Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden  Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants            Project SOUND – 2012 (o...
Extraordinary Scents Native Plant Scents for  Potpourri and More      C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake    CSUDH & Madrona Marsh P...
Do you ever wish you knew more about    how to use your native plants?                               © Project SOUND
http://www.sepulvedaba                                                                  sinwildlife.org/vegemana          ...
Smell is our most primitive sense                  Memories recalled by smells                   often feel more vivid an...
Floral scent is often the most powerfully            sensual experience in the garden                                     ...
Despite their complexity, plant scents can be as     recognizable as their other attributes                          The ...
The experience of scent is individualistic                                                                               ...
Practitioners of aromatherapy say ‘yes’ An aromatherapy garden focuses on the scents of the plants  and flowers in it. Th...
Traditional      Simple                          Hanging herbsmethods of using                               Simmering ...
CA native essential oils and other products –      commonly available for purchase                                        ...
* Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrensJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database                                           ...
* Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens                                                                      Montane fores...
Incense Cedar: a true N. American Cedar                                               Size:                              ...
Flowers are unusual                                                   Blooms: winter/spring                              ...
Incense Cedar:      Soils:   not demanding           Texture: likes a deep, well-drained                            loam...
Incense Cedar is a                                                                 magnificent tree                       ...
Human uses of Incense Cedar                                    Flavoring                                       Leaves us...
Monterey Cypress-Cupressus macrocarpa         Citriodora                        © Project SOUND
Why do cedars & junipers have unique,                  earthy or ‘woodsy’ scents                                          ...
What makes up the ‘scent of Cedar’?                   The main components of                    cypress oil are a-pinene,...
   Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex   What are             compounds characterized by a strong odor         ...
 Various essential oils have been used medicinally atEssential oils     different periods in history. Medical application...
The distillation process: the most common   method for extracting essential oils     http://www.baldwins.co.uk/blog/2011/0...
Hydrosols and ‘Floral Waters’           Made by distilling the whole plant;            contain not only essential oils, b...
   An organic compound (a monoterpene)   alpha-Pinene                              Contains a reactive four-membered    ...
    Large/diverse class of organic compounds,  The terpenes                     produced by a variety of plants, particul...
   Have been known for several centuriesMonoterpenes                   as components of the fragrant oils                ...
   A sesquiterpenoid (C15H26O)                   Cedrol                                                    Isolated from...
Why is so little known about the actual effects of many plant compounds?                  Many compounds; we’re just     ...
Cedar oil – actually does kill insects            Cedar oil has an overwhelming effect on insects –             in an unu...
Traditional delivery modes made use of          the nature of essential oils                                             ...
Commercially available products with CA            native scented materials                                               ...
Uses of Cedar (Cypress) oil Burners and vaporizers    Useful in vapor therapy for all breathing difficulty, such as     ...
The Mint Family -                                           Lamiaceae                                        Aromatic her...
* Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum  © 2001 Jeff Abbas                                    © Project SOUND
* Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum                                                                         Footh...
CA Mountain Mint – a typical mint                                     Size:                                        1-2 f...
Flowers are tiny & sweet                                     Blooms:                                        Summer - usu...
Easy to please                                                  Soils:                                                   ...
Use Mountain Mint in                                                                     wet areas                        ...
Mountain Mint is good for cooking                                                                  Harvest mature leaves ...
It was also used medicinally               Native Californians used both                the roots and leaves for         ...
Why do plants make the ‘essential oils’             chemicals?                 A wide range of reasons, many             ...
Plant chemistry is exceedingly complex                               Different molecules in the same                     ...
Why do mints smell/taste ‘minty’              Composition of essential oils varies               by species – even by ind...
 A monoterpenePulegone       Has a pleasant odor similar to               pennyroyal, peppermint and               camph...
Menthone explains part of the ‘minty’ scent              Menthone is also a monoterpene and a               ketone.      ...
d-Limonene                                                One of the most common terpenes in                             ...
Dangers of distilled essential oils   Highly concentrated      Should not be applied directly to the skin in their undil...
Other cautions about the use of            purchased essential oils Ingesting essential oils    Used extensively as flav...
Benefits of using your own fresh or dried             herbal products                  Lower cost                  Guara...
Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive                                                                 1.   Cut healthy herb...
Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive              5. Combine 5-6 herb branches together                  then tie with str...
Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive                  8. Store your dried herbs in                     an air-tight contai...
Simple uses for your dried native herbs                  Simmering herbs – to give a                   touch of fragrance...
Simple native potpourri: your choice of               scents                     Use any combination of dried            ...
 The fixative absorbs and retainsFixatives for potpourri                                                             the ...
Fruit and Herb Soaps                                                                               Relatively simple and ...
Purple Sage – Salvia leucophyllaPhoto by Amy Findlay                                     © Project SOUND
Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla                                                                         Central and sout...
Why choose Purple Sage?      http://wildfire.geog.csulb.edu/resac/project/veg/images/salvia/sage2.jpg   http://www.timetot...
Sages – long used in herbal therapy                                                                      Sage & sage oils...
Salvia leucophylla: used like common sage                                                            Used in soaps, perfu...
 Waxy, white or transparent solid with a            strong, aromatic odorCamphor           Found in wood of camphor & la...
 Camphor is readily absorbed through      Camphor                    the skin and produces a feeling of                  ...
 AKA Eucalyptol; high concentrations                                    in Eucalyptus species        Cineole             ...
Smudging: another way to use native herbs                                                                An integral part...
Using aromatic                                                                         smoke                              ...
Many aromatic herbs are used for making            smudge sticks                                               Western Sa...
 Gather small branches (ask the plant   Making a                                                            for permissio...
 Wrap the twine around the Making a smudge                                                       smudge stick until you h...
How to Burn your Smudge Stick                                                                        Light the tip of the...
Smudging is not for everyone…                                                                            People with resp...
