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Espalier 2017 final


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Talk on using California native plants for espalier.

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Espalier 2017 final

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2017 (our 13th year)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND The Gentle Art of Espalier: Growing Trees and Large Shrubs in Narrow Spaces C.M. Vadheim, K. Dawdy (and T. Drake) CSUDH (emeritus), CSUDH & City of Torrance Madrona Marsh Preserve March 4 & 9, 2017
  3. 3. Last month we learned how to make a small garden appear larger © Project SOUND  Unifying by repetition in hardscape  Dividing garden into rooms  Using principles of perspective  Unifying ‘borrowed’ and garden backgrounds  Choosing plants appropriate for fore-, mid- and background  Placement of plants  The importance of color, texture and size in creating the illusion of distance Shady seating/ hot tub Dining
  4. 4. This month we return to our inspirational pictures… © Project SOUND
  5. 5. First, let’s define the attributes of the area  About 30-35 ft. long  Would like something narrow to conserve space  North-facing but still has good sun mid-day into afternoon – perfect for many trees/shrubs © Project SOUND The current wall is not particularly attractive
  6. 6. Several options for hiding an ‘ugly wall’  Hardscape options  Paint/stain it a grayed, medium- dark color to blend into the distance – makes yard look bigger  Paint a mural on it – looks smaller  Put an ornamental wall sculpture on it – also makes yard look smaller  Planting options  Plant something in front of it  Grow something on it  Combo solutions © Project SOUND
  7. 7. We love the look of the green wall… But we need something narrow that will provide habitat, edibles or both © Project SOUND
  8. 8. What is an espalier?  Two pronunciations:  es-PAH-lee-ay (French)  es-PAH-lee-er (also OK)  Definition(s):  Horticultural and agricultural practice of controlling plant growth by pruning and tying branches to a frame, frequently in formal patterns, flat against a structure such as a wall, fence, or trellis  Plants which have been shaped in this way. © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Espaliers  Can be created using fruiting/ flowering trees and/or selected native shrubs/trees (need to have proper growth structure)  Great use of narrow spaces  Can add color, texture, aroma and other elements to a dull wall/fence.  Fewer – but better quality - fruits © Project SOUND chicago-botanic-garden/
  10. 10. Difference between a narrow hedge and an espalier  Narrow hedge/screen  Free-standing; requires no support  Usually formed from shrubs or trees; must be hedge-able  Often deeper than an espalier  Often more dense than espalier  Often better choice for background (creating illusion of depth)  Espalier  Plants require support  Can be done with selected trees/ shrubs and vines; must be trainable  Can be trained to a quite shallow depth – 12-24 inches  Can be used to make an area look smaller – can be an accent © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Are you the right kind of gardener for espalier?  Planner: need to plan ahead to create space, design, support structure  Patient: espalier takes time to develop (5-10 years or more)  Pruner: need to regularly prune out branches not consistent with design  Adventurous: adapting native species to espalier is a leap of faith and an adventure © Project SOUND  Artistic: need to be able to envision the completed espalier
  12. 12. © Project SOUND First, you need a vision
  13. 13. What do you see?  Blank green screen that fades into the background?  Decorative accent? Wall art?  Evergreen or deciduous?  Showy flowers, fruits? © Project SOUND
  14. 14. We like the idea of growing an edible espalier(s) What will work within our constraints (size; light; water; soil; etc.) and be consistent with our design concept? © Project SOUND
  15. 15. The best fruiting trees for larger espaliers have a long history of use (Europe and Middle East)  Apples (Malus)  Pears (Pyrus)  Stone fruits: peach, nectarine, plum, cherry (Prunus)  Figs (Ficus)  Citrus: lemon, lime, orange, tangerine  Grapes (Vitus)  Loquat (Eriobotrya)  Pomegranate  Olive (Olea) © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Espaliers  First introduced in Egypt and in Roman times; later refined in the European Middle Ages  Espaliers were a way of planting fruit trees and berry-bearing shrubs in limited spaces (small courtyards) © Project SOUND
  17. 17. © Project SOUND Classical forms of formal espalier  Very formal, named patterns  History dates back to Middle Eastern & medieval European gardens  Most often used for fruit trees with regular growth patterns – apples, pears, pomegranates, etc.  Not difficult, but require regular maintenance and choice of proper species  Many good books and on-line resources
  18. 18. Olives © Project SOUND for-healthy-eating-all-year-round
  19. 19. Apples are often grown along walls © Project SOUND Single horizontal cordon
  20. 20. Apples/pears: adaptable to other forms © Project SOUND Oblique cordon
  21. 21. Grapes are also typically trained as horizontals © Project SOUND We could grow table grapes, native grapes or a combination – but grapes are winter-deciduous.
