1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                             ...
1/6/2013   But there was an interesting revolutionary movement                                                            ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013    Common themes of The Arts & Crafts                                                                            ...
1/6/2013     But what happened when the Arts &                                                                     The Cra...
1/6/2013                                                                              By the early 1900’s, many families w...
1/6/2013    In America, the goal of ‘good, honest craft                                                                   ...
1/6/2013        ‘Mission’ vs ‘Craftsman Style’ bungalows                                                                  ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                               Use...
1/6/2013                                                                       Original design sources                    ...
1/6/2013                      Several other guidelines relate to design                                                   ...
1/6/2013Why not just use native vines?                                                                                    ...
1/6/2013 Vine Maple is almost a vine in shady forests                                                                     ...
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
Elegant Espaliers - Notes
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Elegant Espaliers - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Elegant Espaliers: CA Natives in a Craftsman Style Garden C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants December 4 & 7, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Last May we visited the Victorian Era Edwardian Gardens were very much a revolt against the Victorian style http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Henry_Treffry_Dunn_Rossetti_and_Dunton_at_16_Cheyne_Walk.jpg Increased wealth, manufactured goods and exotic ‘stuff’ characterized the http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3002/2930975253_e3036b0a45.jpg?v=0 Industrial Revolution/Victorian Era Edwardian Style Garden – ‘Back to Nature & Country Gardens’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 But there was an interesting revolutionary movement The Arts and Crafts Movement afoot in England in the mid/late 1800’s …  Began in England in the 1860s as a reform movement.  John Ruskin (1819-1900)  Movement’s philosophical leader  Most influential Victorian writer on the arts and architecture  Member of the Pre-Raphaelite Movement/Brotherhood.  Believed the decorative arts affected the men who produced them. The machine dehumanized http://designinspiration.typepad.com/design_inspiration_planet/books/ http://www.oldukphotos.com/london_famous_people.htm the worker and led to a loss of dignity because it removed him "all cast from the machine is from the artistic process and thus, ... a direct revolt against many of the ‘bad bad, as work it is dishonest." from nature itself. aspects’ of the Industrial Revolution in England © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Pre-Raphaelite The Brotherhoods early doctrines were Brotherhood expressed in four declarations:  Founded in 1848; a loose movement of English painters, poets, and critics  to have genuine ideas to  In its time it was a revolutionary as express; the Impressionistic Movement  to study Nature attentively, so  Mission was to reform art by as to know how to express rejecting ‘the mechanistic approach them; adopted by artists after Raphael and Michelangelo’.  to sympathise with what is  Believed that the Classical poses and direct and serious and elegant compositions of Raphael had heartfelt in previous art, to the been a corrupting influence on the exclusion of what is teaching of art. Hence the name conventional and self-parodying "Pre-Raphaelite". and learned by rote;  Best known painters:  and, most indispensable of all,  Edward Burne-Jones Henry Le Jeune to produce thoroughly good http://preraphaelitepaintings.blogspot.com/2009/01/edward-burne-jones-le-chant-damour.html  Dante Gabriel Rossetti A Young Lady Sketching in a Landscape pictures and statues  John Everett MillaisDante Gabriel Rossetti: - La Ghirlandata  Henry Le Jeune © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 The Arts and Crafts  William Morris (1834-1896) The Pre-Raphaelite Movement Movement  English textile designer, artist, writer and socialist  Ruskins book The Stones  Associated with both the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood and the of Venice (1853) had a English Arts and Crafts Movement. great impact on the intellectuals of Victorian  Took Ruskins ideas about nature, England. art, morality and the degradation of human labor and translated them  In it, he made a direct into a unified theory of design. By doing so, Morris successfully wedded connection between art, aesthetics and social reform into nature, and morality - good the Arts and Crafts Movement. moral art was nature expressed through man.  