS, as indicated by more applications. disruption of membrane integrity and elevated antioxidant enzyme levels. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:(1S)- (%E2%88%92)-alpha-pinene-from-xtal-3D- balls.png  Can be used as a facial toner/cleanser,  In the atmosphere alpha-pinene perfume, deodorant or room freshener undergoes reactions with ozone, the - or incorporate into lotions/ OH radical or the NO3 radical homemade soap. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  Large/diverse class of organic compounds,  Have been known for several centuries The terpenes produced by a variety of plants, particularly Monoterpenes as components of the fragrant oils obtained from leaves, flowers and conifers though also by some insects fruits. (termites; swallowtail butterflies)  Monoterpenes, with sesquiterpenes, are  The major components of resin, and of the main constituents of essential oils. turpentine produced from resin α-pinene is one of the principal species  Often strong smelling; may have a protective  While a few, such as camphor, occur in function. a near pure form, most occur as Mono-cyclic monoterpenes complex mixtures, often of isomers  Terpenes/terpenoids are primary difficult to separate. constituents of the essential oils of many  Have numerous basic actions in plants: plants/flowers; used widely as natural flavor  Allelochemical functions between plants additives for food, as fragrances in and between plants and predators. perfumery, and in traditional and alternative  A role in wound healing. medicines such as aromatherapy.  As anti-oxidantsDerived from isoprene ( C5H8  Emitted in substantial amounts by vegetation,  Many monoterpenes possess antitumor) The basic molecular and these emissions are affected by activity in animal and cell models.formulae of terpenes are temperature, light intensity. bi-cyclic monoterpenesmultiples of that, (C5H8)n © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013  A sesquiterpenoid (C15H26O) Why is so little known about the actual Cedrol  Isolated from cedarwood oil extracts effects of many plant compounds?  A fragrant compound with demonstrated effects on animals:  Autonomic NS effects in many animal  Many compounds; we’re just species: decreases heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and beginning to understand their respiratory rate in humans. functions in plants  Anti-microbial: human skin microbial flora  Less $$ for plant than animal Staphylococcus researchhttp://chemistry.about.com/od/factsstructures/ig/Chemical-Structures---  Anti-tumor: (+)-Cedrol was identified as one  Current skepticism about ‘herbalC/Cedrol.htm of the terpene compounds showing activity against human renal adenocarcinoma and medicine; amelanotic melanoma cell proliferation. The ancient Egyptians  Volatile & reactive – many break- actually used cedar oil in down compounds which may be the one form of embalming  Whats fascinating about the studies on active forms cedrol is that it seems that we dont need to actually be able to smell it to be  Some information is proprietary – affected by it! The reaction isnt pharmaceutical industry necessarily about smelling it! © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Cedar oil – actually does kill insects Traditional delivery modes made use of the nature of essential oils  Cedar oil has an overwhelming effect on insects – in an unusual way.  As teas or infusions  The aroma of cedar oil breathed in by an insect causes a respiratory blockage; the insect cannot  Scent inhaled (like aroma therapy) continue to breathe, therefore it suffocates.  This is why many research studies show the  In baths quick and high mortality rate of insects when they come in contact with cedar oil. Unlike  Smudging - French hospitals, which pesticides that have to be digested or touched, use much more aromatherapy than cedar oil only needs to permeate in order to ours, used a rosemary/juniper smudge eliminate an insect. as a disinfectant until fairly recently.  This works very well with pheromone-driven insects that need to follow a "chemical trail" in  Incense Cedar (as well as juniper and order to complete tasks. cypress) traditionally used in sweat  Insects like bees, wasps, butterflies and other lodge ceremonies as spiritual purifiers non-pheromone-driven insects will simply stay and for the attraction of good energy, away from this aroma. while eliminating negative energies. http://siskiyouwildcrafting.com/cedar.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Commercially available products with CA Uses of Cedar (Cypress) oil native scented materials  Burners and vaporizers  Useful in vapor therapy for all breathing difficulty, such as asthma,  Dried herbs or flowers emphysema, whooping cough and bronchitis. It also helps to calm  Teas the mind and dispel anger.  Wood  Blended massageoil or in the bath  Essential Oils  Cypress oil can be used as a massage oil or diluted in the bath for  Hydrosols/Floral Waters arthritis, asthma, cellulite, cramps, diarrhea, sweaty feet, rheumatism, varicose veins, heavy menstruation and menopause.  Lotions and creams  Scented soaps, bath http://www.lalaessentialoils.com/yarrow- essential-oil.html  In a cream base, cypress oil can be used for varicose and broken products, lotions, candleshttp://www.nhrorganicoils.com/products.php?id=2874 veins, as well as clearing an oily and congested skin. using CA native plant materials  Cold compress  Used diluted on a cold compress, very effective for a nosebleed.  