  22. 22. Perhaps an informal espalier might be more consistent with our vision? © Project SOUND …and easier for us as beginning espalier artists
  23. 23. Fig – dramatic informal © Project SOUND
  24. 24. © Project SOUND After considering all the possibilities, we decide that our goal is to mostly just hide the back wall, using evergreen edibles
  25. 25. We decide to espalier the back wall with several citrus  Before planting, make a scale drawing of your design:  Insures you space plants properly, according to final size  Insures you prune and shape plants according to design  Also helps you decide what type of support structure you’ll need © Project SOUND Citrus work well in water- wise, Mediterranean design. Dwarf lemons, limes and tangerines could all be used (if you eat all three).
  26. 26. Lemons, limes and tangerines can be espaliered © Project SOUND in-may/ real-estate-value-mountain-view.html garden-diary-and-espaliered-trees-plus-garden-pallet-giveaway
  27. 27. Work with the shape of the plant for best results  Fan shape takes advantage of natural growth pattern  Flowers and fruit on year-old spurs © Project SOUND Plum Cherry
  28. 28. Informal Fan pattern works well with citrus  Fan – branches angled at 45° grow radiating from a central trunk in a fan- shaped pattern.  Best for spaces requiring vertical coverage (ugly wall) or in square spaces.  Citrus all have slightly different forms – but all are amenable to training to an Informal Fan design  We’ll choose young, dwarf citrus  Sunset book Citrus (1996), suggests good choices for espalier are Eureka lemon, Nagami kumquat, Eustis limequat, Tarocco blood orange, and Chandler pummelo. © Project SOUND value-mountain-view.html
  29. 29. © Project SOUND Espalier requires support – at least early on  Branches may be too thin to provide support  Support structures facilitate training the plant to a desired pattern – you attach the branch to the support so it grows in the desired direction
  30. 30. Espaliers require support  Considerations when planning an espalier support:  Whether support will be part of design or just provide support  Espalier form, size  How long the support will be required (life for vines)  What is the surface to which the support will be attached (or be in front of)  How sturdy needs it be (heavy fruits need good support) © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Support for our back wall citrus espalier  Considerations when planning an espalier support:  Just provide support (hidden)  Informal fans; 7 ft tall x 30 ft long (total)  Needs to support plants just to get going (5 years maximum)  Cinderblock masonry wall  Young plants require good support; fruits can be heavy © Project SOUND value-mountain-view.html
  32. 32. Several companies offer ‘tension cable trellis systems’ (‘wire foliage systems’)  Look for details about the products on-line © Project SOUND cable-trellis-system-2000-60/ pid8089.html Some attach fasteners directly to a masonry wall; other have frames that attach to the wall
  33. 33. We could create a simple system of training wires attached to the wall 1. Chalk out rough design of espaliers on the wall 2. Decide the placement of the support wires – often 12-18 inches apart; mark the lines 3. Using a masonry bit, drill holes on the pattern lines every 18 inches or so (for 2-inch expansion shields, which will anchor eyebolts into masonry) 4. Insert the shields; screw in eyebolts that are long enough to create a 4- to 6-inch air space between the eyes and the masonry 5. Secure 12- or 14-gauge galvanized or stainless steel wire between the eyebolts for tethering the espalier's branches. © Project SOUND espalier-apple-trees-49846.html support-system.html
  34. 34. Alternatively, design a free-standing support frame © Project SOUND 003a.png?w=640 Sturdy fence post
  35. 35. We could use sections of metal fencing  For more ideas: https://www.thisoldhou espaliered-trees-slim- fit © Project SOUND /trellis/ For an informal citrus espalier, we could even just install individual eyebolts, as needed, to tie individual branches to category/fencing/security-fencing/
  36. 36. © Project SOUND Turnbuckles for increasing tension; temporary trainers provide support for individual branches, as needed Tie branches to the wires loosely, with soft ties, strips of old nylons, Velcro garden strips Best method: first attach the tie to the support. Then tie the end(s) to the branch. Allows you to support the branch loosely but firmly.
  37. 37. Citrus Espalier  Start with young trees - they will be easier to train.  For a beginner, an informal design is easiest.  For an informal fan, allow the tree to branch naturally, pruning out any branches that stick out too far, grow back, or cross other branches.  While citrus are often trained against a sunny, south-facing wall, this may be too hot in some S. CA gardens.  If you have a warm, inland garden, an east or even north-facing aspect may be better, if plants get at least 4 hours of good sun in summer.  Check out the light and temperature (measure it) during the planning stage © Project SOUND cart/espalier-cumquat
  38. 38. Training the espalier  Gently tie the branches to the support with stretchy garden tape; check every 6 months – remove or loosen as needed  As the tree grows, keep tying the new growth to the frame  Prune off anything that grows out of shape or off the structure. © Project SOUND patio-conttainer-fruit-tree.html
  39. 39. © Project SOUND Our plan - and a few years – should take care of the back wall
  40. 40. Now let’s consider the side wall (along a chain-link fence)  Approximately 35 ft long  Morning, mid-day and some afternoon sun – excellent exposure  Chain-link fence – want some privacy  Would like to use CA native tree/shrub(s) for habitat © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Espalier on a chain link fence?  Often works amazingly well  Completely disguises the fence  Can be adapted to formal ‘fence’ designs or informal © Project SOUND tool stories/espalier_it_only_sounds_ostentatious/
  42. 42. All good espaliers start with a plan. What’s our vision?  Background or accent?  Formal or informal?  Evergreen or deciduous  Single species or several © Project SOUND ont-abbey-rose-lovers-paradise-v.html gardening/  Flowers? Fruits?  Interesting or unusual foliage or bark?  Type of habitat it provides?