Chief contribution to the arts was as a designer of repeating patterns for  The English Arts & Crafts wallpapers and textiles, many based on a close observation of nature. Movement developed from this idea William Morris - La Belle Iseult  He was also a major contributor to 1858 the resurgence of traditional textile arts and methods of production. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stones_of_Venice_(book) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Common themes of The Arts & Crafts Movement William Morris founded Morris & Co. in 1875 1880-1910.  Rejection of Classical/  The goal was to create design that was... " for Italianate architecture, the people and by the and the revival of the people, and a source of pleasure to the maker and Gothic Style. the user."  Rebellion against  Medieval Guilds were the model for the ideal craft industrialization and mass production system – production by machines. provide honorable work for the craftsman  Leading figures believed  The forms of Arts and in a socialist or utopian Crafts style typically http://www.ukmodernfurniture.co.uk/softfurnishi society, striving for good ng/artsandcrafts.html rectilinear/angular, with stylized decorative motifs quality of life for all, reminiscent of medieval, Japanese and Islamic including art for the http://www.victorianweb.org/art/design/furniture/25.html design people, by the people.http://barnyardgazette.blogspot.com/2009/04/william-morris-arts-and-crafts-movement.html © Project SOUND http://www.blog.designsquish.com/index.php?/site/2009/03/ © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 Common themes of The Arts & Crafts Not surprisingly, the Arts & Crafts Movement  Nostalgia for the medieval Movement also influenced garden design age - seen as the golden age of creativity and freedom. Large or small, [a garden] should look both orderly and rich. It should be well fenced from the  Artists and craftsman were outside world. It should by no viewed as equals - art was means imitate either the no longer a separate or willfulness or the wildness of nature, but it should look like a superior activity. thing never to seen except near a house. It should, in fact, look  Revival of craftsmanship, like part of the house. honesty in construction, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.pattern/lesson8art.htmlBecause of the cost of hand and truth to materials – no William Morris Hopes and Fears for Art 1882production, the English Arts & fakes or cheap, gaudy mass-produced items http://www.hewnandhammered.com/hewn_and_hammered/2006/03Crafts style was only available to /book_review_gar.htmlthe wealthy © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Gertrude Jekyll: an influential Arts & Crafts The English Arts & Crafts garden garden designer  Wrote 14 influential  Famous architects of the day viewed house and garden as a unified whole. books, and co-wrote The distinctions between ‘indoors’ and many more. ‘outdoors’ were blurred – gardens were a harmonious extension of the house.  Her writing included practical advice, but  Gardens were a venue for reform and also had an almost innovation, an opportunity to express poetic description of integrity and beauty, and a chance to the enjoyment of move beyond the artificiality of the gardening – as dominant Victorian paradigm. spiritual practice, not  Rejecting Victorian orderliness and just manual labor. ostentation in favor of naturalism and http://www.gertrudejekyllgarden.co.uk/ informality.The close alignment of work, beauty and meaning was a key principle of While certainly not “simple”, the overall effect is an invitingthe Arts and Crafts movement, of which Jekyll was a central figure. one of comfort and ease rather than grandeur. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 But what happened when the Arts & The Craftsman Movement: Arts & Crafts Crafts Movement crossed the ocean? American Style  Much influenced by Morris – key figures visited him/his colleagues  Younger nation – less  Was both a social & design/stylistic rigid social structure; movement – but the components ‘land of opportunity’ were uniquely American  ‘Melting pot’ of many  Focus on architecture and home cultures – with their furnishing crafts: furniture, pottery, printing, other decorative arts – not own distinct crafts so much textiles traditions  ‘The Craftsman’ magazine played a  Less industrialized/ key role in popularizing the urban than England Movement  Key figures:So, the American Craftsman  