TIME MANAGEMENTPresenter: Ms Tiffany Chichester Gilkes RN
OBJECTIVES Understand the definition of time management. Describe the steps in time management. Identifying priority settings and procrastination. Outline the leaders roles and function in time management. Identify how to manage time at work , daily planning , and personal time. Identify time wasters both internally and externally. Outline methods of time management. Differentiate between polychronic and Monochronic time managementstyles.
TIME MANAGEMENT Time management-is making optimal use ofavailable time. Is the act or process of planning and exercisingconscious control over the amount time spent onspecific activities ,especially to increaseeffectiveness , efficiency or productivity.
BASIC STEPS IN TIME MANAGEMENTstep1• Allow time for planning, and establishprioritiesstep2• Complete the highest priority task wheneverpossible, and finish one task beforebeginning another.step3• Reprioritize based on the remaining tasksand on new information that may have beenreceived.
PRIORITY SETTING AND PROCRASTINATION Vacarro (2001) suggest that there are five priority –settingtraps:1. Whatever hits first –this occurs when an individual simplyresponds to things as they happen rather than thinking firstthen acting.2. “Path of least resistance”-the individual makes an erroneousassumption that is always easier to do a task personallyand fails to delegate appropriately.
CONT.3. “Squeaky wheel”-the individual falls prey to those whoare most vocal about their urgent request.4. “Default’‟-the individual feel obligated to take on task noone else has come forward to do.5. “Inspiration‟‟-individual wait until they become „inspired‟to accomplish task.
HOW TO PRIORITIZE WHAT NEEDS TO BEACCOMPLISHYou must divide all requests into three categories:1. “Don’t do”-items reflect problem that will take care ofthemselves , are already outdated or are accomplished bysomeone else.2. “Do later”- the manager must be sure that large projectshave been broken down into smaller projects and that aspecific time line and plan for implementation are in place3. “Do now”-most commonly reflect a unit‟s day-to-dayoperational needs.
LEADERSHIP ROLES IN TIME MANAGEMENT Is self-aware regarding personal blocks and barriers toefficient time management as well as how one‟s own valuesystem influences one‟s own use of time and the expectationof followers. Functions as a role model , supporter ,and resource person tosubordinates in setting priorities. Assists followers in working cooperatively to maximize timeuse.
CONT. Prevents and/or filters interruptions that preventeffective time management. Roles models flexibility in working with other peoplewhose primary time management style is different. Presents a calm and reassuring demeanor duringperiods of high unit goals.
MANAGEMENT FUNCTION IN TIME MANAGEMENT Appropriately prioritizes day-to-day planning to meetshort-term and long-term unit goal. Builds time for planning into the work place. Analyzes how time is manage on the unit level usingjob analysis and time motion studies. Eliminates environmental barriers to effective timemanagement for unit time.
MANAGEMENT FUNCTION IN TIMEMANAGEMENT CONT Handles paper work promptly and efficiently and maintains a neat workarea. Breaks down large tasks into smaller ones that can more easily beaccomplished by unit members. Utilizes appropriately technology to facilitate timely communication anddocumentation. Discriminates between inadequate staffing and inefficient use of timewhen time resources are inadequate to complete assign tasks.
DAILY PLANNING ACTIONS THAT MAY HELP THEUNIT MANAGER At the start of each workday , identify key priorities to be accomplishedthat day. Determine the level of achievement you expect each prioritized task. Asses the staff assigned to work with you. Review the short-and long -term plans of the unit regularly. Plan ahead for meetings. Allow time at several points throughout the day to assess progress inmeeting established daily goals.
MANAGING TIME AT WORK Gather all the supplies and equipment that will beneeded before starting an activity. Group activities that are in the same location . Use time estimates . Document your nursing interventions as soon aspossible after an activity is completed . Always strive to end the workday on time.
