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Alice eastwood 2015


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Lecture on botanist Alice Eastwood.

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Alice eastwood 2015

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2015 (our 11th year)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND Alice Eastwood: an unusual California botanist and her legacy C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve May 2 & 7, 2015
  3. 3. Important CA plantspersons we have ‘met’ © Project SOUND Kate Sessions (1857-1940) Blanche Trask (1865-1916) Lester Rountree (1879 -1979) Theodore Payne (1872-1963) Alice Eastwood (1859-1951)
  4. 4. Alice Eastwood: difficult childhood  Born 1859, Toronto, Canada (eldest of three)  Lived on grounds of mental institution father managed (Toronto Asylum for the Insane)  Age 6 – mother dies  Father’s financial situation becomes dire; sent to live with physician uncle (William Eastwood)  Age 8 - returns to Toronto; becomes a boarder (with her sister) at a Catholic School (Oshawa Convent) outside Toronto © Project SOUND 1213&R=DC-PCR-1213
  5. 5. Alice Eastwood: difficult childhood  Age 14 (1873) – reunited with father and brother in Denver, CO  Father was just getting started as business owner & in real estate  Responsible for much of the household management  Takes job as nanny for wealthy ranching family until father builds a proper home  Family finances also force her to work as a seamstress  1879 (age 19) graduates as valedictorian from Denver East High School © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Early experiences with plants gave focus  Uncle:  An avid gardener and amateur botanist  From him she began to learn the scientific names of plants  Catholic School in Toronto:  Influenced by a priest (Father Pugh) who was an amateur botanist  Encouraged her interest in plants, gardening and nature  High School:  Job as nanny takes her to nearby Rockies in summer – first exposure to CO plants  Teacher gives her key books: Gray’s Manual & the Flora of Colorado; encourages collecting plants © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Teaching and collecting in Colorado: 1879-89  No funds to attend college – though she would have loved to  High school teacher in Denver  Spent summers collecting, on foot, horseback & by rail  Lived frugally; spent salary on botany books, supplies – made real estate investments with her father  1890 - $10,000 windfall from sale of building; invested wisely in real estate - provided needed income the rest of her life © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Collecting in Colorado  ‘Though it was considered somewhat improper for a woman to roam about the countryside by herself collecting plants, Eastwood cared little about convention and borrowed a horse, shortened her skirts at the ankles so she might hike hills more easily, and carried a plant press on her back.’  ‘Yet she also lived in an age when the American West was still uncharted territory in some places. She was robbed on one occasion, and on another became lost near Colorado's border with Utah and spent the night on a canyon ledge.’ Your Dictionary: Alice Eastwood. /alice-eastwood © Project SOUND Many trips to Mesa Verde & Four Corners region Cliff_Palace-Mesa_Verde_National_Park_Colorado.html
  9. 9. The importance of self-taught botanists: 1850-1920  Fewer people attended college; fewer departments of botany  Closer connection between medicine and plants; many physicians were amateur botanists  Some women had leisure to pursue amateur pursuits – including biology  Increased interest in the natural world during Victorian era  Founding of museums, scientific societies, etc. © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Eastwood’s impact on Colorado botany  Well-known for knowledge of local botany – guided Alfred Russel Wallace on collecting hike on Gray's Peak.  She maintained her own herbarium and published A Popular Flora of Denver, Colorado in 1893.  First botanist of record to investigate Utah's Great Basin - made of number of collecting expeditions in Colorado and the Four Corners region  The University of Colorado Herbarium claims, "the real beginning of the herbarium [at the University of Colorado] was our acquisition of the early collections of Alice Eastwood, Colorado's first resident botanist." © Project SOUND The herbarium at CU holds over 1400 specimens from Eastwood's collections.
  11. 11. A trip to CA in early 1890’s changes her life  1891-2 - Could finally afford to quit teaching  First trip to CA (1890-91):  Visited San Diego and the Santa Cruz and Monterey Peninsula areas  In San Francisco, introduced to T. Brandegee & Katharine Brandegee, the curator of botany at the California Academy of Sciences  After reviewing Eastwood’s herbaria, offered a job as a writer for the Academy's (actually Bradegee’s) botanical magazine, Zoe, and a job in its herbarium © Project SOUND Mary Katherine Brandegee 1844-1920
  12. 12. California Academy of Sciences  Founded 1853 – three years after CA statehood – founders propose to undertake "a thorough systematic survey of every portion of the State and the collection of a cabinet of her rare and rich productions.“  1853 – vote to include women  1860 – first geologic survey  1873 – first museum opens  1891 – grand new museum in downtown San Francisco  1896 – closer relations, University scientists  1903 – first major conservation expedition © Project SOUND Museum around 1900
  13. 13. Eastwood joined Academy at an interesting time  Before 1883, curatorship of the Botany Dept. was yearly, voluntary position  1891 - Alice Eastwood became joint Curator of the Botany Department at the Academy, with Mary Katharine Curran/Brandegee (first paid curator).  Brandegee’s retirement (1894) resulted in Eastwood becoming the sole Curator and Head of the Botany Department (1894- 1950)  Eastwood completed many trips in the early years, collecting and discovering a number of plants on the California coast.  Made important friends in botany community world-wide © Project SOUND One Hundred and Fifty Years of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences (1853–2003)
  14. 14. Early years at the Academy were busy  The organization of the Academy’s herbarium was haphazard at the time – and the politics were a bit caustic  Her first task was to organize the Academy's vast collections of specimens, and then to bring in more to fill in the gaps.  Against conventional practices of the time, Eastwood segregated type specimens (e.g. those one which the original description of the species is based) from the main collection. © Project SOUND Responsible for managing the California Botanical Club (until 1952) Herbarium in 1893
  15. 15. Never to marry…  Twice was close to suitable men – both died before they were married.  Eastwood, perhaps because of the hardships of her early life, had stated on occasion that she feared a romantic attachment might stand in the way of her first love, botany. © Project SOUND