Different materials  Elbert Hubbard – Roycroft StudiosMovement was influenced bythe English Arts & Crafts (woods; native plants;  Gustav StickleyMovement, but later (1900- etc.)1920’s) and distinctly American © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Craftsman Style furnishings are becoming In America, the Arts & Crafts movement popular again… inspired some influential architects  American architects like the Greene brothers in Pasadena, Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago and many others drew inspiration from the Arts & Crafts/Craftsman Movements  Rediscovered the value in hand crafting buildings and their contents http://www.alpinestcraftsman.com/ using natural materials and creating Greene & Greene - Pasadena a more holistic life style for their occupants – very Arts & Crafts  Designers often designed both the building/home and its contents – the two were seen as inseparable? People furnishing their periodcottages – or parallels with our  Once again, the Craftsman style – http://www.mydesignsecrets.com/2009/05/15/the-craftsman-style-home/ with all of it’s handwork – was reallytimes a style for the well-to-do A. Tichenor house, Long Beach, 1904–05 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 By the early 1900’s, many families wanted to Gambel House - Pasadena own their own homes & gardens – and those  Green & Green gardens homes needed to be close to work freely combined elements from different sources, using stones in a Japanese manner, laying mission-style padre tiles in brick- edged terraces, and integrating existing orange groves. This synthesis of local and exotic traditions, of the naturalistic and the formal, remains a remarkable achievement in the history of the California garden http://catalog1.lapl.org/cgi-bin/cw_cgi?fullRecord+5905+968+22179+20+0 © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDDifferences between the American Craftsman Today, we tend to think of ‘Craftsman’ as & English Arts & Crafts a design/aesthetic style  Much more available to the mass market in America – even in the beginning.  Machines were used, but craftsmen were still able to assemble and finish the furniture, which lowered the cost and made it affordable to the common man.  The grain of the wood was much more emphasized, along with the forms of the pottery. http://www.horizon-custom-homes.com/catalog/item/1584762/5216880.htm  Walls had rich wood tones or earth- tone paints. Very little wallpaper was used, mostly just as borders.  The Arts and Crafts/Craftsman movement had more to do with the creation of the Art Object than with the Art object itself. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 In America, the goal of ‘good, honest craft ‘The Craftsman’ supplied for the common man’ became reality instructions for the ‘common man’  Stickley’s ‘The Craftsman’ was an important vehicle  In 1909, he stated that his magazine  Designs for simple houses "stands firmly for the development in – bungalows -that could be the country of a national arts and a built inexpensively by the style of architecture which shall be a true expression of the character and homeowner or local builder needs of the American people, for a form of industrial education which will  Home woodworking develop self-reliance and initiative and projects foster creative ability, so that men and women alike will be able to earn  Garden ideas their own living under any and all circumstances, and to do the best  Think ‘Sunset Magazine’ work that is in them-a training which with an artistic flair inevitably will make for more reasonable and healthful standards of life and work both for the individual and the nation."http://www.pdfclassicbooks.com/home-garden/home-design/stickley-39-s-the-craftsman-magazine-all-31-volumes/prod_24.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://clermontstatehistoricsite.blogspot.com/2010/02/what-style-is-it.htmlIn America, the goal of ‘good, honest craft for the common man’ became reality – The ‘Craftsman Bungalow’ revolution the ‘Craftsman Bungalow’  Once “kit” home manufacturers like Aladdin and Sears began to offer bungalows through their catalogs, their success was assured. Prospective homeowners could have an entire home shipped to their town by train.  With the help of a couple carpenters, the homeowner could build a practical, simple, attractive little home for a sum that was manageable by huge numbers of Americans.  Mass production, however, meant that the fine carpentry and detailing present in the Craftsman homes were modified and distilled into more generic equivalents. Nevertheless, kit homes were generally built of good quality http://www.oldhouseweb.com/blog/opposite-coast-bungalows/ materials that have held up extremely well over the last century.  