Herbal sachets are a milder way of using                   native aromatic plants                                        ...
Making an herbal sachet                                                              Select or make a small bag with a so...
Customize your sachets                                                                                       An insect re...
California (Coastal) Sagebrush –       Artemisia californica                               © Project SOUND
California (Coastal) Sagebrush –                                                    Artemisia californica                 ...
Adaptations to                                                                      mediterranean climate                 ...
Ca Sagebrush is great                          Use in rock gardens, herb                                                 ...
Artemisia: scents function to protect thevulnerable parts of the plant                  Most species have strong aromas  ...
California Sagebrush: medicines &             memories                Native peoples used artemisia for the              ...
Native California uses suggest ways we            might use sagebrush    The Luiseño and Cahuilla tribes used coastal sag...
California Sagebrush Tea: easy to prepare They say that the tea can       12 cups water  be drunk safely, in            ...
Simple Ways to Use Herbs in your Bathhttp://www.herb.co.za/herb-remedies/herbalbathrecipes.htm    Make an herbal infusion...
Simple Ways to Use Herbs in your Bath                    Place herbs in a muslin bag or tea                     strainer....
Herbal body scrub  1 cup sea salt, kosher salt or epsom salts  1/2 cup sunflower oil (or other oil – almond is nice)  1/2 ...
CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana
CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana                                                       Much of non-desert CA: WA to Baj...
CA Mugwort in the wild                                                           Usually in damp places in drier         ...
Uses for CA Mugwort Ground cover on naturally  landscaped slopes, hillsides Under trees/shrubs like Mule  Fat In plante...
Extraordinary scents   2012
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Extraordinary scents   2012
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Extraordinary scents   2012
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Extraordinary scents   2012
Extraordinary scents   2012
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Extraordinary scents 2012

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Extraordinary Scents Native Plant Scents for Potpourri and More C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve May 5 & 8, 2012 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Do you ever wish you knew more about how to use your native plants? © Project SOUND
  4. 4. http://www.sepulvedaba sinwildlife.org/vegemana ge.htmlSmell is a potent wizard that transports us across athousand miles and all the years we have lived. - Helen Keller © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Smell is our most primitive sense  Memories recalled by smells often feel more vivid and emotional than those associated with sights, sounds and tastes.  Unlike the other sense organs, the nose sends information directly to the limbic system, a primitive part of the brain concerned with memory and emotion. © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Floral scent is often the most powerfully sensual experience in the garden  The scent-sensing part of the brain is very ancient  Floral memories can last a lifetime – and are among the strongest memories  Not all people experience the same scent in the same way:  Biologic differences – different receptorshttp://www.altmd.com/Articles/Aromatherapy--Encyclopedia-of-Alternative-Medicine  The memories that particular scents evoke © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Despite their complexity, plant scents can be as recognizable as their other attributes  The human nose is capable of recognizing 10,000 scents.  Scent in plants comes from volatile oils found in the glands of flowers, leaves, branches, seeds, bark, and, in some cases, roots.  More than 3,000 chemically different oils have been identified from at least eighty-seven families of plants. © Project SOUND
  8. 8. The experience of scent is individualistic  Yet some scents have been purported to cause certain effects for a long time – and in many different cultures:  Lavender – calming  Mint – energizing  Sage can reduce mental fatigue, stress and mental exhaustion.  Is there a chemical basis for these effects?http://www.allure.com/beauty-trends/blogs/daily-beauty-reporter/2011/10/the-floral-fragrance-note-both-you-and-he-will-love.html © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Practitioners of aromatherapy say ‘yes’ An aromatherapy garden focuses on the scents of the plants and flowers in it. The scents are the basis for the essential oils used in aromatherapy. Essential oils are volatile (from the Latin volare, meaning to fly), which means they evaporate at or above room temperature. Heat releases the fragrance of the oils (essentially the plants perfume or flavor), hence the more noticeable fragrances generated by a walk through a summer garden. In the winter these fragrances are less noticeable as the cooler air prevents easy evaporation of the oils from plants. A scentless garden would have amazed the ancient Greeks, Romans, Persians – even the Victorians! © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Traditional  Simple Hanging herbsmethods of using   Simmering herbs scented foliage  Scented wood for drawers  Bath ‘teas’  Hand rubs  Slightly more complex  Smudge sticks  Sachets/scent pillows  Bath salts  Potpourri/infusers  Infused oils for massage  Scents/flavors/oils  Hydrosols and essential oils  Soaps  Candles  Perfumes © Project SOUND
  11. 11. CA native essential oils and other products – commonly available for purchase  Salvia apiana  Salvia mellifera  Achillea millefolia  Balsam fir  Juniperhttp://www.artisan-aromatics.com/sunshop/catalog/artisan-essential-oils-/yarrow--milfoil-62.html  Bay Laurel  Monterey Cypress  Incense Cedar http://www.wildrootbotanicals.com/html/essential_stan.html © Project SOUND