  16. 16. A true passion for botany © Project SOUND  In between stints at the Academy, Eastwood continued to explore on her own and gather specimens; many of these were "type" specimens-the first sample of a species to be described and named.  She usually did so under the roughest of conditions; once, in a California's San Joaquin Valley, she slept in an abandoned shed for two nights, but discovered a new member of the sunflower family.  Eastwood knew by heart all the stagecoach routes to the counties surrounding the Bay Area and on foot was said to clock a rate of four miles per hour.©2010 Neal Kramer Eastwoodia elegans Brandegee
  17. 17. Parallels in the lives of notable CA plantspersons Theodore Payne Lester Rowntree Alice Eastwood Lost a parent early X X Difficult childhood; jobs, other household responsibilities +/- +/- X Boarding school/time away from family X +/- X Move to CA at impressionable age X X X Financial difficulties X X X College education Unconventional; self-motivated X X X Unmarried for much of life X X Early love of plants fostered by significant adults X +/- X © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Mission of the Academy: document new species before they disappear  Many common species had already been well-described – were even used in gardens  Eastwood needed to search for rarer species  Focused on places that were:  More remote – less well studied  Had unique geologic, geographic or other characteristics © Project SOUNDPeninsula onion – Allium peninsulare
  19. 19. Alice Eastwood’s Alliums (onions)  Allium cratericola Eastw. – Cascade onion  Allium fimbriatum var. purdyi (Eastw.) Ownbey & Aase - Purdy's fringed onion  Allium hickmanii Eastw. - Hickman's onion  Allium howellii Eastw. – Howell’s onion  Allium lacunosum var. micranthum Eastw. – Pitted onion  Allium yosemitense Eastw. – Yosemite onion © Project SOUND Eastwood had a lifelong interest in bulb plants in the family Liliaceae BlueAlliums
  20. 20. *Allium howellii - Howell’s onion  var. clokeyi is known only from the Mount Piños region and San Bernardino Mountains  Grows in the granite and serpentine soils of several of the local mountain ranges, hills, and valleys from San Joaquin County to San Bernardino County © Project SOUND ©1995 John Game nionhw3.htm
  21. 21. Eastwood’s type descriptions were excellent © Project SOUND
  22. 22. © Project SOUND * Purdy's fringed onion – Allium fimbriatum var. purdyi ©2014 Steve Matson
  23. 23.  Known only from the vicinity of Clear Lake, Lake & Colusa Counties.  Serpentine clay; 300--600 m  Proposed by A. Eastwood as Allium purdyi © Project SOUND * Purdy's fringed onion – Allium fimbriatum var. purdyi Full scientific name: Allium fimbriatum S. Watson var. purdyi (Eastw.) Ownbey & Aase
  24. 24. Serpentine soils and California onions  Serpentine soils occur in patches along the Pacific States  Few plants can survive these soils’ heavy metal toxicity  Many Allium species demonstrate an ability to grow on serpentine, some with tolerance and others endemic to serpentine outcrops  This soil type endemism seems to drive speciation in Allium - could be one of the factors contributing to the greater diversity of Allium in California and the West compared to other part of Northern America © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Our local Red-skinned onion offers some interesting clues  Adaptation to serpentine soils is ongoing, as evidenced by species that can survive on both serpentine and non-serpentine soils  Allium haematochiton exhibits a different flower morphology when growing on serpentine. Further work will be necessary to determine if local adaptation in this species has occurred on this specialized substrate. © Project SOUND
  26. 26. © Project SOUND Purdy’s onion: similar to other CA onions  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial from true bulb  Erect habit  Dies back to bulb after flowering  Foliage:  Pale green  Leaves few; linear or cylindrical ©1999 John Game
  27. 27. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained  pH: ?? any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: plenty of water; N CA plant  Summer: dries out as plants flower  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic or no mulch ©2011 Vernon Smith
  28. 28. © Project SOUND Garden uses for native onions  Excellent candidates for containers  Do fine on slopes  With their natural allies: native grasses, wildflowers and bulbs ©2011 Vernon Smith
  29. 29. Careful field observation and notes were essential to Eastwood’s work © Project SOUND One Hundred and Fifty Years of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences (1853–2003)
  30. 30. *Allium cratericola – Cascade onion  Serpentine, volcanic, and granitic soil; 300--1800 m  Populations from S. CA are 2- leaved; those from the north are either 1- or 2-leaved or sometimes a mixture of both forms © Project SOUND ©2012 Barry Rice Field observations give clues to cultivation: The key to cultivation is that the medium must be well drained with some organic matter. It likes being in full sun. Winter water is necessary, but a dry summer dormancy is extremely important
  31. 31. *Allium hickmanii - Hickman’s onion  Rare endemic of the Monterey Peninsula and Arroyo de la Cruz.  Of conservation concern © Project SOUND Some things never change: still threatened by urbanization, grazing, non-native plants, trampling, road construction, and military activities ©1999 John Game
  32. 32. Even from her earliest days, Eastman was collecting & documenting unusual native plants © Project SOUND That’s one of the things that made the California Academy of Sciences unique
  33. 33. Importance of the CA Academy: 1900  The Academy published: Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences  Department of Botany was the center of botanical activity in California from its inception until the early 1900’s.  The Academy’s herbarium was the largest and most important in western North America.  An inventory (mid-1890s) - 74,767 total specimens.  Considering Eastwood’s activities it is reasonable to suppose that by 1906 the herbarium contained at least 100,000 specimens. © Project SOUND Important interactions with academic, horticultural and other scientific disciplines One Hundred and Fifty Years of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences (1853–2003)
  34. 34. April 18, 1906 – 5:12 a.m. : disaster struck © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Eastwood acts  Eastwood dressed and ran to the Academy building on Market Street; struggle to gain access  The herbarium was located on the sixth floor of the badly damaged building, and an adjacent paint plant had erupted in flames.  Eastwood & her assistant (Robert Porter), literally alone, retrieved as many specimens as possible.  In all, 1,497 plant specimens (the important type specimens) rescued.  Her own personal collection, which Eastwood began assembling in her teens, was lost along with most of the Academy’s library, records & specimens. © Project SOUND