The success of the Craftsman bungalow was because http://www.antiquehomestyle.com/plans/sears/1923sears/23sears-avalon.htm it provided a solution to the desire of many families The essential difference between the Craftsman "style" and the derivative to own their own modest home. bungalow is the level of fine detail and workmanship. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 ‘Mission’ vs ‘Craftsman Style’ bungalows ‘The Craftsman’ and other books and magazines offered garden designs for the  Craftsman Style: direct Craftsman Bungalow descendent of the English Arts & Crafts movement  Mission/Spanish style:  Many are again available – as  Architectural styling based on reprints or on-line churches built when Spanish Missionaries moved into California  Useful guidelines for thehttp://anartisticabstraction.blogspot.com/2010/03/whats-difference- – but incorporate some Craftsman homeowner who faced some elements too. challenges:mission-style-vs-arts.html  Featured thick adobe walls, stucco siding, parapets, and red tile  Lack of knowledge of roofs. gardening/plants  Ornamentation was detailed in  Limited budget geometric patterns, ornamental drainpipes, arched dormers, and  Small lot size/proximity of other details reminiscent of these neighbors early churches. http://www.buildersbooksource.com/cgi-bin/booksite/24032.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.thevictorianhouse.com/freeplans/houseplanmonth0803.htm Craftsman style homes call for Craftsman Guidelines for a Craftsman Style garden style gardens 1. Keep it simple 2. Keep it informal/comfortable – Remember: the a garden to be used movement saw 3. Keep it in scale – don’t little distinction overwhelm the house between indoors 4. Use well-designed hardscape & outdoors – was features consistent with the viewed (and used) architectural style as a unified whole 5. Use fences & screens for http://www.violetcrownrealty.com/listings.html privacy http://archometrend.blogspot.com/2009_03_01_archive.html 8. Feature the gardener as 6. Use plants in a manner thatThe design garden principles are useful for anyone with a craftsman – the importance respects their naturesmaller home & garden ‘creating’ the garden 7. Make the most of limited space © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Use well-designed hardscape features Simple, informal & consistent with the architectural style in scale  Craftsman design prized  According to Stickley, architectural detail and a informal gardens are “less strong linking between house expensive, better adapted and site - so hardscaping to small spaces, and more in harmony with our elements define a Craftsman garden more than its plants.http://laplaces.blogspot.com/ http://www.mygreenlake.com/2010/03/cr [America’s] somewhat aftsman-garden/ primitive landscape….”  Keep it simple: - Remember,  “…In fact, a formal the Arts and Crafts garden would be quite out movement – progenitor of the of place with such simple, Craftsman Bungalow style – unpretentious houses as valued simple materials those we design. ” honestly worked © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Use period designs, incorporate distinctive Use well-designed hardscape features construction details and use Craftsman consistent with the architectural style inspired hardware.  Wood:  A Craftsman-style wooden  Use materials which blend with the arbor or pergola, a surroundings.  Use woods stained medium to dark brown to distinctively designed slate match the wood used inside the home and in or brick pathway, or a other garden structures. hand-forged gate ‘make’ a  Construction Techniques: Simple, elegant joints to highlight the superior craftsmanship; Craftsman garden – and distinctive shapes of the period. within your budget.  Metalwork: The style is enhanced with simple authentic looking hardware, such as  You can craft your own – iron strapping, copper accents and strong even from original plans – simple gate pulls. or purchase from available  Lighting: Outdoor Craftsman porch and vendors/builders patio lights can create an elegant nighttime ambiance. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Original design sources The right design elements can transform are readily available a Craftsman Bungalow’s front garden http://www.mygreenlake.com/2010/03/craftsman-garden/ http://www.sunset.com/garden/backyard-projects/outdoor-landscape-makeovers-00400000054442/page22.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/DLDecArts/DLDecArts-idx?type=div&did=DLDECARTS.HDV22N06.I0024&isize=M But lets turn to a common predicament in Craftsman bungalow gardens have fences bungalow (and other small) gardens  Fences (an almost ubiquitous  Narrow areas present facet of Craftsman gardens) unique challenges for the should be selected to home gardener. complement the house  This usually means some  Fortunately, we can use type of wooden fence – some ideas from the stained or painted Craftsman Bungalow garden http://craftsmanremodel.com/photofinish_exterior.html medium/dark. to transform these difficult areas  Styles consisting of simple, handmade pickets, or ones with wide boards featuring cut-out designs or lattice were especially popular. http://www.northwestbotanicals.com/portfolio_chcraftsman.