  43. 43. Choices for flowers  Classic choices  Camelia  Climbing roses  Clematis  California native choices  Look for plants with the right attributes © Project SOUND Cercis occidentales
  44. 44. © Project SOUND Western Redbud - Cercis occidentalis Species with open and dramatic growth patterns can be trained into unique, informal espaliers
  45. 45. Adapting old tricks to new horizons  European Victorian gardeners tried all sorts of ‘exotics’ as espalier candidates  Some were even CA natives: Ceanothus; Fremontodendron © Project SOUND Silk tassel - Garryea ellipica
  46. 46. © Project SOUND Most Ceanothus have growth patterns not suited to formal pruning  Good choices for informal espalier/ narrow screen:  Ceanothus thyrsiflorus – species & cultivars  Ceanothus ‘Concha’  Ceanothus 'Dark Star‘  Ceanothus 'Julia Phelps‘  Ceanothus ‘Skylark’
  47. 47. Ceanothus ‘Skylark’ © Project SOUND pepinieriste/familles/arbustes-persistants/3797-ceanothus-x- skylark-arbustes-persistants.html Ceanothus ‘Concha’ Examples of Ceanothus as informal espaliers/screens
  48. 48. © Project SOUND ‘Ray Hartman’ Tree-like ceanothus can be trained more formally  Choose species or cultivars with more open growth habit  Choose species that can take shaping  For a formal espalier, choose a plant with even branches  Start shaping right away – 1st year
  49. 49. © Project SOUND Training Ceanothus to narrow screen or formal espalier Ceanothus "Ray Hartmann" and Cercis Occidentalis
  50. 50. Ceanothus ‘Trewithen Blue’ © Project SOUND fornian-lilac/ l_id=949&fromplants=pl_id%3D948%26fromca tegory%3Dcat_id%253D23 Might be more long-lived than ‘Ray Hartman’
  51. 51. Native candidates for espalier: attributes  Usual tests for appropriateness: soil, light, water  Medium to fast growth  Appropriate size for space (smaller trees/shrubs for smaller gardens)  Open growth habit (often)  Regular growth habit (for formal espaliers)  Shapeable (major branches can be bent for at least a few months when young) © Project SOUND
  52. 52. © Project SOUND * Coast Silktassel – Garrya elliptica's_Corner/Garrya_elliptica_'James_Roof'.htm in/418694096581655546/ Garrya elliptica ‘James Roof’
  53. 53. © Project SOUND Canyon Silktassel – Garrya veatchii Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  54. 54. © Project SOUND Canyon Silktassel: Evergreen shrub/tree  Size:  8-15 ft tall  6-8+ ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen shrub; sometimes tree- like (even in wild)  Interesting branch structure – can prune to emphasize  Foliage:  Simple, thick leaves  Shiny dark green above; white below  Held upright – quite interesting J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences. Shrub is somewhat reminiscent of evergreen oaks or olive
  55. 55. © Project SOUND Canyon Silktassel looks good in modest circumstances  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained; light or heavy  pH: any local  Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: needs adequate  Summer: Zone 1-2 or 2; quite drought tolerant  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Note: deer will browse J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  56. 56. © Project SOUND Flowers are very showy  Blooms:  Late winter/spring  Usually Jan/Feb to April – gives some needed interest to the winter garden  Flowers:  Look like little white cups strung along a drooping wire  Very interesting, showy  Male trees more showy than females  Seeds:  Females produce berries with seeds  Birds like the berries
  57. 57. © Project SOUND Canyon Silktassel makes a lovely addition to the Mediterranean garden
  58. 58. © Project SOUND Why are Garryas so good for espalier?  Evergreen  Good size – not too large  Interesting foliage and bark  Open growth pattern – natural growth is rangy  Will take the pruning and training required for espalier
  59. 59. © Project SOUND Garryas can become formal or informal espaliers  Note regular growth pattern  The choice is up to you heet.cfm?ID=836
  60. 60. Training a formal espalier  The tree must be in its first year or two of growth.  May take 5-10 years from start to finish.  Train the tree to the support while the limbs are still flexible. Do not tie the ends of shoots down too soon.  Develop lower, outer limbs before inner, upper ones.  Balance limb vigor by raising weaker ones, lowering stronger ones, or by leaving weaker ones upright until they catch up to the stronger ones, which you have bent down. © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Selective pruning: shapes the espalier  Individual branches are selected for pruning  Individual branch removed entirely  Individual branch pruned back to a bud to re-direct growth © Project SOUND