  12. 12. * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrensJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  13. 13. * Incense Cedar – Calocedrus decurrens  Montane forests from Oregon south through California to northern Baja California, Mexico and east to western Nevada  Locally in San Gabriel Mtns.  On mesic sites including riparian habitats in mixed-http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?157,158,159 evergreen, yellow-pine forests, 2000-7000 feet © 2005 Steven Perkins © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Incense Cedar: a true N. American Cedar  Size:  Commonly 40 to 70 ft. with age – may be much taller  10-25+ ft wide  Growth rate fast up to 20 ft.  Growth form:  Woody tree  Can live 500+ years J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Bark thick, furrowed, cinnamon- brown –later gray  Foliage:  Bright green; in flattened sprays of scale-like leaves  Very aromatic  Roots: taproots and shallow laterals © Project SOUNDSusan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  15. 15. Flowers are unusual  Blooms: winter/spring  Flowers:  Separate male an female cones (on same tree)  Female cones urn-shaped – small but noticeable  Seeds:  Take 1 year to develop  Female cones split open (decorative) releasing seeds  Vegetative reproduction:  Tip-propagate from current year’s growth in fallCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Incense Cedar:  Soils: not demanding  Texture: likes a deep, well-drained loam – takes most  pH: any local – wide range (5.5-8.0)  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: good, deep water  Summer: amazingly drought tolerant; good in Water Zone 2 once established  Fertilizer: very tolerant  Other: likes an organic mulch  Does well in a wide range of conditions© 2010 Ryan Gilmore © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Incense Cedar is a magnificent tree  Good choice for evergreen tree in large yards, parks, business parks, schools & other large areas  Used as a large screen © Project SOUNDhttp://shriverfarms.com/default.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calocedrus_decurrens http://www.panoramio.com/photo/37860873
  18. 18. Human uses of Incense Cedar  Flavoring  Leaves used to flavor acorn meal  Medicinal  Leaves decocted to treat stomach ailments  Foliage steamed to treat nasal congestion and colds  Other  Wood used for shelters by native Californians  Wood still used as insect-resistant lumber, fence posts, railroad ties, venetian blinds, greenhouse benches, siding, decking, cedar chests, pencils© 2012 Daniel Passarini and shingles.  Roots and bark used for basket-making © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Monterey Cypress-Cupressus macrocarpa Citriodora © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Why do cedars & junipers have unique, earthy or ‘woodsy’ scents  Cedar oil (cedarwood oil; Cypress oil) is an essential oil derived from the foliage, and sometimes the wood and roots, of various types of conifers, most in the pine or cypress botanical families.  The most important cedar oils are produced from distilling wood of junipers and cypresses (Juniperus and Cupressus spp. - family Cupressaceae), rather than true cedars (Cedrus spp., of the family Pinaceae).  Similar oils are distilled, pressed or chemically extracted in small quantities from wood, rootshttp://www.hardtofinditems.com/cedar-oil-32oz.html and leaves from plants of the genera Calocedrus. © Project SOUND
  21. 21. What makes up the ‘scent of Cedar’?  The main components of cypress oil are a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, d-3carene, myrcene, a- terpinene, terpinolene, linalool, bornyl acetate, cedrol and cadinene  The main components of Incense Cedar oil are: δ-3- carene, limonene, α-pinene, terpinolene, α-fenchyl acetate, with some cedrol. © Project SOUND
  22. 22.  Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex What are compounds characterized by a strong odor and are formed by aromatic plants as‘essential oils’? secondary metabolites.  Chemically, essential oils are very complex natural mixtures which can contain about 20–60 components at quite different concentrations. They are characterized by 2–3 major components at fairly high concentrations (20–70%), compared to other components present in trace amounts.  Generally, these major components determine the biological properties of the essential oil. The components include two groups with different biosynthetical origins: the main group is composed of terpenes, and the other of aromatic and aliphatic constituents, all characterized by their low molecular weight. © Project SOUND
  23. 23.  Various essential oils have been used medicinally atEssential oils different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries.  Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense. © Project SOUND
  24. 24. The distillation process: the most common method for extracting essential oils http://www.baldwins.co.uk/blog/2011/07/how-is-essential-oils-produced/ © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Hydrosols and ‘Floral Waters’  Made by distilling the whole plant; contain not only essential oils, but many other water soluble components  More true to the essence of the plant and a more complete representation of it, chemically.  Contain the same medicinal properties as the essential oils, but not as concentrated, so it can be used in more applications.  Can be used as a facial toner/cleanser, perfume, deodorant or room freshener - or incorporate into lotions/ homemade soap. © Project SOUND
  26. 26.  An organic compound (a monoterpene) alpha-Pinene  Contains a reactive four-membered ring; very reactive.  Found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis  Known for its growth-inhibitory activity. α-pinene inhibits early root growth and causes oxidative damage in root tissue through enhanced generation of ROS, as indicated byhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:(1S)- disruption of membrane integrity and(%E2%88%92)-alpha-pinene-from-xtal-3D-balls.png elevated antioxidant enzyme levels.  In the atmosphere alpha-pinene undergoes reactions with ozone, the OH radical or the NO3 radical © Project SOUND
  27. 27.  Large/diverse class of organic compounds, The terpenes produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers though also by some insects (termites; swallowtail butterflies)  The major components of resin, and of turpentine produced from resin  Often strong smelling; may have a protective function.  Terpenes/terpenoids are primary constituents of the essential oils of many plants/flowers; used widely as natural flavor additives for food, as fragrances in perfumery, and in traditional and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy.Derived from isoprene  Emitted in substantial amounts by vegetation,( C5H8 ) The basic molecular and these emissions are affected byformulae of terpenes are temperature, light intensity.multiples of that, (C5H8)n © Project SOUND
  28. 28.  Have been known for several centuriesMonoterpenes as components of the fragrant oils obtained from leaves, flowers and fruits.  Monoterpenes, with sesquiterpenes, are the main constituents of essential oils. α-pinene is one of the principal species  While a few, such as camphor, occur in a near pure form, most occur asMono-cyclic monoterpenes complex mixtures, often of isomers difficult to separate.  Have numerous basic actions in plants:  Allelochemical functions between plants and between plants and predators.  A role in wound healing.  As anti-oxidants  Many monoterpenes possess antitumor activity in animal and cell models. bi-cyclic monoterpenes © Project SOUND