  36. 36. The rescue: in her own words © Project SOUND  "[N]obody seemed to be complaining or sorrowful. The sound of trunks being dragged along I can never forget. This seemed the only groan the city made… ."  As for the Academy itself, "I did not feel the loss to be mine," she wrote, "but it is a great loss to the scientific world and an irreparable loss to California. My own destroyed work I do not lament, for it was a joy to me while I did it, and I can still have the same joy in starting it again… .“ Letter to Science; cited in Carol Green Wilson's Alice Eastwood's Wonderland: The Adventures of a Botanist
  37. 37. Preparing for the future: 1906-1912  Before the Academy constructed a new building, Alice Eastwood traveled and studied throughout Europe and the United States.  Studied in leading herbaria including the Gray Herbarium (Harvard), the New York Botanical Garden, the British Museum, and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.  Established friendships and increased her knowledge  In 1912, with completion of the new Academy facilities at Golden Gate Park, Eastwood was offered a job.  She returned as Curator of the Botany Department in 1912. © Project SOUND Gray Herbarium, Harvard
  38. 38. Re-establishing the herbarium: 1912-1942  Eastwood dedicated herself to rebuilding the collection.  Her expeditions were numerous, including collecting trips to Alaska, Arizona, Baja California, British Columbia, Utah, and all throughout California.  Many of the expeditions were financed personally by Eastwood  By 1942, the collection numbered over 300,000 plant specimens, nearly three times the number destroyed in 1906 earthquake and fire © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Building up the herbarium from scratch  Eastwood herself contributed "thousands of sheets to the Academy's herbarium, personally accounting for its growth in size and representation of western flora". © Project SOUND  By keeping the first set of each collection for the Academy and exchanging the duplicates with other institutions Eastwood was able to build the collection  Example: 3113 specimens to Harvard Herbarium Warner Hot Springs, San Diego County, 1913
  40. 40. The concept of the ecological niche  Many definitions – concept has evolved over time  Definition: Place or function of an organism within its ecosystem  Definition: that set of environmental factors (both abiotic and biotic) which permits populations to persist.  A niche is a very specific segment of ecospace occupied by a single species © Project SOUND p/LecCommEcolComp.html
  41. 41. Unusual conditions = unusual niches  California has a number of unique habitats:  Deserts  High and low elevations  Seaside conditions  Rain forests  Unique soil types  Etc. © Project SOUND Much of Eastwood’s personal collecting would focus on the unique plants that evolved under unusual conditions and constraints
  42. 42. The need to document/collect species before they disappeared was always in Eastwood’s mind  Alice Eastwood focused her collecting on:  Areas that were unique  Areas that had not been fully studied  Areas that were in danger of disappearing © Project SOUND Unfortunately, many of the interesting species she studied are not currently available to the home gardener – for a variety of reasons
  43. 43. © Project SOUND *Bolander’s lily – Lilium bolanderi ©2008 Gary A. Monroe
  44. 44.  Klamath Range & SW Oregon  UNCOMMON. Serpentine soil in chaparral, conifer forest, generally with Xerophyllum 150–1600 m  Difficult to grow © Project SOUND *Bolander’s lily – Lilium bolanderi lorataxon.aspx?flora_id =1&taxon_id=2421017 27 ©2008 Keir Morse
  45. 45. © Project SOUND *Coast lily – Lilium maritimum ©2013 Vernon Smith
  46. 46.  From below San Francisco to about Westport in Mendocino County, within a few miles of the ocean.  Coastal prairies, N. coastal scrub, sundew (Drosera spp.) bogs, gaps in closed-cone pine forests < 150 m  Luther Burbank 1888 catalog: a “wild species of lily” (Lilium maritimum) described as “California bog lily, dwarf, reddish orange, spotted.” © Project SOUND *Coast lily – Lilium maritimum ©2012 Aaron Arthur ©2008 Halleh Paymard axon_id=242101736
  47. 47. © Project SOUND Coast lily: in many ways a typical lily  Size:  2-4 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial from a bulb  Dies back to bulb after booming  Upright habit  Foliage:  Larger leaves mainly in basal rosette  Whorls of lance-shaped leaves on flower stalk  Bulb: rhizomatous; irregular, 1-3 inches /File:Lilium_maritimum_(lit).jpg
  48. 48. © Project SOUND Flowers: small, bright, showy  Blooms: late spring/early summer – May-July  Flowers:  Small for lily – 1-2 inches  Typical trumpet shape, but tepals roll back  Red or red-orange with maroon blotches circling the throat  Seeds: ©2006 Steven Thorsted ©2012 Aaron Arthur
  49. 49. Growing native lilies from seed  Requires patience, good drainage, disease and weed control and common sense  4-5 month cold/moist treatment for most western lily seeds; plant when just beginning to germinate  Need light, airy potting mix which retains moisture but allows good drainage – potting soil + perlite  Keep moist but not too wet  Be patient – may take a while to see any growth © Project SOUND ©2010 Zoya Akulova
  50. 50. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained, sandy soils are best  pH: slightly acidic (5.5-7.5)  Light: dappled sun; part-shade  Water:  Winter: needs plenty of water – tolerates flooding  Summer: taper off after blooming; takes some summer water  Fertilizer: likes a thin organic mulch – pine needle mulch is great  Other: remove foliage when it withers after flowering/seed-set ©2012 Aaron Arthur
  51. 51. © Project SOUND Woodsy wild lily  Good choice for shady containers – can give it the right conditions  Dampish, shady areas of the garden – under tall trees  Mix with other N. coast grasses, bulbs, wildflowers ©2008 Halleh Paymard ©2014 John Doyen ©2008 Halleh Paymard
  52. 52. Gardening with native lilies in S. California  May be easy or quite difficult depending on requirements  Many native lilies available only as seed  Many are good candidates for containers  Often require:  Excellent drainage  Moist soils, even into summer (when many bloom)  A little richer soil than our native soils provide  Some shade in S. CA © Project SOUND /oriental_2.html
  53. 53. Eastwood’s botanical interests were broad and general  Her over 300 published works include:  technical botanical treatises  floristic studies  horticultural notes  ethnobotanical reports  historical accounts of botanical exploration  book reviews  popular articles for a lay audience. © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Eastwood wrote in a clear style, understandable to a diverse audiance  “It is not easy to place the boundary between trees and shrubs, especially in California where some species are either trees or shrubs. In general a tree differs from a shrub in having a distinct trunk not less than fifteen feet high. Where the species is only rarely a tree and generally a shrub, it has not been included, so that many species of Ceanothus, many of the manzanitas, the sumachs and many others have been omitted.” A. Eastwood – A Handbook of the Trees of California © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Modest despite her accomplishments  “Throughout the work the aim has always been brevity and clearness – the desire to help rather than to shine.” A. Eastwood – A Handbook of the Trees of California © Project SOUND of-California-Alice-Eastwood/book/18536043 Willis Linn Jepson