  62. 62. © Project SOUND Selective removal (thinning) – removing branches that don’t grow where you want them  Need to start the first year – literally once it’s safely in the ground  Remove entire unwanted branches above the collar  Poorly spaced branches  Branches growing out or in wrong direction  Dead or sick branches manzanitas-in-bloom.html 6/emily-green-dry-garden-bark-trees-shedding.html
  63. 63.  Any branch that is unwanted or un- needed for the design or for flower/fruit production  Done at least 1-2 times a year for most species, usually when dormant and/or after flowering © Project SOUND espalier-training Selective removal: uses in espalier
  64. 64. Selective pruning: forcing the position and/or direction of new growth © Project SOUND mature-tree-peony/  Branch tip pruned just above a branch(s) or bud growing in the desired direction  Forces branch buds below the cut to grow (or grow more vigorously)  Forces growth in desired direction
  65. 65. Uses in espalier  In formal espalier: to force branching at desired position or in desired direction; to develop fruiting spurs  In informal espalier: to fill out an area; develop fruiting spurs © Project SOUND infancy-to-the-fourth-year/
  66. 66. Formal espaliers require selective pruning at all steps in their development © Project SOUND
  67. 67. In Europe, evergreen oaks are espaliered © Project SOUND These oaks are pleached
  68. 68. © Project SOUND *Redshanks – Adenostoma sparsifolium
  69. 69. © Project SOUND What a flower show!  Blooms: in summer – usually June-Aug.  Flowers:  Small white/cream flowers  Clearly rose flowers when you look closely  On dense flowering branches – plant covered with blooms in a good year  Very important pollinator plant  Vegetative reproduction: in some areas, most reproduction is now vegetative; sprouting roots
  70. 70. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: adaptable; often grows in shallow soils in nature – likes well-drained  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs good rains or irrigation – normally gets more than here.  Summer: summer dry to occasional ‘summer monsoon’  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: organic mulch Steven Perkins @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database In Santa Monica Mtns
  71. 71. © Project SOUND Redshanks: large chaparral shrub/tree  Size:  6-18+ ft tall  10-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Large woody shrub/tree  Many trunks/branches with shreddy red bark on older limbs – ‘born to burn’  Nice natural shape – rounded  Moderate growth rate; lives 100+ years  Foliage:  Sclerophyllous leaves: thick, linear/narrow, sticky  Roots: has lignotubers (sprouting roots) © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College ©2004 Steven Perkins Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  72. 72. Native candidates for espalier: attributes  Usual tests for appropriateness: soil, light, water  Medium to fast growth  Appropriate size for space (smaller trees/shrubs for smaller gardens)  Open growth habit (often)  Regular growth habit (for formal espaliers)  Shapeable (major branches can be bent for at least a few months when young) © Project SOUND Excellent choice for another garden
  73. 73. © Project SOUND Lemonadeberry & Toyon can both be espaliered http://tmousecmouse.b ative-plant-of-month- toyon.html
  74. 74. Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia
  75. 75. Gardening requirements  Soils:  pH: any  Texture: sandy and rocky soils are fine; well-drained best  Full sun to full shade  Water:  Regular until established  Very drought tolerant after first few years  Tolerates occasional summer watering  Disease: susceptible to fungal diseases - fire blight, root rot, also scales, thrips Readily available in nurseries eles-arbutifolia/
  76. 76. Toyon hedgerows At CSUDH – est. 2008 At Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Garden Toyon can be formally hedged or used as a more informal hedge/hedgerow
  77. 77. © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Mother Nature’s Toyon espalier © Project SOUND 2014 2015 2016 The Toyon espalier is ready for some work. Come help & learn on March 11th.