  29. 29.  A sesquiterpenoid (C15H26O) Cedrol  Isolated from cedarwood oil extracts  A fragrant compound with demonstrated effects on animals:  Autonomic NS effects in many animal species: decreases heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate in humans.  Anti-microbial: human skin microbial flora Staphylococcushttp://chemistry.about.com/od/factsstructures/ig/Chemical-Structures---C/Cedrol.htm  Anti-tumor: (+)-Cedrol was identified as one of the terpene compounds showing activity against human renal adenocarcinoma and The ancient Egyptians amelanotic melanoma cell proliferation. actually used cedar oil in one form of embalming  Whats fascinating about the studies on cedrol is that it seems that we dont need to actually be able to smell it to be affected by it! The reaction isnt necessarily about smelling it! © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Why is so little known about the actual effects of many plant compounds?  Many compounds; we’re just beginning to understand their functions in plants  Less $$ for plant than animal research  Current skepticism about ‘herbal medicine;  Volatile & reactive – many break- down compounds which may be the active forms  Some information is proprietary – pharmaceutical industry © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Cedar oil – actually does kill insects  Cedar oil has an overwhelming effect on insects – in an unusual way.  The aroma of cedar oil breathed in by an insect causes a respiratory blockage; the insect cannot continue to breathe, therefore it suffocates.  This is why many research studies show the quick and high mortality rate of insects when they come in contact with cedar oil. Unlike pesticides that have to be digested or touched, cedar oil only needs to permeate in order to eliminate an insect.  This works very well with pheromone-driven insects that need to follow a "chemical trail" in order to complete tasks.  Insects like bees, wasps, butterflies and other non-pheromone-driven insects will simply stay away from this aroma. © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Traditional delivery modes made use of the nature of essential oils  As teas or infusions  Scent inhaled (like aroma therapy)  In baths  Smudging - French hospitals, which use much more aromatherapy than ours, used a rosemary/juniper smudge as a disinfectant until fairly recently.  Incense Cedar (as well as juniper and cypress) traditionally used in sweat lodge ceremonies as spiritual purifiers and for the attraction of good energy, while eliminating negative energies.http://siskiyouwildcrafting.com/cedar.html © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Commercially available products with CA native scented materials  Dried herbs or flowers  Teas  Wood  Essential Oils  Hydrosols/Floral Waters http://www.lalaessentialoils.com/yarrow-http://www.nhrorganicoils.com/products.p essential-oil.html  Scented soaps, bathhp?id=2874 products, lotions, candles using CA native plant materials http://www.aromatherapyoilsuk.co.uk/yarrow-essential-oil-blue-yarrow-achillea-millefolium/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.amazon.com/Hydrosols-Yarrow-Organic-200-mL/dp/B006FXK87Q
  34. 34. Uses of Cedar (Cypress) oil Burners and vaporizers  Useful in vapor therapy for all breathing difficulty, such as asthma, emphysema, whooping cough and bronchitis. It also helps to calm the mind and dispel anger. Blended massageoil or in the bath  Cypress oil can be used as a massage oil or diluted in the bath for arthritis, asthma, cellulite, cramps, diarrhea, sweaty feet, rheumatism, varicose veins, heavy menstruation and menopause. Lotions and creams  In a cream base, cypress oil can be used for varicose and broken veins, as well as clearing an oily and congested skin. Cold compress  Used diluted on a cold compress, very effective for a nosebleed. Foot bath  If it is added to a footbath, it will help control perspiration with it astringent and deodorant properties. © Project SOUND
  35. 35. The Mint Family - Lamiaceae  Aromatic herbs or shrubs, rarely trees or vines  Usually with stems square in cross-section, 4-sided, and Monardella linioides flowers in long clusters, heads, or interrupted whorls on theMentha arvensis stem.  ~ 180 genera and 3,500 species nearly worldwide.  The Mediterranean region, the chief area of diversity, has produced many spices and flavorings; various mints, oregano, marjoram, thyme, sage, and basil. Catnip and lavender are also in the family. © Project SOUND Salvia brandegeei
  36. 36. * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum © 2001 Jeff Abbas © Project SOUND
  37. 37. * Mountain Mint – Pycnanthemum californicum  Foothills of mountina ranges from OR to Mexico  Locally in the San Gabriels  Moist sites of chaparral, oak woodland, and coniferous forestshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4745,4861,4862  The genus Pycnanthemum - in the mint family, Lamiaceae.  Most species are very strongly scented and pungent  Most are used in cooking and in making herbal tea – mints tend to be ‘safe’.  All species in this genus are native to North America. © Project SOUND
  38. 38. CA Mountain Mint – a typical mint  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Spreading to 4+ ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Stems erect (for the most part)  Fast-growing (like Stachys)  Woodsy looking  Foliage:  Attractive gray-green color – may be fuzzy or not  Simple, lance-shaped leaves  Make a nice tea  Roots:  Spreading via rhizomes© 2006 Dean Wm. Taylor, Ph.D. © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Flowers are tiny & sweet  Blooms:  Summer - usually June-Aug in our area  Flowers:  In ball-like cluster typical of Mint family  Flowers are small  White, usually with lavender spots  Very old-fashioned look© 2009 Neal Kramer  Butterfly plant  Seeds:  Many tiny seeds – can shake them out of dried clusters © Project SOUND © 2001 Jeff Abbas