PERSONAL TIME MANAGEMENT Personal time management refers in part to knowing of self. Self-awareness is a leadership skill. Managing time is difficult if a person is unsure of his or her priorities for time managementincluding short-term , intermediate , and long term goals. These goals give structure to what should be done today, tomorrow ,(2000)maintains thatwe should first analyze our work and time management efforts and then develop strategiesthat attack our problems because we each waste time differently
PTM CONT Hansten and Washburn(1998)suggest that there athree areas of practice that consumes the time ofthe professional registered nurse:1. Professional-refers to implementation of the nursing process –the ability to make assessment, plan care , effectively coordinatedthe efforts of the health care team and evaluate their effect.2. Technical -includes technical or psychomotor tasks such ascannulation , catherization and injection.3. Amenity care-is more service oriented , such as focusing oncustomer satisfaction by ensuring appetizing meals ,aestheticenvironment , surroundings, and friendliness of all staff.
TIME WASTERS1. Don‟t make yourself overly assessible.2. Interrupt3. Avoid providing socialization4. Be brief5. Schedule long –winded pest6. If you would like to chat and have the time to doso, use coffee breaks and lunch hours for socializing.
TIME WASTERS CONT TECHNOLOGY- Marano (2006) suggest that what differentiatesprocrastination today from a century is the variety of distractions anddiversions available e.g. internet, chat room, online card games and x-box. Belkin (2005) suggest that technology provides endless ways to waste time. AOL and salary.com found 45% of respondent name the computer as theirprimary distraction.
EXTERNAL TIME-WASTERS1. Telephone interruption2. Socializing3. Meetings4. Lack of information5. Lack of feedback6. Lack of adequately described policies and procedures7. Incompetent coworkers8. Poor filling system
INTERNAL TIME-WASTER1. Procrastination2. Poor planning3. Failure to establish goals and objectives4. Failure to set objectives5. Inability to delegate6. Inability to say no7. Management by crisis8. Haste9. Indecisiveness10. Open- door policy
TAKING BREAKS Taking regularly scheduled breaks from work is important as breaks allow theworker to refresh both physically and mentally. Strongan and Burt‟s(2000) studies of students hunger/thirst ,boredom, feeling tired, lack of concentration and mental exhaustion were identified most commonly asthe reasons for taking breaks. Kriegel (2002) says that when individuals are overworked ,they must recognizethat longer hours on the job do not necessarily produce the desired outcome.Thought- A passionate 90%of work effort is more effective than apanicked 110%.R.Kriegel
DEALING WITH INTERRUPTIONS All managers experience interruptions. Lower- levels managers experience more interruption than higher-level managers. Fist and middle managers are more involved in daily planning andthus directly interact with a greater number of subordinates. Frequent work interruption result in situational stress and lowered jobsatisfaction. Managers needs to develop skill in preventing interruption that
USING A TIME INVENTORY Using time inventory is one way to gain insight intohow and when persons is most productive .it alsoassist in identifying internal time-waster. There is no way to beg, borrow, or steal hours inthe day. If time is habitually used ineffectively, being amanager will always be stressful.
MONOCHRONIC TIME MANAGEMENT STYLES Monochronic style refers to do one thing ata time.characteristics People tend to begin and finish projects on time. Have clean and organized desk as a result ofhandling each piece of paper work on time. Are highly structured.
POLYCHRONIC TIME MANAGEMENT STYLES Polychronic style typically do two or more thingssimultaneously.Characteristics People tend to change plans . Burrow and lends things frequently. Emphasize relationship than task Builds long-term relationship
GROUP ACTIVITY Groups discussion among 3 groups Topics : setting daily priorities exc:9.4 (pg#198) A busy day at the public health agency exc9.5(pg#202) Creating a shift time inventory exc:9.8 ( pg #207)
REFERENCES Marquis, B.L. & Huston, C.J (2006).Leadership Rolesand Management Functions in Nursing: Theory andApplication. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Page 192-207.