  79. 79. © Project SOUND Spicebush – Calycanthus occidentalis
  80. 80. © Project SOUND Spicebush – Calycanthus occidentalis,2768,2769  Grows in the northern Coast Range, the southern Cascades Range, and the western Sierra Nevada  Some are apparently naturalized in the Palomar Mountains (San Diego Co.)  Likes moist, shady conditions: stream side, canyons  Calycanthus – the Sweetshrub genus:  Calycanthus occidentalis (western U.S.)  Calycanthus floridus (eastern U.S.)  Prized for unusual flowers; spicy scent
  81. 81. © Project SOUND Spicebush is an attractive aromatic shrub  Size:  usually 4-10 ft tall; to 15 ft.  usually 4-10 ft wide  Growth form: a mound- shaped, deciduous shrub with erect, multiple stems  Foliage:  large, fragrant, bright green leaves that darken with age  Aroma ‘like old wine barrels’ – smell it before you buy  Deciduous; turn yellow in fallJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  82. 82. © Project SOUND Unusual flowers  Blooms:  usually May-Aug in S. CA  Fairly long bloom period  Flowers:  Dark red to bronze-purple  ‘petals’ are actually sepals  2” across, at ends of branches  Very showy; may have spicy scent (like foliage)  Seeds:  Interesting bell-shaped seedpod  Seed is poisonous if ingested ult.php?id_plant=CAOC5 J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Mark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  83. 83. © Project SOUND Spicebush needs some shade and summer water  Soils:  Texture: any  Light: does best in partial to even full shade, particularly in hot gardens  Water:  Best with regular (weekly) watering during dry periods – remember, it naturally grows along streams  Fertilizer: likes deep, rich soils; give a god leaf mulch or occasional (low dose) fertilizer  Other: easy to grow if given these conditions; just requires occasional pruning Sudden Oak Death (SOD) alternate host
  84. 84. © Project SOUND Adaptable Spicebush  Woodsy touch with Heuchera species, Iris douglasiana, and Ribes species (currants/gooseberries)  Makes an excellent background shrub, small tree (prune to tree shape) or in hedge/hedgerows  Can be trained/espaliered
  85. 85. What shape would you choose? Why? © Project SOUND m?postnum=22089 ?pl_id=674 Formal or informal?
  86. 86. Native shrubs/trees for side yard espalier  Ceanothus (tree-like types)  Garryas  Calycanthus  Heteromeles arbutifolia  Rhus integrifolia  Amorpha species  Berberis (Mahonia) aquifolium  Others – see list for some suggestions © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Now let’s turn to other parts of the garden…. © Project SOUND … and learn how the principles of perspective can be used to make an area appear smaller Shady seating/ hot tub Dining ideas-young-gardeners-year/
  88. 88. What do we want our hot tub area to look like? © Project SOUND  Area size: 20’ x 14’  Spa size:  Walkway/access: 3-4 ft  Divider screen: 2’ x 16-17’ Shady seating/ hot tub Dining
  89. 89. Which look fits our site, needs and concept of the ‘perfect retreat’? © Project SOUND Large and expansive (larger than the actual site) Cozy and contained (looks like a small room)
  90. 90. The contained garden © Project SOUND 00349319142/ Not a new concept at all
  91. 91. Making a garden appear smaller  Choose a white/light/bright fence or wall (unless background is desert)  Make background hardscape (including seating) and plants oversized and brightly colored  Include lots of detailed features in background © Project SOUND /217429/california- garden/
  92. 92. The rules of perspective in the contained garden  To make the garden appear small and cozy, make the background ‘advance’ by choosing:  Taller/larger plants than you’d expect (don’t blend evenly with outside backdrop)  Tall, light or bright walls - or those with obvious texture  Coarse textured plants in background; finer texture in foreground  Decorative accents in background (either plants or hardscape)  High contrast in background © Project SOUND An accent espalier can help make an area look smaller
  93. 93. What look is right for the hot tub area?  Looks larger?  Looks smaller?  Something in between? © Project SOUND ideas-unique-this-entry-is-part-of-15-in-the-series-cool-backyard-design-ideas/
  94. 94. We also realize that the hot tub and dining areas should be considered together  What do we want to do with the enclosing walls; same or different?  Want some privacy between the two areas; but how much? © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Use the same hardscape to tie the two areas together © Project SOUND Then espalier something that’s pretty and scented
  96. 96. We could use non-native vines… © Project SOUND …but decide to explore some native options as well
  97. 97. © Project SOUND California false indigo – Amorpha californica
  98. 98.  Coastal ranges from N. CA to AZ, Baja  Santa Monica Mtns, San Gabriel mountains, Griffith Park  Dry slopes in Yellow Pine Forest, Chaparral, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Northern Oak Woodland; stream banks © Project SOUND California false indigo – Amorpha californica var. californica,3713,3714,3715 ©2011 Aaron Arthur
  99. 99. © Project SOUND False indigo: large shrubby pea  Size: (varies w/ light)  5-8 ft tall  5-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody shrub  Rather irregular shape  Foliage:  Drought-deciduous; green with a little summer water  Medium green  Leaves compound, large (1 ft) with simple leaflets  Plant noticeably hairy  Pleasant scent: guava, pineapple, lavender maybe a little pine  Larval food plant for CA State butterfly, the California Dogface (Zerene eurydice). ©2011 Aaron Arthur ©2010 Dee E. Warenycia