  56. 56.  ‘Forceful, energetic, and outgoing, Alice Eastwood not only provided professional botanists with critical specimens but also stimulated fuchsia fanciers to grow novelties, instructed travelers in the best methods of plant collecting, and helped to arouse the public to save native species, from the endemic lowly salt marsh sanicle to the giant redwoods’ B. Sicherman: Notable American Women: The Modern Period 1980; Harvard Press © Project SOUND
  57. 57.  ‘To popularize botany she maintained changing exhibits of freshly gathered flowers in the Academy’s foyer. She was the ‘gardener’s botanist’ to west coast horticulturalists [including Kate Sessions of San Diego].  Recognition and honors came from garden clubs as well as from the Seventh International Botanical Conference in Stockholm in 1950, which elected her honorary president.’ B. Sicherman: Notable American Women: The Modern Period. 1980; Harvard Press © Project SOUND Eastwood’s passion was plants – and introducing CA natives to the public
  58. 58. Bringing interesting plants to the public  Immediately outside of the new herbarium, she helped develop Golden Gate Park into a horticultural wonderland, where today some 8,000 species from nearly all regions of the planet are cultivated, mostly out-of- doors, on land that was previously sand dunes.  To help ensure the success of the diverse plantings in Golden Gate Park, she taught classes in the evening for the Park’s gardeners. © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Alice Eastwood did have her favorites  Although she published articles on mushrooms, ferns, gymnosperms, monocots and dicots, she worked extensively with manzanitas (Arctostaphylos), lupines (Lupinus), Indian paint brushes (Castilleja), and numerous plants occurring on Mt. Tamalpais in Marin County  She was also interested in fuchsias © Project SOUND afs.jpg
  60. 60. Taxonomy & Systematics: grouping & naming  Taxonomy: science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants  Three goals:  Identification : identifying an unknown plant by comparison with previously collected  Classification: placing known plants into groups or categories to show some relationship.  Description : formal description of a new species, usually in the form of a scientific paper  Systematics: the science of relationships between plants and their evolution, especially at the higher levels  Classical (morphological) systematics – based on similarities in plant physical characteristics (how plant looks; chemical similarities; etc.)  Molecular systematics – based on similarities in genetic material © Project SOUND The two are highly interrelated – both aim to better understand and reflect the true relationships between different plants
  61. 61. © Project SOUND What is a species?  Some definitions of species  Biological Species Concept - they cannot interbreed & produce viable offspring; interbreeding studies  Morphospecies Concept - they are different morphologically and do not come in contact for interbreeding  Genetic Species Concept – still working on this – how similar must they be to constitute a species?  Practical definition - Practically, biologists define species as populations of organisms that have a high level of genetic similarity.  The field of taxonomy is changing with our increasingly sophisticated tools Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. aspleniifolius Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. floribundus
  62. 62. Classic taxonomy: difficult decisions based on morphology, range  What constitutes a separate species? © Project SOUND The case of the ‘Kotolo milkweed’
  63. 63. Eastwood argues for species status based on range and morphology © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Eastwood showed great sensitivity in proposing names © Project SOUND
  65. 65. The final verdict on ‘Kotolo milkweed’? © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Indian Milkweed - Asclepias eriocarpa
  67. 67. Milkweeds  Milkweeds are found in many areas of CA  In S. CA, Indian Milkweed found primarily in Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mountains.  Sites are typically  Dry at least part of summer; good winter/spring water  Sunny  Barren soil (bare areas in chaparral/Oak woodlands; streambeds; alluvial areas) Narrow-leaf Milkweed Indian Milkweed
  68. 68. Milkweeds: widespread & easy  For butterfly/pollinator gardens  For showy white-pink flowers in summer  Along paths and walkways  In mid-beds – would look nice with brighter pinks and purple flowers
  69. 69. Eastwood was a talented taxonomist  Proposed over 600 species, subspecies & varieties from CA, OR and the Rockies  Overall, ~30% acceptance rate (even today)  That’s pretty amazing! © Project SOUND
  70. 70. © Project SOUND Plant Systematics: the interrelationship between ‘natural’ taxonomy, evolution and phylogeny How to define a species – still an issue
  71. 71. While best known for her work with N. CA species, Eastwood named several local species  Astragalus tener var. titi (Eastw.) Barneby  Brodiaea jolonensis Eastw.  Ceanothus megacarpus var. insularis (Eastw.) Munz - island ceanothus  Cercocarpus traskiae Eastw. - Catalina Island mountain-mahogany  Ribes indecorum Eastw. – Whiteflower currant © Project SOUND
  72. 72. © Project SOUND White-flowered Currant - Ribes indecorum Correctly identified as separate species: Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 3. 2: 243, plate 23, fig. 3a, b. 1902
  73. 73. Eastwood’s connection to S. CA reflected her curatorial & personal interests  Developed friendships with local botanists/ hortculturalists  Blanche Trask (1865-1916) – many of her herbarium specimens among those lost in 1906  Leroy Abrams (1874-1956 ) - Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity  Kate Sessions (1857-1940) – nursery woman – designed Balboa Park  Lester Rountree (1879 -1979)  Many others  Eastwood spent six days on Santa Catalina Island July 20-25, 1917; specimens are located in the California Academy of Sciences. © Project SOUND tallibrary/digitalcontent&id=466
  74. 74. Botanizing on the Channel Islands  “…Miss Eastwood, on behalf of the Academy, very completely botanized Santa Cruz and Catalina islands. On all her exploring trips over these islands, she was accompanied by Mrs. Miller, herself an enthusiastic botanist, and when the two ladies left the sailing party to return home by rail from San Diego a short time ago, they took with then a comprehensive exhibit of the flora of the islands mentioned…” © Project SOUND Avalon,_on_Santa_Catalina_Island,_after_1908_(CHS-838).jpg Even then, the Channel Island species were thought to be unique – and in need of protection!