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.penick.net/digging/?cat=9&paged=46 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Several other guidelines relate to design Vines & Climbers provided beauty and for small spaces practicality in small Craftsman gardens 6. Use plants in a manner that respects their nature 7. Make the most of limited space 8. Feature the gardener as craftsman – the importance of ‘creating’ the garden in a manner that enhances the http://www.ironaccents.com/49-gar262.html http://www.northwestbotanicals.com/portfolio_chcraftsman.htm gardeners creativity And that’s where the ideal of espalier/narrow screens comes in Vines and climbers were often grown over arbors…but not © Project SOUND always © Project SOUND They were also grown Espalier can be vertically for shade or formal or informal to hide a bare wall  Choice depends on the style of garden/house  Espalier:  Both require regular  ‘The art of growing woody pruning and traininghttp://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g148_f09/lecture_notes/craftsman_arch/sd_bungalow1.jpg shrubs/trees in 2 dimensions’ http://www.allposters.com/gallery.asp?aid=45319956&apnum=870360&LinkTypeID=2&PosterTypeID=1&  Both require choosing DestType=7&Referrer%20=http://www.artsparx.com/bungalowstyle.asp  Plants are pruned & trained the correct plant to grow in a very narrow species – not all woody space shrubs/trees can be espaliered  Narrow screen:  Most of the CA natives  Plants are hedge-pruned to that can be espaliered form a very narrow (and work best as informal often tall) hedge espaliers http://www.allposters.com/gallery.asp?aid=45319956&apnum=870360&LinkTypeID=2&PosterTypeID=1& © Project SOUND http://www.gardendesignonline.com/gardendesignonline/design/ © Project SOUND DestType=7&Referrer%20=http://www.artsparx.com/bungalowstyle.asp 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013Why not just use native vines? What to do with that chain link fence? http://freshdirt.sunset.com/places/  Espalier provides:  More variety of plant material  Larger sizehttp://bammorgan.blogspot.com/2008/04/payne-foundation-garden-tour.html ‘Roger’s Red’ – Vitis californicus x ? Wine grape © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Vine Maple – Acer circinatum * Vine Maple – Acer circinatum  SW AK & southwest British Columbia to northern California  In CA, in the Cascade and N. Sierra Ranges  common component of coniferous http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?256,257,258 forest understory and along moist stream banks http://www.pennine.d © Clayton J. Antieau. emon.co.uk/Arboretu m/Acci.htm http://www.ippswr.org/home/ippsna/Denver/PPT-PDF/Buzzo.pdf © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 Vine Maple is almost a vine in shady forests Flowers: pretty, small  Size:  Blooms: spring (Mar-May)  10-30+ ft tall  15-35 ft wide  Flowers:  Typical for Maples  Growth form:  Bright red & cream-colored  Multi-trunk large shrub/tree  Quite small – it may or more vine-like – depends bloom without your mostly on available light noticing  Form of old plants often quite unique & beautiful  Seeds:  Moderate growth rate; long-  Typical samara of Maples lived  Bright orange-red color in  Foliage: summer-fall – really showy  Typical Maple leaves – palmate  Vegetative reproduction:  Winter deciduous  Natural layering (rooting of older branches that touch © 2003, G. D. Carr  Roots: can crown-sprout the ground) http://www.pennine.demon.co.uk/Arboretum/Acci.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acer_circinatum_03684.JPG Vine Maple grows  Soils: Vine Maples in moist forests  Texture: any well-drained brighten dark places  pH: slightly acidic (5.5 to 7.5)  Light:  As an attractive accent plant – green foliage, red  Afternoon shade or even more shady samaras & fall foliage color (maybe)  Great plant for under tall trees – pines, firs  Along stream banks – for a woodsy look  Water:  In large pots – can even http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/acci1.htm  Winter: need good water bonsai  Summer: best watered weekly in  As a tall informal or warm weather – Zone 2-3 semi-formal screen  Fertilizer: likes a rich soil with  As a narrow tree in shady plenty of organics; fine to fertilize areas (like side-yards) (2/3 strength/dose)  Espaliered along a wall,  Other: organic mulch a must fence or large trellis © Project SOUND Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUNDhttp://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants/acci1.htm © 2003, G. D. Carr 13