  100. 100. © Project SOUND Flowers unique  Blooms: in spring; usually April-June  Flowers:  On dramatic, wand-like stalks  Purple-magenta fused sepals give the color  Anthers extend well beyond the sepals  Flower type typical for Amorpha spp.  Seeds: in one-seeded pod; plant fresh seed or pre-chill 3 weeks prior to planting ifornica_californica.htm
  101. 101. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: most  pH: any local [6.0-8.0]  Light:  Needs some shade; light shade to quite shady  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: best with some summer water – Zone 2 probably optimal for appearance  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: either difficult or easy – needs the right spot. Easy to prune or shape. ©2004 Aaron Schusteff
  102. 102. © Project SOUND False indigo: shade  Good choice in high or dappled shade under trees; woodsy appearance  To provide Dogface habitat  Back of bed shrub – north-facing  Large containers; espaliers  In a scented garden fornica.htm
  103. 103. The genus Philadelphus (mock-orange)  In Hydrangeaceae family with Carpenteria, Fendlera and Whipplea modesta  ~60 species of shrubs from North America, Central America, Asia and southeast Europe.  They are named "mock-orange" because the flowers: look somewhat similar to those of oranges and lemons; smell of orange flowers and jasmine.  This classic and easy-to-grow hollow- branched shrub was used by the Turks to make pipes.  Its Latin name means “brotherly love” and its orange-blossomlike fragrance has enhanced teas, perfumes, and many a garden. © Project SOUND shocks-for-my-plant-palette/
  104. 104. © Project SOUND *Littleleaf mock orange – Philadelphus microphyllus Margaret Williams, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  105. 105. © Project SOUND *Littleleaf mock orange – Philadelphus microphyllus _display.php?tid=37696  Southwestern deserts from CO to TX, CA, northern Mexico  Desert Mountains (White and Inyo Mountains); Mojave Desert; Peninsular Ranges; Sierra Nevada East  Arid rocky slopes, cliffs, pinyon-juniper, coniferous woods.  Introduced by Prof. Sargent to Britain about 1883
  106. 106. © Project SOUND Shrubby Littleleaf mock orange  Size:  3-6 ft tall  3-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Winter-deciduous woody shrub  Multi-stemmed  Mounded to more upright shape (in sunnier locations); taller and more vine-like in shade  Older bark gray  Moderate growth rate  Foliage:  Simple, opposite, rounded leaves  Nice color, texture ©2015 Steve Matson
  107. 107. © Project SOUND Flowers are fantastic  Blooms: in spring – March-May; often April in lowland S. CA  Flowers:  Look somewhat like a small, white rose w/ 4 petals – brighten up a dark garden  Plants may be covered in blossoms – like an orange  Very pleasant, sweet aroma  Good bee and butterfly habitat plant  Flowers arise from past year’s growth
  108. 108. © Project SOUND Tough survivor  Soils:  Texture: most garden soils, except those that are very poorly draining (berm if needed)  pH: any local  Light:  Sun to part-shade; some afternoon shade in most gardens  Water:  Winter: needs regular water; supplement if needed  Summer: deep water 2x/mo. first year; then occasional deep summer water (Water Zone 2 probably best)  Fertilizer: fine with 1-2 doses of half- strength fertilizer during growing season  Other: prune to shape after flowering crophyllus_4.jpg
  109. 109. © Project SOUND Philadelphus: informal to formal  Background, foundation or hedge shrub; informal or pruned/hedged  Accent plant; espalier  As an attractive pot plant
  110. 110. Philadelphus microphyllus 'Desert Snow'  4-6 feet high & wide  Small, narrow, dark green to greyish green leaves, paler beneath.  Flowers pure white; ‘fragrance suggests a mixture of grape and cinnamon candies’  Sun, most soils; moderate to occasional water  Available at Tree of Life, Suncrest Growers © Project SOUND
  111. 111. Would Philadelphus microphyllus work as an espalier for us? © Project SOUND  Usual tests for appropriateness: soil, light, water  Medium to fast growth  Appropriate size for space (smaller trees/shrubs for smaller gardens)  Open growth habit (often)  Regular growth habit (for formal espaliers) – with pruning  Shapeable (major branches can be bent for at least a few months when young) – but P. lewisii may be more
  112. 112. © Project SOUND * Lewis’ Mock Orange – Philadelphus lewisii © 1998 California Academy of Sciences
  113. 113. © Project SOUND Mock Orange: a large deciduous shrub  Winter deciduous  Size:  usually 4-8 ft tall; can be taller, particularly in shady sites  8-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Naturally a loose, informal shrub with down-curving, ‘fountain-like’ branches  Can be pruned to be much more dense: hedge  Foliage: simple; lovely woodsy green (reminds you of OR woods)  Roots: will spread, particularly with regular water – may want to contain  Quick-growing
  114. 114. © Project SOUND Mock Orange has always been grown for it’s wonderful flowers  Blooms: usually May to July; long bloom period with hundreds of blooms  Flowers:  Showy, white in clusters  Very intense fragrance like that of orange blossoms  Fragrance will perfume entire yard; may want to plant back in garden  Bee pollinated: a great plant for native bee pollinators  Seeds: relatively large; can propagate from seed (needs a cold treatment – stratification – for best germination) © 2003 Christopher L. Christie Mock Orange is the Idaho state flower