  75. 75.  “There are two species of Lyonothamnus, one on Santa Catalina Island and the other on San Clemente Island – beautiful and peculiar trees belonging to the Rose family. On Santa Catalina there is also a mountain mahogany (named in honor of its discoverer, Mrs. Blanche Trask) more lovely than any of its relatives in any other part of the world. It is found only in a few cañons so remote that until lately they had never been seen.” -A. Eastwood – A Handbook of the Trees of California © Project SOUND
  76. 76. © Project SOUND Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Cercocarpus traskiae
  77. 77. “That any one should have found a new tree on an island that so many botanists have visited is surprising; but it is due to the great enthusiasm, the wonderful power of exploration, and the intense love for Santa Catalina Island and its flowers which Mrs. Trask possesses. It is with pleasure that I give her name to this tree." The quote is from 1898 for the discovery of Trask Mahogany (Cercocarpus traskiae) on Catalina Island. © Project SOUND Catalina Island Mountain Mahogony – Cercocarpus traskiae
  78. 78. © Project SOUND Catalina Mountain Mahogany -  Size:  10-15 ft tall  8-12+ ft wide  Growth form:  Large evergreen shrub or small tree  Branches erect to spreading  Long-lived  Foliage:  Leaves leathery, shiny above and wooly beneath  Very prominent lateral veins beneath – very different from Island Mountain Mahogany C. betuloides © 1993 Dean Wm. Taylor
  79. 79. © Project SOUND Threats to endemic Channel Island plant species  Large introduced herbivores have historically altered the flora and the landscape of Santa Catalina, San Clemente & other Channel Islands.  Goats, pigs, bison, and deer were noted at the time of listing of C. traskiae as a threatened species. The small size of the current C. traskiae population is attributed to the historical presence of goats, deer, and pigs  Invasive non-native plants pose perhaps a greater threat now – increase fire threat  Threat of hybridization – ‘genetic assimilation’  Threat of limited genetic diversity – sometimes a small population becomes too inbred to be able to survive
  80. 80. © Project SOUND What makes a species susceptible to genetic assimilation?  Small number of individuals compared to other local species  Ability to hybridize with local species – and close geographic proximity to those  Low genetic diversity – may limit reproduction within the species  Low geographic diversity/lack of space – common problem for Channel Island species  Invasion by species with hybridization potential
  81. 81. © Project SOUND The problem of hybridization on islands  Cercocarpus traskiae has hybridized locally with C. betuloides var. blancheae, which also occurs on the island.  The hybrids have been characterized morphologically as well as by enzyme (allozyme) and DNA differences.  Morphological assessments of hybridization have not always agreed with the genetic results  Bottom line: only six genetically “pure” Cercocarpus traskiae trees in existance ts/islandmountainmahogany.html
  82. 82. Island populations don’t always occur on physical islands © Project SOUND Lupinus croceus Eastw., endemic to the northernmost mountains of California
  83. 83. Eastwood’s contribution to genus Lupinus  70 citations – 32 new species [1/4 currently still accepted]  Currently accepted  Lupinus angustiflorus Eastw. - narrowflower lupine  Lupinus antoninus Eastw. – Anthony Peak lupine  Lupinus caudatus ssp. cutleri (Eastw.) L.W. Hess & D.B. Dunn - Cutler's spurred lupine  Lupinus croceus Eastw. – Mt. Eddy lupine  Lupinus dalesiae Eastw. – Quincy lupine  Lupinus duranii Eastw. - Mono Lake lupine  Lupinus kuschei Eastw. – Yukon lupine [AK species]  Lupinus nipomensis Eastw. – Nipomo Mesa lupine  Lupinus sublanatus Eastw. – Mono lupine  Lupinus tracyi Eastw. – Tracy’s lupine © Project SOUND
  84. 84. *Lupinus antoninus – Anthony Peak lupine  Most herbaria specimens from Eastwood, John Thomas Howell, in early 1940’s  Threats  Narrow range: known from just four sites in the Inner North Coast Ranges of California.  Hybridization with Lupinus albifrons var. collinus. © Project SOUND
  85. 85. There is currently enormous interest in documenting species’ ranges © Project SOUND
  86. 86. IUCN Red Data Book  Classifies organisms based on their threat of extinction  Classification based on  Potential range  Current actual range  Historical decline in numbers  Habitat fragmentation  The relationship between population numbers and risk of extinction is well documented for many species. Why use range?  Because the data is more available © Project SOUND obal/1978_RDB_Plants.jpg