  40. 40. Easy to please  Soils:  Texture: any, very adaptable  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: takes seasonal flooding – good for wet parts of garden  Summer: needs regular water – Zone 2-3 to 3.  Fertilizer: would do best with some added humus or leaf mulch  Other: treat like other mints – take out parts that are growing where you don’t want it (pot up and give new plants away – or use them fresh orhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3421/3922100003_85f1edee51.jpg dried) © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Use Mountain Mint in wet areas  Under a birdbath or fountain  Places where the neighbor’s water makes the soil damphttp://farm1.static.flickr.com/29/97463864_abe4a596f8.jpg?v=0  In bog gardens  In large, moist-soil containers  In the vegetable garden  Moist areas along walkways – smells wonderful when stepped on – and it doesn’t mind a bit!  Around ponds/pools© 2001 Jeff Abbas © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Mountain Mint is good for cooking  Harvest mature leaves at the height of bloom – summer  Use fresh or dry (lower temp.) then store in airtight (glass is good) jar until used  Cool infusion tea with lime juice is excellent. Cold infused is best - put in quart jar of water and place in sun, or in refrigerator over night.  Also, use in cooking where you want a distinctive, strong mint scent and flavor – raw (salads; sandwiches) or cookedhttp://marcussamuelsson.com/recipes/iced-mint-green-tea-recipe © Project SOUND
  43. 43. It was also used medicinally  Native Californians used both the roots and leaves for medicine. A tea made with the leaves and an infusion of the tops were used to cure such conditions as chills and fever.  Was used for a variety of conditions: stomach upset, colds, sinus headache, sinusitis, fevers, tonic, stimulant, increases perspiration, relaxant (stomach), colic, breath freshener. © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Why do plants make the ‘essential oils’ chemicals?  A wide range of reasons, many related to communication:  To attract pollinators – or the spreaders of seed (usually in flowers, fruits)  To repel herbivores – insect or other; either cue or toxin  As breakdown products from compounds used for other purposes  As protection against fungi, bacteria and viruses  To prevent other plants from growing too close ?  To communicate with other plants – via soil water or air © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Plant chemistry is exceedingly complex  Different molecules in the same essential oil can exert different effects. Remember, essential oils are complex mixtures of chemicals  A single species of plant can have several different chemotypes based on its chemical composition. A plant grown in one area might produce an essential oil with a completely different chemistry than the same species grown in another location.The bottom line: low doses (of plant chemicals) will usually be safer thanhigher doses – so start slow. Inhaled or topical uses will usually besafer than ingestion. © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Why do mints smell/taste ‘minty’  Composition of essential oils varies by species – even by individual plant – yet all are distinctly minty  Like fine blended perfumes: different key notes, but an underlying fragrance of mint  Principal components of most Pycnanthemums (incl. CA Mountain Mint) :  Pulegone  Menthone  Limonene © Project SOUND
  47. 47.  A monoterpenePulegone  Has a pleasant odor similar to pennyroyal, peppermint and camphor.  Is used in flavoring agents, in perfumery, and in aromatherapy  A chemical similar to capsaicin that also has pain-relieving effects.  Toxic if ingested in large quantities; broken down if heated  Insect repellant; Pycnanthemums are less toxic to animals/humans than peppermint and other insect repellants © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Menthone explains part of the ‘minty’ scent  Menthone is also a monoterpene and a ketone.  It is structurally related to menthol which has a secondary alcohol in place of the carbonyl.  Is a constituent of the essential oils of pennyroyal, peppermint, Pelargonium geraniums, and other scented species  Menthone is used in perfumery and cosmetics for its characteristic aromatic and minty odor. © Project SOUND
  49. 49. d-Limonene  One of the most common terpenes in nature - produced by many plants  Some forms have distinct scent of citrus  Uses:  As a scent agent in food, cosmetics & perfumes  As a cleaner/de-greaser  As a solvent for paint removal, glue removal, clearing tissues for histology - can replace a wide variety of products, including mineral spirits, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, toluene, glycol ethers, and of course fluorinated and chlorinatedhttp://www.floridachemical.com/whatisd-limonene.htm organic solvents.  As it is combustible, limonene has also been considered as a biofuel  ? anti- cancer effects  As a botanical insecticide © Project SOUND http://www.petworldshop.com/adams-1007664/adams-flea-amp-tick-shampoo-limonene.php
  50. 50. Dangers of distilled essential oils Highly concentrated  Should not be applied directly to the skin in their undiluted state  Dilute with passive carrier oils before ingestion or topical application. Common carrier oils include olive, almond, hazelnut and grapeseed. A common ratio of essential oil disbursed in a carrier oil is 0.5–3% (most under 10%).  Some can cause severe irritation, provoke an allergic reaction and, over time, prove hepatotoxic. Try low dose test on your skin to determine sensitivity.  Some essential oils, including many of the citrus peel oils, are photosensitizers.  Consult the material safety data sheets (MSDS) for hazards and handling requirements of particular oils. Handling  Can be aggressive toward rubbers/plastics  Are oils – spills will stain Use in Pregnancy  The use of essential oils in pregnancy is not recommended due to inadequate published evidence to demonstrate evidence of safety. © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Other cautions about the use of purchased essential oils Ingesting essential oils  Used extensively as flavoring agents - according to strict Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and flavorist standards in low doses  Ingestion of essential oils for therapeutic purposes should never be done except under the supervision of someone licensed to prescribe such treatment.  Some common essential oils are toxic internally.  The internal use of essential oils can pose hazards to pregnant women and should not be used during pregnancy. Flammability  The flash point of each essential oil is different. Many of the common essential oils, such as lavender and citrus oils, are classed as a Class 3 Flammable Liquid, as they have a flash point of 50–60 °C. © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Benefits of using your own fresh or dried herbal products  Lower cost  Guaranteed fresh; and you get to enjoy the harvesting  You know no pesticides have been used on them  You know that the product has not been treated or adulterated – and contains only the herb you want  Doses of chemicals are low in fresh/dry products compared to distilled essential oils  You’re limited to what your garden can produce – not as likely to overdo © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive 1. Cut healthy herb branches mid- morning from plant. The best time to cut herbs for drying is just before they flower—this is when they contain the most oil, which is what gives them their aroma and flavor. 