  115. 115. © Project SOUND Mock Orange is very easy to grow -  Soils: literally any soil, even clay and alkali soils  Light:  best flowering and form in full sun;  bright/dappled shade is ok (particularly in very hot gardens)  Water:  Winter: anything goes; even takes some winter flooding  Summer:  Does best with moderate to regular water; every other week as needed in summer  Fairly drought tolerate – but will lose leaves  Fertilizer: none needed; organic mulches probably a good idea
  116. 116. Mock orange is very adaptable in gardens © Project SOUND 4/poppy-frenzy.html 37416322304/
  117. 117. Philadelphus lewisii 'Marjorie Schmidt'  ‘This selection is known for its showy display’ – larger and more abundant flowers  Selected by Roger Raiche and Ron Lutsko along Route 36 west of Red Bluff, in Shasta County.  6-10' H x 6-10' W  Sun or light shade with moderate water  Available at TPF © Project SOUND
  118. 118. Philadelphus lewisii 'Goose Creek'  Abundant white flowers with double petals  Good hedge plant  6-10' H x 6-10' W  Fast growth  Adaptable to most garden soils  Full to part sun  Occasional to moderate water © Project SOUND
  119. 119. Espalier is a combination of art & science  Choosing plants that have attractive attributes:  Foliage  Flowers/fruits  Aroma  Fitting the plants natural growth habit to the appropriate espalier design  Pruning to achieve an attractive accent – lots of choices along the way © Project SOUND n/521713938053698320/
  120. 120. Separating the hot tub and dining areas Want some privacy, but how much? © Project SOUND
  121. 121. How much privacy do we want? © Project SOUND A dense narrow hedge A screen that allows for some views through it?
  122. 122. Must espaliers be grown against a wall or fence?  As long as they are provided with support, espaliers can be grown almost anywhere  Traditionally used as ‘fences’ to let air, light and views through © Project SOUND Belgian Fence espalier Free-standing pleached g499616-d2236601-i92827048-Standen- East_Grinstead_West_Sussex_England.html
  123. 123. Options for a narrow privacy ‘screen’  Hardscape only: wall, fences, other  Large containers (with or without plants)  Planted screen with vines  Planted screen with espalier  Narrow hedge © Project SOUND 93225871024/ privacy/
  124. 124. Hedge/espalier/pot: the support structure depends on your choice © Project SOUND 863685/ erior-planters/
  125. 125. We’ve spoken before about growing currants and gooseberries in large pots © Project SOUND But most people don’t realize just how adaptable native currants and gooseberries can be.
  126. 126. © Project SOUND
  127. 127. Currants & gooseberries (Ribes) also make good smaller espaliers © Project SOUND
  128. 128. And here’s where the science of espalier comes in © Project SOUND Wand-like, spreading currants Shrub-like currants/gooseberries These are the ones you want for narrow hedges, containers, even most espaliers
  129. 129. * Pink Currant - Ribes sanguineum var. glutinosum © Project SOUND,4451,4489,4490 Introduced in horticultural trade by Theodore Payne
  130. 130. © Project SOUND Pink-flowered Currants make nice shrubs  Size: 4-7 ft tall; 3-6 ft wide  Open branch pattern – branches are attractive red-brown when young  No prickles/spines  Grow at moderate rate; several ft./year at first  Foliage: fragrant, attractive, drought-deciduous
  131. 131. © Project SOUND Pink Currant: good habitat in a pretty package  Showy flowers  Early: winter to spring  Cluster of bell-shaped flowers on drooping stalks  Fragrant!!  Provide early nectar source for:  Hummingbirds  Butterflies  Bees & other pollinators  Sticky Purple berries  Edible – raw or cooked  Food for many birds (Dark-eyed Junco, Quail, Thrushes, Robins, Finches, Towhees and Jays)
  132. 132. © Project SOUND Pink-flowered Currant – nice for shade  Light: full sun only on coast; part- shade to full shade – does fine under trees!!  Soils: any texture & pH; well- drained soils best  Water:  need to water to establish; after that, cut back water in summer  Can give some summer water to keep it green; but beware of tendency to fungal infections  Nutrients: low needs, but may benefit from an organic mulch  Low maintenance – prune occasionally (when dormant) to shape and encourage flowering
  133. 133. © Project SOUND Much garden potential iedis-serbentas-Ribes-sanguineum/Ribes-sanguineum-krumas-zydi 0/plant-of-the-week-ribes-sanguineum/
  134. 134. Ribes sanguineum: many nice cultivars  Ribes sanguineum var. glutinosum  ‘Claremont’  ‘Heart’s Delight’  ‘Spring Showers’  ‘Tranquillon Ridge’  Ribes sanguineum var. sanguineum  ‘Barrie Coate’  ‘King Edward VII’  ‘Pulborough Scarlet’ © Project SOUND Ribes sanguineum var. glutinosum ‘Claremont’
  135. 135. Ribes sanguineum var sanguineum ‘Barrie Coate’ © Project SOUND Very bright pink flowers
  136. 136. Shrub, hedge or espalier – it’s all in the pruning © Project SOUND 0/plant-of-the-week-ribes-sanguineum/
  137. 137. © Project SOUND Cuts that increase the number of new outer branches: Tip-pruning and shearing  Tip-pruning (pinching) involves removal of the growing tip; stimulating the growth of lateral branches  Shearing (hedging; heading back)  A form of heading that makes no attempt to cut back to a bud.  Because plants chosen for shearing typically have many lateral buds close together, you'll usually end up cutting near a bud.  Shearing stimulates many buds to produce new growth - so you'll be repeating the job regularly after you start.