  87. 87. Why worry about geographic range? Species vulnerability  Limited geographic populations are particularly vulnerable to:  Human encroachment  Disease & predation  Climate change/variability  Limited geographic populations are also vulnerable to genetic factors  Reproductive ‘fitness’  Enough genetic variability to insure survival under changing conditions  Hybridization/’gene swamping’ © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Range dynamics: what we know  For at least some species, range size increases rapidly just after speciation; after that, slow decrease in range size  Lag phase; rapid increase in range size; slow decrease  In general, species with larger range appear less vulnerable to extinction  Data are difficult to come by (paleontology) and may be biased  In part due to fact that species with wider range also have greater numbers  Great variability  Just because a species has a ‘large’ range doesn’t guarantee it won’t become extinct (particularly through human actions – direct or indirect) © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Eastwood understood the conservation implications of her work  We must carefully document California’s biotic resources (as completely as possible)  We must work to conserve habitat in situ  Other possibilities not envisioned by Eastwood:  Save germplasm (seed/DNA banks)  Grow plants in alternative sites (natural; gardens) © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Eastwood was an avid conservationist.  She succeeded in getting most of Mount Tamalpais declared a state park.  She also helped form the “Save the Redwoods” League.  Worked to save a redwood grove in Humboldt County (which was named Alice Eastwood Memorial Grove). © Project SOUND,_Alice
  91. 91. *Eastwood’s manzanita - Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. glandulosa © Project SOUND ©2004 Doreen L. Smith
  92. 92. Genus Arctostaphylos – the Manzanitas  26 proposed species; 16 still currently accepted  Accepted species:  Arctostaphylos auriculata Eastw. - Mount Diablo manzanita  Arctostaphylos australis Eastw. – Australian m.  Arctostaphylos bakeri Eastw. – Baker’s m.  Arctostaphylos canescens Eastw. – Hoary m.  Arctostaphylos confertiflora Eastw. - Santa Rosa Island m.  Arctostaphylos crustacea Eastw. – Brittleleaf m.  Arctostaphylos franciscana Eastw. - San Francisco m.  Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. – Eastwood’s m.  Arctostaphylos imbricata Eastw. - San Bruno Mountain m.  Arctostaphylos montana Eastw. - Mt. Tamalpais m.  Arctostaphylos obispoensis Eastw. – Bishop manzanita  Arctostaphylos pallida Eastw. – Alameda m. © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Genus Arctostaphylos – the Manzanitas  Accepted species (cont.):  Arctostaphylos pechoensis (Abrams) Dudley ex Eastw. – Pacheco manzanita  Arctostaphylos regismontana Eastw. – King’s Mountain m.  Arctostaphylos virgata Eastw. – Bolinas m.  Arctostaphylos viridissima (Eastw.) McMinn – Whitehair m. © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Alice Eastwood was a pretty good ‘splitter’  Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. -- accepted -- Eastwood's manzanita  Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. cushingiana (Eastw.) J.E. Keeley, M.C. Vasey & V.T. Parker -- accepted -- Cushing manzanita  Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. glandulosa Eastw. -- accepted -- Eastwood's manzanita  Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. howellii (Eastw.) P.V. Wells -- not accepted  Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. zacaensis (Eastw.) P.V. Wells -- not accepted -- Zaca's manzanita  Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. campbelliae (Eastw.) J.E. Adams ex McMinn - - not accepted  Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. cushingiana (Eastw.) J.E. Adams ex McMinn - - not accepted  Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. howellii (Eastw.) J.E. Adams ex McMinn -- not accepted  Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. virgata (Eastw.) Jeps. -- not accepted  Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. zacaensis (Eastw.) J.E. Adams ex McMinn -- not accepted © Project SOUND
  95. 95. © Project SOUND * Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia
  96. 96.  Endemic to the south-central coast of San Diego County south into extreme northwestern Baja California  On coastal sandstone bluffs within the rare and threatened maritime chaparral plant community  Some of the best populations exist and are protected at Torrey Pines State Reserve © Project SOUND,3454,3470,3472 * Del mar Manzanita – Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp. crassifolia
  97. 97. A. glandulosa ssp. mollis – SMM & San Gabriels © Project SOUND tostaphylos_glandulosa_mollis.htm
  98. 98. © Project SOUND Del mar Manzanita: gray-green to blue-green  Size:  3-6 ft tall; usually 3-5 ft  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Small to medium sized evergreen shrub w/ red bark  Rounded, upright to rambling form  Slow growing  Foliage:  Gray-green to blue-green  Neat/tidy looking  Roots: re-sprouts from basal burl © 2007 Charles E. Jones
  99. 99. © Project SOUND Flowers contrast beautifully with foliage  Blooms: winter to early spring – may be earlier or later  Flowers:  Pale pink  Typical shape of the genus  Sweet scent
  100. 100. © Project SOUND Use Del Mar Manzanita  As a tall groundcover  Under pines  As an informal hedge  With its usual associated species Comarostaphylis, Xylococcus, Quercus and Salvia species.