Foot bath  If it is added to a footbath, it will help control perspiration with it astringent and deodorant properties. http://www.aromatherapyoilsuk.co.uk/yarrow-essential-oil-blue-yarrow-achillea-millefolium/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.amazon.com/Hydrosols-Yarrow-Organic-200-mL/dp/B006FXK87Q The Mint Family - Lamiaceae * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum  Aromatic herbs or shrubs, rarely trees or vines  Usually with stems square in cross-section, 4-sided, and Monardella linioides flowers in long clusters, heads, or interrupted whorls on the Mentha arvensis stem.  ~ 180 genera and 3,500 species nearly worldwide.  The Mediterranean region, the chief area of diversity, has produced many spices and flavorings; various mints, oregano, marjoram, thyme, sage, and basil. Catnip and lavender are © 2001 Jeff Abbas also in the family. Salvia brandegeei © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum CA Mountain Mint – a typical mint  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Foothills of mountina ranges from OR to Mexico  Spreading to 4+ ft wide  Locally in the San Gabriels  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Moist sites of chaparral, oak  Stems erect (for the most part) woodland, and coniferous  Fast-growing (like Stachys) forests  Woodsy looking http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4745,4861,4862  Foliage:  Attractive gray-green color – may  The genus Pycnanthemum - in the mint family, Lamiaceae. be fuzzy or not  Simple, lance-shaped leaves  Most species are very strongly scented and pungent  Make a nice tea  Most are used in cooking and in making herbal tea – mints tend to be ‘safe’.  Roots:  All species in this genus are native to North America.  Spreading via rhizomes © Project SOUND © 2006 Dean Wm. Taylor, Ph.D. © Project SOUND Flowers are tiny & sweet Easy to please  Soils:  Texture: any, very adaptable  pH: any local  Blooms:  Summer - usually June-Aug  Light: full sun to part-shade in our area  Water:  Flowers:  Winter: takes seasonal flooding –  In ball-like cluster typical of good for wet parts of garden Mint family  Summer: needs regular water –  Flowers are small Zone 2-3 to 3.  White, usually with lavender spots  Fertilizer: would do best with some added humus or leaf mulch  Very old-fashioned look© 2009 Neal Kramer  Butterfly plant  Other: treat like other mints – take out parts that are growing where you  Seeds: don’t want it (pot up and give new  Many tiny seeds – can shake plants away – or use them fresh or them out of dried clusters http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3421/3922100003_85f1edee51.jpg dried) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2001 Jeff Abbas 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Use Mountain Mint in Mountain Mint is good for cooking wet areas  Harvest mature leaves at the  Under a birdbath or fountain height of bloom – summer  Places where the neighbor’s  Use fresh or dry (lower temp.) water makes the soil damp then store in airtight (glass is good) jar until usedhttp://farm1.static.flickr.com/29/97463864_abe4a596f8.jpg?v=0  In bog gardens  Cool infusion tea with lime juice  In large, moist-soil containers is excellent. Cold infused is best - put in quart jar of water and  In the vegetable garden place in sun, or in refrigerator  Moist areas along walkways – over night. smells wonderful when  Also, use in cooking where you stepped on – and it doesn’t want a distinctive, strong mint mind a bit! scent and flavor – raw (salads;  Around ponds/pools sandwiches) or cooked http://marcussamuelsson.com/recipes/iced-mint-green-tea-recipe© 2001 Jeff Abbas © Project SOUND © Project SOUND It was also used medicinally Why do plants make the ‘essential oils’ chemicals?  Native Californians used both  A wide range of reasons, many the roots and leaves for related to communication: medicine. A tea made with the leaves and an infusion of the  To attract pollinators – or the tops were used to cure such spreaders of seed (usually in conditions as chills and fever. flowers, fruits)  To repel herbivores – insect or  Was used for a variety of other; either cue or toxin conditions: stomach upset,  As breakdown products from colds, sinus headache, compounds used for other purposes sinusitis, fevers, tonic,  As protection against fungi, bacteria stimulant, increases and viruses perspiration, relaxant  To prevent other plants from (stomach), colic, breath growing too close ? freshener.  To communicate with other plants – via soil water or air © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Plant chemistry is exceedingly complex Why do mints smell/taste ‘minty’  Different molecules in the same  Composition of essential oils varies essential oil can exert different by species – even by individual effects. Remember, essential oils are plant – yet all are distinctly minty complex mixtures of chemicals  Like fine blended perfumes:  A single species of plant can have different key notes, but an several different chemotypes based underlying fragrance of mint on its chemical composition. A plant grown in one area might produce an  Principal components of most essential oil with a completely Pycnanthemums (incl. CA Mountain different chemistry than the same Mint) : species grown in another location.  Pulegone  Menthone  LimoneneThe bottom line: low doses (of plant chemicals) will usually be safer thanhigher doses – so start slow. Inhaled or topical uses will usually besafer than ingestion. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND  A monoterpene Pulegone  Has a pleasant odor similar to Menthone explains part of the ‘minty’ scent pennyroyal, peppermint and camphor.  Menthone is also a monoterpene and a  Is used in flavoring agents, in ketone. perfumery, and in aromatherapy  It is structurally related to menthol  A chemical similar to capsaicin that which has a secondary alcohol in place of also has pain-relieving effects. the carbonyl.  Is a constituent of the essential oils of  Toxic if ingested in large quantities; pennyroyal, peppermint, Pelargonium broken down if heated geraniums, and other scented species  Insect repellant; Pycnanthemums  Menthone is used in perfumery and are less toxic to animals/humans cosmetics for its characteristic aromatic than peppermint and other insect and minty odor. repellants © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 d-Limonene  One of the most common terpenes in Dangers of distilled essential oils nature - produced by many plants  Highly concentrated  Some forms have distinct scent of citrus  Should not be applied directly to the skin in their undiluted state  Uses:  Dilute with passive carrier oils before ingestion or topical application. Common  As a scent agent in food, cosmetics & carrier oils include olive, almond, hazelnut and grapeseed. A common ratio of perfumes essential oil disbursed in a carrier oil is 0.5–3% (most under 10%).  As a cleaner/de-greaser  Some can cause severe irritation, provoke an allergic reaction and, over time, prove hepatotoxic. Try low dose test on your skin to determine sensitivity.  As a solvent for paint removal, glue  Some essential oils, including many of the citrus peel oils, are photosensitizers. removal, clearing tissues for histology - can replace a wide variety of products,  Consult the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for hazards and handling requirements of particular oils. including mineral spirits, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, toluene, glycol ethers,  Handling and of course fluorinated and chlorinated  Can be aggressive toward rubbers/plasticshttp://www.floridachemical.com/whatisd-limonene.htm organic solvents.  Are oils – spills will stain  As it is combustible, limonene has also been considered as a biofuel  Use in Pregnancy  The use of essential oils in pregnancy is not recommended due to inadequate  ? anti- cancer effects published evidence to demonstrate evidence of safety.  As a botanical insecticide © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.petworldshop.com/adams-1007664/adams-flea-amp-tick-shampoo-limonene.php Other cautions about the use of Benefits of using your own fresh or dried purchased essential oils herbal products  Ingesting essential oils  Lower cost  Used extensively as flavoring agents - according to strict Good  Guaranteed fresh; and you get to Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and flavorist standards in low doses enjoy the harvesting  Ingestion of essential oils for therapeutic purposes should never be done except under the supervision of someone licensed to prescribe  You know no pesticides have been such treatment. used on them  Some common essential oils are toxic internally.  You know that the product has not  The internal use of essential oils can pose hazards to pregnant been treated or adulterated – and women and should not be used during pregnancy. contains only the herb you want  Doses of chemicals are low in  Flammability fresh/dry products compared to  The flash point of each essential oil is different. Many of the distilled essential oils common essential oils, such as lavender and citrus oils, are classed as a Class 3 Flammable Liquid, as they have a flash point of 50–60 °C.  You’re limited to what your garden can produce – not as likely to overdo © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive 5. Combine 5-6 herb branches together 1. Cut healthy herb branches mid- then tie with string. morning from plant. The best time to cut herbs for drying is just before 6. Label a paper bag with the name of the they flower—this is when they herb(s). Make several holes in the bag contain the most oil, which is what then place the herb bundle, leaves down, into the bag so that the stems are at gives them their aroma and flavor. the opening of the bag. Gather the open 2. Pull off any diseased/dry leaves; make end of the bag around the stems and tie closed. Hang the bag in a well ventilated, sure there are no insects on leaves. warm room (70 to 80 degrees F). You 3. Pull off lower leaves from herb can dry herbs without placing them in a paper bag, but the paper bag helps keep branches, so that you have space to tie dust off of the herbs while they’re them together. drying.http://www.flowersociety.org/abundance-in-medicine-making.html 4. If dirty, rinse herbs with cool water; 7. Check herbs in approximately two weeks gently pat dry with a paper towel. then periodically until dried. The drying process should take approximately 2 to © Project SOUND 4 weeks. © Project SOUND Simple uses for your dried native herbs Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive  Simmering herbs – to give a touch of fragrance to the whole 8. Store your dried herbs in house; great on cold winter days an air-tight container in a cool place away from  Scented wands & wreaths direct sunlight  Potpourri jars 9. Use within 6-12 months; will lose their potency © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14