2. Pull off any diseased/dry leaves; make sure there are no insects on leaves. 3. Pull off lower leaves from herb branches, so that you have space to tie them together.http://www.flowersociety.org/abundance-in-medicine-making.html 4. If dirty, rinse herbs with cool water; gently pat dry with a paper towel. © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive 5. Combine 5-6 herb branches together then tie with string. 6. Label a paper bag with the name of the herb(s). Make several holes in the bag then place the herb bundle, leaves down, into the bag so that the stems are at the opening of the bag. Gather the open end of the bag around the stems and tie closed. Hang the bag in a well ventilated, warm room (70 to 80 degrees F). You can dry herbs without placing them in a paper bag, but the paper bag helps keep dust off of the herbs while they’re drying. 7. Check herbs in approximately two weeks then periodically until dried. The drying process should take approximately 2 to 4 weeks. © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Air drying herbs: easy & inexpensive 8. Store your dried herbs in an air-tight container in a cool place away from direct sunlight 9. Use within 6-12 months; will lose their potency © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Simple uses for your dried native herbs  Simmering herbs – to give a touch of fragrance to the whole house; great on cold winter days  Scented wands & wreaths  Potpourri jars © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Simple native potpourri: your choice of scents  Use any combination of dried leaves and flowers – ‘blend your own perfume’  Store it in an air-tight jar – open when you need a little fragrance  Replenish the herbs as needed  A ‘fixative’ will keep the potpourri fresh longer – and you won’t need to hide it away © Project SOUND
  58. 58.  The fixative absorbs and retainsFixatives for potpourri the volatile scented essences.  Some common fixatives (readily available on-line or at some craft or herbal/health food stores):  Chopped orris root (root of Florentine Iris) - has little scent so it is a good base. Use 1-2 tablespoons of dried orris root per cup dried potpourri mix. http://evepenman.blogspot.com/2012/02/home-made-potpourri.html  Chopped calamus root  Oak moss, cellulose, ground gum benzoin or fiberfix  A cheap alternative is dried citrus peel – use lemon or whatever you have available  Some people also add a few drops of essential oils http://www.incendiary-arts.com/catalog/product_info.php? products_id=130&osCsid=v1pj9rcgirb1rsb2so3rdi8ga4 © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Fruit and Herb Soaps  Relatively simple and straight forward in the home kitchen if you purchase ‘melt-and-pour’ soap bases – lots of sources online  You can use fresh, pureed materials (all fruits and herbs; whole berries, herb leaves, or citrus rinds, etc).http://essentialoilworld.com/essentialoilreviews/all-natural-personal-care-products/all-natural-essential-oil-soap  You can also use ground, dried materials: ground dried juniper berries; mint leaves; sage leaves, etc.  Follow the directions exactly  Warning: may become an addicting hobby © Project SOUND http://trusk4u.blogspot.com/2010_06_01_archive.html
  60. 60. Purple Sage – Salvia leucophyllaPhoto by Amy Findlay © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Purple Sage – Salvia leucophylla  Central and southern coast and coastal mountains of CA to Baja  Dry open hills, usually in areas http://www.swsbm.com/Maps/Salvia_leucophylla.gif with coastal influence:  Chaparral  Coastal sage scrub  leucophylla: white-leaved  Many variants and hybrids - confusinghttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4745,4865,4879 © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Why choose Purple Sage? http://wildfire.geog.csulb.edu/resac/project/veg/images/salvia/sage2.jpg http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/sagep.htm Lovely foliage: gray-green in spring, white-soft in summer – nice aroma Attractive flowers: often lavender to pinkish; lovely “pastel” look to entire plant Mounded growth habit Many horticultural cultivars and hybrids – with wide range of characteristics (flower color; height/size; scent) © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Sages – long used in herbal therapy  Sage & sage oils have been used for many medical conditions – and for a long time  Calming/soothing properties; used to calm and induce sleep  The proven therapeutic properties of sage oil:  anti-spasmotic  anti-inflammatoryhttp://theresaann.hubpages.com/hub/clary-sage-essential-oils-properties-and-benefits  antibacterial, antiseptic; skin wounds, urinary tract and colon  http://theresaann.hubpages.com/hub/healing-with-essential-oils © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Salvia leucophylla: used like common sage  Used in soaps, perfumes and cosmetics  Sage stimulates skin. Used in skin lotions, massage oils.  In herbal baths it is mixed with lavender for stimulation.http://chickenknits.blogspot.com/2007_04_01_archive.html  In the foot bath it stimulates and relieves aches – used by Chumash (with Black & White Sages)  Used for herb wreaths and in potpourris and sachets. © Project SOUND
  65. 65.  Waxy, white or transparent solid with a strong, aromatic odorCamphor  Found in wood of camphor & laurel trees – also in rosemary & Purple Sage  Used for its scent, as an ingredient in cooking (mainly in India), for medicinal purposes, and in religious ceremonies  Modern uses:  as a moth repellent  as an antimicrobial substance  in embalming & fireworks  Solid camphor releases fumes that form a rust-preventative coating - stored in tool chests to protect tools against rust.  Camphor crystals used to prevent damage to insect collections by other small insects. © Project SOUND
  66. 66.  Camphor is readily absorbed through Camphor the skin and produces a feeling of cooling similar to that of menthol, and acts as slight local anesthetic and antimicrobial substance.  There are anti-itch gels and cooling gels with camphor as the active ingredient.  Camphor is an active ingredient (along with menthol) in vapor-steam products, such as Vicks VapoRub. A recent publication in Pediatrics suggests the topical application of VapoRub may improve symptoms ofHigh doses of camphor are colds and sleep quality whentoxic – very high doses can compared to a controlkill; USDA limits to topicalpreparations © Project SOUND