  138. 138. Uses in pruning shrubs and hedges (& some espaliers) © Project SOUND  Formally pruned shrubs & hedges  Some espaliers used as dense screens or hedges  We’ll come back to hedging next month
  139. 139. Shrubby currants © Project SOUND Which look best suits our needs for a privacy screen?
  140. 140. Ribes malvaceum vs. R. sanguineum  Chaparral currant:  Grows in chaparral & oak woodlands, including in S. CA  Blooms earlier  Is more sun and drought tolerant than the popular pink flowering currant, Ribes sanguineum glutinosum.  In our gardens, it is more vigorous and hardy © Project SOUND Ribes malvaceaum Ribes sanguineum
  141. 141. Chaparral currrant – Ribes malvaceum
  142. 142. Ribes malvaceum : two varieties  Coast Ranges from Marin to Los Angeles counties – mostly a North/Central CA  Chaparral, oak woodland; © Project SOUND ?tid=65160 var. malvaceaum var. viridifoleum  Los Angeles co. (San Gabriels; Santa Monica mtns) south to Baja  Chaparral, oak woodland; var. malvaceaum var. viridifoleum eritacanyon/placeritacanyon.html
  143. 143. © Project SOUND Chaparral currant  Size:  6-8 ft tall  6-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded shrub  Rather loose, open habit, particularly in shade  Reddish bark  Foliage:  Medium green  Typical shape for currant  Drought-deciduous; green until fall with a little water
  144. 144. © Project SOUND a.html
  145. 145. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any local  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade; some afternoon shade for best appearance  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: infrequent, deep water once established (Water Zone 1-2 to 2)  Fertilizer: needs none in ground; yearly dose of ½ strength in containers  Other: organic mulch recommended
  146. 146. Ribes in part-shade – perfect for espalier  Part-woody – can shape while still flexible  Open habit  Fall deciduous – time to do maintenance © Project SOUND
  147. 147. Chaparral Currant – fabulous cultivars  Var. malvaceum  ‘Montara Rose’  ‘Dancing Tassels’  ‘Wunderlich’  Var viridifolium  ‘Ortega Beauty’
  148. 148. Ribes malvaceum var. malvaceum ‘Montara Rose’  6 by 6 foot shrub  Gorgeous clusters of deep pink flowers, Jan-Apr  Edible currants (humans or birds)  Full sun to light shade and occasional water.  In a hot dry spot, it will drop its leaves in midsummer © Project SOUND
  149. 149. Ribes malvaceum var. malvaceum ‘Dancing Tassels’ © Project SOUND  Selection by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden from San Clemente Island.  6-8 ft. tall and wide  Winter/spring blooms over a long period  Long dangling flower clusters  Fragrant foliage, peeling red-brown bark, clusters of blue-black berries  Full sun to part-shade; little to no water once established.
  150. 150. Ribes malvaceum var. viridifolium ‘Ortega Beauty’ © Project SOUND  6-8 ft tall & wide  From coastal mountains of S. CA; intro’d by Nevin Smith  Large, very bright/dark pink flowers – winter/spring  Attractive reddish brown, peeling bark and large, resinous dark green leaves.  Best in part-shade; occasional water
  151. 151. What we’ve done today  We’ve:  Learned about several ways to use native and non-native plants in narrow spaces  Learned how to evaluate natives for their ‘espalierability’  Seen that espalier is both an art and a science  Explored both formal and informal forms of espalier – and how they’re created  Learned a few trick for making an area seem smaller © Project SOUND
  152. 152. Along the way we’ve:  Learned to appreciate native plant’s flexibility  Seen some inspiring photos  We’ll come back to the dining (and other) areas next month © Project SOUND
  153. 153. More resources on espalier   instructions/espalier-supporttrellis/  fruit-trees © Project SOUND
  154. 154. Workshop: The Art & Science of Espalier © Project SOUND Mother Nature’s Backyard Sat. March 11, 2017 - 10:00 a.m.
  155. 155. 2017 Season – Small is Beautiful: Native Habitats in Smaller Gardens © Project SOUND Next month: Birds on a (Space) Budget