  101. 101. Population density extremes: not good  Too many  Too few  Decreased mating partners – may ↓ reproduction  Increased inbreeding  Possible extinction of the population (Allee effect)  Minimal Viable Population (MVP) - the smallest population size that can avoid extinction © Project SOUND © 2006 Steve Matson Mount Diablo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos auriculata
  102. 102. © Project SOUND * Mount Diablo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos auriculata
  103. 103. © Project SOUND * Mount Diablo Manzanita – Arctostaphylos auriculata © 2006 Steve Matson,3454,3456  Endemic to the area surrounding Mount Diablo, in Contra Costa County (e San Francisco Bay Area)  occurs primarily in chamise or manzanita chaparral. It can also be found as an understory shrub in coast live oak woodland, 400'-2000' elevation
  104. 104. © Project SOUND Mount Diablo Manzanita: beautiful foliage  Size:  3-12 ft tall; usually 4-6 ft  5-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen woody shrub  Erect to mounded  Twigs hairy; older bark red  Foliage:  Gray-green; may be very fuzzy  Rounded, over-lapping leaves clasp the branches  Very unusual and lovely appearance © 2006 Steve Matson
  105. 105. © Project SOUND Flowers are pink!  Blooms: winter to early spring  Flowers:  Usually pink – sometimes white  Usually hairy  Many flower clusters per plant – plant covered with flowers  Otherwise, fairly typical flowers for the genus  Fruits: small & hairy until mature. © 2006 Steve Matson
  106. 106. © Project SOUND A. auriculata can take a little more water  Soils:  Texture: well-drained  pH: slightly acidic best  Light:  Full sun on coast  Morning sun/dappled shade in hot gardens  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with a little summer water (Zone 1-2 up to 2); rinse off occasionally in summer (be ‘the fog’)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: organic mulch (including oak and pine needles © 2006 Steve Matson
  107. 107. © Project SOUND Mt. Diablo Manzanita for a silvery touch  As a dramatic accent plant in dry shrub beds, along walkways  In a chaparral garden  In a hummingbird garden  Sprawling over a fence or wall sAuriculataBlackDiamondMinePreserve#5512180876178895842
  108. 108. © Project SOUND What genetic resources should we conserve (and how)?  Based on aesthetic or other potential?  Broadly - because we don’t know all the ‘services’ provided by individual species (medicines; habitat value; etc)  Broadly - because more diversity means more likely that at least species will survive changing conditions – in the near future  Based on species uniquely adapted to certain conditions – we may need those genes sometime  ???????? usTraskiae.html
  109. 109. © Project SOUND Management strategies for conserving rare species: key issue today  Remove species that may hybridize with the desired species  Remove other pressures to reproduction – e.g. herbivores that eat seedlings, other stressors – protect the remaining individuals as source plants  +/- Remove hybrid plants/seedlings  Vegetative propagation to create more individuals  Plant out in appropriate sites:  Local area  Otherwise appropriate conditions  No potential hybridizing species
  110. 110. © Project SOUND * Glossyleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos nummularia
  111. 111.  North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, w San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Tamalpais, Santa Cruz Mtns)  Rocky sites, woodland, coniferous forest, < 1500 ft  AKA ‘Fort Bragg Manzanita’ © Project SOUND * Glossyleaf Manzanita – Arctostaphylos nummularia
  112. 112. © Project SOUND Glossyleaf Manzanita: variable habit  Size:  2-6 ft tall; usually 2-3 in nature  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Dense evergreen shrub  Habit varies from low and spreading (rocky, exposed sites), mounded to larger upright shrub (forest sites)  Red bark  Foliage:  Leaves rounded, tidy looking  Dark shiny green above; lighter beneath  Roots: no burl – don’t coppice! © 2006 Steve Matson
  113. 113. © Project SOUND Manzanita flowers  Blooms:  In winter; usually Dec-Feb locally, tho’ may be a few blooms at other times  Flowers:  Small, urn-shaped flowers typical of the genus  Pale pink; sweetly scented  Flower clusters slightly more open and other species  Flowers pollinated by large bees – ‘buzz pollination’  Fruits:  Edible ‘apples’ in summer/fall © 2006 Steve Matson
  114. 114. © Project SOUND Grows under range of conditions  Soils:  Texture: well-drained – sandy or rocky best  pH: slightly acidic; may want to amend with peat moss  Light:  Best with afternoon shade  Good choice for under trees (pines; oaks)  Water:  Winter: gets a lot in its native habitat – supplement if needed  Summer: gets summer rain and fog – Zone 2-3 and wash-downs  Fertilizer: light applications of acid fertilizer  Other: best near the coast © 2004 Aaron Schusteff
  115. 115. © Project SOUND Garden uses for Glossyleaf Manzanita  Mounded groundcover under pines and similar tall trees  Along coast, with other species for a north coast themed garden: Allium unifolium, Diplicus aurantiacus, Baccharis pilularis, Pinus attenuata, Fragaria vesca, Satureja douglasii © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College © 2004 Aaron Schusteff
  116. 116. Arctostaphylos nummularia ‘Small Change’  Selected for its small leaves which are bronze when young.  2-3' H x 3-4' W; mounding or spreading  Coast: full sun; Inland: part shade  Well-draining, acidic soils - good choice for planting under pines.  Provide afternoon sun and extra water in inland gardens. © Project SOUND'Small_Change'
  117. 117. Versatile ‘Emerald Carpet’ hybrid is garden friendly and low  Hybrid between Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and A. nummularia – best traits of both parents  groundcover to very low hedge © Project SOUND
  118. 118. The quandary of ‘garden cultivars’  The pros  Help conserve species/sub- types in danger from loss of habitat  Spread the resources to multiple geographic areas – perhaps less vulnerable to disease, climate change, etc.  The cons  Evolution in the garden/ nursery setting – essentially creating multiple islands  Threat of hybridization [example: Prunus ilicifolia] © Project SOUND Note: these same issues are being grappled with in zoos & animal sanctuaries
  119. 119. The quandary of plants reproduced vegetatively  All essentially identical (except for mutations that occur later)  Essentially a mono-culture (not much different from agricultural monocultures)  Vulnerabilities  Threat to local native populations by ‘gene swamping’ © Project SOUND
  120. 120. Why worry about loss of plant biodiversity?  Ethical/moral reasons: we should be good co-species or stewards, especially if we’re the cause of the loss  Aesthetic/historic reasons:  They make our surroundings a nice place to live  They are literally our link with the past  Selfish reasons:  They are our food (and other useful resources)  They are potential sources of medicines and other useful products yet to be discovered  They perform ecosystem services – some of which we don’t even know about.