  67. 67.  AKA Eucalyptol; high concentrations in Eucalyptus species Cineole  Also found in camphor laurel, bay leaves, tea tree, mugwort, sweet basil, wormwood, rosemary, sage and other aromatic plant foliage.  Fresh camphor-like smell and a spicy, cooling taste  Used as a flavoring at low levels (0.002%) in various products, includingAlthough it can be used baked goods, confectionery, meatinternally as a flavoring and products and beverages.medicine ingredient at verylow doses, typical of many  Medical uses: for colds, runny nose;essential oils (volatile oils),eucalyptol is toxic if ingested also reduces pain & inflammation inat higher than normal doses topical applications; kills oral bacteria; may improve concentration abilities © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Smudging: another way to use native herbs  An integral part of the Native American, Celt, and other ancient cultures as a way to cleanse, purify, clear, and release energy.  Used in many ceremonies and rituals, setting the mood, and preparing those involved emotionally, spiritually, and psychically.  Often employed before meditation, prayer, sweat lodge, when people are ill/depressed, or just to ‘create ahttp://spiritwings4me.blogspot.com/2010_11_01_archive.html new beginning’.  Smudging can be performed in ones environment, on the physical body, and personal possessions. © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Using aromatic smoke  Commonly, smudging is done with a bundle or stick. Another method is to put the http://smudging.org/?tag=smudging herbs into a pot.  Either way, the herbs are lit to form an ember that imparts a stream of smoke.  This smoke is fanned or moved around the area, person or items, generally in a clockwise direction. © Project SOUNDhttp://whitewolfewilderness.fatcow.com/store/product18.html
  70. 70. Many aromatic herbs are used for making smudge sticks  Western Sages  Silver King Artemisia  Lavender  Mugwort  Yarrow  Hemlock Pine  Balsam  Cedar  Juniper  Angelica  Yerba Santa  Many othershttp://sageandsmudge.com/smudgesticks.htm © Project SOUND
  71. 71.  Gather small branches (ask the plant Making a for permission before cutting). smudge stick  Let herbs sit for several hours to a day until they become slightly limp.  Choose the twine for wrapping the smudge stick. Use a natural material like cotton or hemp. Take a length of string and measure three and a half times the length of the branches.  Lay out your cuttings and form an easy to wrap bundle.  Tie a loop on one end of the twine; make a slipknot. Place the slipknot loop around the bottom of the stems, pulling tight.http://paganwiccan.about.com/od/lammascrafts/ss/SmudgeSticks_4.htm © Project SOUND
  72. 72.  Wrap the twine around the Making a smudge smudge stick until you have reached the top. Be sure to keep a stick moderate tension. If the twine is too tight the smudge stick will not burn well - if it is too loose your smudge stick will fall apart.  When you have reached the top, reverse the direction, wrap again to the bottom, and tie a knot.  Some people like to tie the twinehttp://paganwiccan.about.com/od/lammascrafts/ss/SmudgeSticks_4.htm in several places as they wrap  Dry the smudge stick for several weeks in a warm, dry place © Project SOUND
  73. 73. How to Burn your Smudge Stick  Light the tip of the stick well. Make sure the sage has plenty of air for the flame to really get going. Allow the sage to smolder.  Use a feather or other fanning device (your hands work just as well) to direct the smoke where youd like it to travel. Inhale the smoke lightly as you visualize all negativity leaving your body and environment.  To easily put out the smudge, have a plate (or traditionally, an abalone shell) filled with a bit of sand nearby. Whenhttp://paganwiccan.about.com/od/lammascrafts/ss/SmudgeSticks_4.htm you are finished, put the sage out in the sand by lightly tamping it down until extinguished. Stored properly, a sage stick can last for years of use! © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Smudging is not for everyone…  People with respiratory conditions (asthma; chronic bronchitis; etc.)  People with smoke allergies  Some people may be allergic to sage or other components when burnedhttp://www.isabellacatalog.com/p/White-Sage-Wildcrafted-Smudge-Stick.cfm  Be sensible and respectful – start slowly and test individual plant parts for their effect on you © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Herbal sachets are a milder way of using native aromatic plants  Sachets can be placed in drawers with sweaters, gloves, lingerie, and linens to give them a beautiful scent.  They can also be hung onhttp://www.apartmenttherapy.com/how- hangers under dresses andto-make-a-moth-repellent-s-76949 shirts or even placed inside shoes, or put into suitcases or in the pockets of winter coats being stored through the summer. © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Making an herbal sachet  Select or make a small bag with a somewhat open weave. Be sure to leave one side open, if you are making bags. Purchased re- useable tea or herb bags work finehttp://theherbgardener.blogspot.com/2011/07/how-to-make-  Mix together enough dried herbs to fill thelavender-sachet.html bag.  If you’d like to enhance the scent, a few drops of essential oil can be added; orris root powder can be used as a fixative.  Fill the bag with the flowers and herbs.  Either sew the bag closed, or tie the end tightly with ribbon or string.  Enjoy. Rubbing the bag gently will further crush the herbs and release their fragrance. © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Customize your sachets  An insect repellent blend might include: lavender, rosemary, sage, mint, santolina, pennyroyal, tansy, mugwort, cedarwood chips… http://evepenman.blogspot.com/2012/02/home-made-potpourri.html  A soothing potpourri if you want to know how to make poutpourri might include: lemon balm, lemon verbena, rose petals, lavender, calendula, meadowsweet, chamomile…  For sachets tucked in with clothes you might try rose and lavender mixes or a blend of citrus peel, spearmint, lemon verbena, and thyme, with a drop or two of pine essential oil.http://knitforyourlife.blogspot.com/2008/12/lavender-sachet-free-pattern.html http://easteuropeanfood.about.com/od/recipestepbystep/ss/StockSachet_3.htm © Project SOUND
  78. 78. California (Coastal) Sagebrush – Artemisia californica © Project SOUND