  121. 121. Eastwood: active and engaged to age 90 © Project SOUND 1942 Elected Honorary member of California Academy of Sciences 1949 Retires as Botany curator 1950 Serves as Honorary President of the VIIth International Botanical Congress in Sweden 1953 Dies in San Francisco bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=108051991 Long-term association with John Thomas Howell, who succeeded her as CAS Botany curator in 1949 One Hundred and Fifty Years of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences (1853–2003)
  122. 122. Alice Eastwood’s legacy  Credited with building the botanical collection at the California Academy of Sciences  published over 310 scientific articles, several books and edited several important botanical journals of her day.  Seventeen currently recognized species named for her, as well as the genera Eastwoodia and Aliciella.  Campground on Mt Tampais named in her honor of her conservation efforts there. © Project SOUND
  123. 123. Books by Alice Eastwood  Eastwood's Channel Islands Flora.  A Popular Flora of the Pacific Coast (1897)  A Popular Flora of the Rockey Mountain Region (1900)  A flora of the South Fork of Kings River : from Millwood to the head waters of Bubbs Creek (Sierra Club, 1902)  A Handbook of the Trees of California (1905)  A key to the common families of flowering plants in California, and A guide for the analysis and description of flowering plants. Prepared for and published by the California Botanical Club, California Academy of Sciences. (San Francisco, 1934) © Project SOUND
  124. 124. Eastwood as journal editor  editor of Zoe - 1893-189? - An ‘alternative outlet’ to the CA Acad. of Science Bulletin – allowed more active debate and criticism  assistant editor for Erythea : A Journal of Botany, West American and General [with Jepson] before the 1906 earthquake  Founded Leaflets of Western Botany (1932–1949), with John Thomas Howell [continued until 1966 under Howell alone] © Project SOUND Eastwood/book/18559081 Much of this material is being digitized and is now available on the internet
  125. 125. Honors and achievements  A member of the California Academy of Sciences since 1892; unanimously elected an honorary member of the Academy in 1942.  In 1903 she was one of only two of the few women listed in American Men of Science to be denoted, by a star, as being considered to be among the top 25% of professionals in their discipline.  In 1949, in recognition of her achievements, the American Fuchsia Society awarded her with its Medal of Achievement.  Served as Honorary President of the VIIth International Botanical Congress in Sweden © Project SOUND
  126. 126. Alice Eastwood: her continuing legacy  Better understanding of plants from some remote (and unusual) areas of CA  Shedding light on the continuing controversy of what constitutes a ‘species’  Promoting an appreciation for rare species – and their conservation  Serves as an inspiration for all women – including those whose lives include challenges  An inspiration to those of us proud to be called ‘elders’ – half of her publications after the age of 50! © Project SOUND
  127. 127. We hope you’ll want to get to know Miss Eastwood better  Eastwood gave a lecture at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History in 1929  As reported in the April Leaflet: “Miss Eastwood is not only an admirable scientist, but a rare human being as well. A simple, kindly woman stood before her audience and told with utter lack of self- consciousness of experiences which not one woman in a thousand would care to undergo.” © Project SOUND
  128. 128. Resources on Alice Eastman  Alice Eastman Archives (CA Acad. of Sci) - contains her memoirs, diaries, field notes, and correspondence, among other items.  Ladies in the Laboratory? American and British Women in Science, 1800-1900 - Mary R. S. Creese  Ross, Michael E. and Caple, Laurie A. 1997. Flower Watching with Alice Eastwood. Carolrhoda Books, Inc. Minneapolis. - a charming young person's book with many photos of Eastwood © Project SOUND
  129. 129. More books/articles about Alice Eastwood  Dakin, Susanna Bryant. 1954. The Perennial Adventure; A Tribute to Alice Eastwood. Cal. Acad. Sci.  Wilson, Carol Green. 1955. Alice Eastwood's Wonderland; the Adventures of A Botanist. Cal. Acad. Sci.  Bonta, Marcia Myers. 1991. Women in the Field; America's Pioneering Women Naturalists. Texas A & M Univ. Press. Includes bios of Kate Brandegee and Alice Eastwood.  Daniel, Thomas F. 2008. One Hundred and Fifty Years of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences (1853–2003) - df/history_botany_at_cas_pcas_v59apr08_daniel_pp_215- 305lr.pdf  Moore, Patricia Ann. 1996. Cultivating Science in the Field: Alice Eastwood, Ynés Mexia and California Botany, 1890-1940. PhD Dissertation, UCLA; UMI 9640244. © Project SOUND
  130. 130. Tributes to Alice Eastwood  Abrams, Leroy. "Alice Eastwood--Western Botanist." Pacific Discovery. 2(1):14-17, 1949.  Howell, John Thomas. "Alice Eastwood: 1859-1953." Taxon. 3(4): 98-100, 1953.  Howell, John Thomas. "I Remember, When I Think..." Leaflets of Western Botany. 7: 153-176, 1954.  MacFarland, F. M., with R. C. Miller and John Thomas Howell. "Biographical Sketch of Alice Eastwood." Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series, 25: ix-xiv, bibliography xv-xxiv. © Project SOUND
  131. 131.  Garden Party & Ice cream Social  Madrona Native Plant Garden  May 9th – 2:00-4:00  South Bay Water-wise Garden Tour  May 17th  Tickets still available – see website © Project SOUND
  132. 132. Go out and enjoy Miss Eastman’s California this month © Project SOUND