  79. 79. California (Coastal) Sagebrush – Artemisia californica  Coastal CA from Marin County and Napa County south to San Diego County & Baja – a ‘CA endemic’  Coastal scrub, chaparral, dry foothills, especially near coast, < 800 m.  May even be found on Coastal Prairie/strand  Artemisia: referring to the Greek goddess Artemis who so benefited from a plant of this family that she gave it her own namehttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,719,726 © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Adaptations to mediterranean climate  Shrub form – not large  Re-sprouts from crown when damaged (by fire or eating)  Leaves:  Small  Silvery  Seasonally dimorphic  Roots:  Shallow, net-like  Forms adventitious roots when stems touch soil  Interesting chemicals:  Scented foliage – to repel herbivoreshttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiasagebrush.html  Burns readily © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Ca Sagebrush is great  Use in rock gardens, herb gardens, and in flower beds for local gardens and borders.  The silvery gray foliage makes an excellent backdrop or separator for bright-colored or delicate flowers.  Especially attractive massed in sunny areas  Include in a fragrance garden: very aromatic; fills the air around it with its lovely scent  Useful for erosion control  An interesting ‘cut flower’Important habitat plant: • Fall bee-food  Can make a tea from the leaves – was used by Native • Birds: important for roosting, cover Californians for colds • Lizards: important cover plant  Can be a fire hazard © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Artemisia: scents function to protect thevulnerable parts of the plant  Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones - an adaptation to discourage herbivory  Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of:  bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis);  yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans);  and dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger © Project SOUND
  83. 83. California Sagebrush: medicines & memories  Native peoples used artemisia for the treatment of coughs and colds. It is said to help alleviate menstrual cramps in women and to ease labor. The Cahuilla Indian word for this plant is hulvel. Like many sages, California sagebrush can be used in cooking as a spice.  The smell of Californian sagebrush reminds many Californians of the smell of grandmothers house. A pleasant smell, like Californian sagebrush, can help the patient remember long-lost memories. Aromatherapy is a very powerful way of bringing back pleasant memories. © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Native California uses suggest ways we might use sagebrush The Luiseño and Cahuilla tribes used coastal sagebrush in girl’s puberty rights; smoke from the leaves purified and perfumed the skin and clothes of the young girls in the ceremony. A tea of the stems and leaves was also used by women at the beginning of each menstrual period and after giving birth. For respiratory ailments, a decoction of the leaves and stems was used externally for the relief of colds, cough, and asthma, and a decoction was taken internally for bronchitis. Some tribes used a decoction of the plant as a bath for rheumatism. The scents and warmth added to the soothing effect Some Indians of the California coast used the leaves to relieve tooth aches and as a poultice for wounds, and the Cahuilla chewed and smoked the leaves mixed with wild tobacco. The pungent smell of the coastal sagebrush makes it effective as an insect repellent © Project SOUND
  85. 85. California Sagebrush Tea: easy to prepare They say that the tea can  12 cups water be drunk safely, in 2 Tbsp dried California moderation, and that it will sagebrush (loosely packed) bring back pleasant memories.  Bring water to a boil and remove from heat. Add Used also for irregular sagebrush and let steep for periods at least 4 hours. It’s best to let it steep overnight, strain You could also use this as a out the sagebrush, and refrigerate the remaining room freshener or insect amount. repellant © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Simple Ways to Use Herbs in your Bathhttp://www.herb.co.za/herb-remedies/herbalbathrecipes.htm  Make an herbal infusion (basically a strong tea), using a handful of herbs and a quart of boiling water. Let it steep for half an hour to an hour, then strain and add to the drawn bath.  Soak a handful of herbs in a quart of warm milk for several hours. Strain and add the milk to the drawn bath. © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Simple Ways to Use Herbs in your Bath  Place herbs in a muslin bag or tea strainer. Than place the bag or strainer under the water as you run your bath (use hot water). When the bath is drawn, place the bag or strainer in the tub. Let the water cool, then enjoy your bath. Squeeze the herbal bath sachet gently to extract the remainder of the herbs essence. You can either leave the herbal bath sachet in the water during the bath or remove it.  To make your bath more emollient (skin softening), add almond meal or skim milk powder. Or soak finely ground oatmeal or barley in warm water, strain, and add the water to your herbal bath. http://www.orataiimport.com/pb/wp_c93b399c/wp_c93b399c.html © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Herbal body scrub 1 cup sea salt, kosher salt or epsom salts 1/2 cup sunflower oil (or other oil – almond is nice) 1/2 teaspoon vitamin E oil (optional) 1 tablespoon dried herbs ground very fine (parsley, mint, lavender, sagebrush or a combination) 1 drops lavender essential oil (optional)1. Mix together all ingredients and pour into clean jar with tight-fitting lid.2. To use: While standing in the tub or shower, take a handful of the scrub and gently massage into skin. Massage salt all over body, rinse with warm water and pat dry. Do not use soap or other cleansers, to preserve the moisturizing effect.3. Store any leftover scrub in a cool, dry place or refrigerator. © Project SOUND
  89. 89. CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana
  90. 90. CA Mugwort - Artemisia douglasiana  Much of non-desert CA: WA to Baja  Many Plant Communities including Coastal Sage Scrub, Chaparral, Freshwater Marsh, Mountain Meadow, Mixed-evergreen Forest, Southern Oak Woodland  A plant of moist/riparian places  Named for David Douglas (1798-1834), Scottish botanist who made several journeys to America. Douglas provided the material from which some 300 species of California plants were to be describedhttp://www.swsbm.com/Maps/Artemisia_douglasiana.gif  ‘Mugwort’ from use of this species in mugs to flavor beer prior to hops
  91. 91. CA Mugwort in the wild  Usually in damp places in drier surroundings - a ‘facultative wetland indicator species’  grows vigorously in the late winter through the middle of spring  When the sun is shining it inverts its leaves so the pale undersides face the sun, reflecting most of the rays and keeping the plant from losing valuable moisture  Loses it’s leaves in summer droughthttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Artemisia-douglasiana/
  92. 92. Uses for CA Mugwort Ground cover on naturally landscaped slopes, hillsides Under trees/shrubs like Mule Fat In planters & pots – contained situations For erosion controlThis is an important medicine plantfor Native Californians. Used as apurifying plant in ceremonies.Also good for treating stomach &other gastrointestinal illnesses

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