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Library Management System

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project developed in vb.net and documented well for reference.

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Library Management System

  1. 1. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 1 | P a g e e Principles and Practices of Software Production (CE00003-2) Assessment Mode: Group Assignment Students Name: Pankaj Kumar (PT1081128) Ashutosh Kumar Singh (PT1081138) Shweta Kumari (PT1081146) Lecturer Name: Ms. Sulekh Sharma
  2. 2. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2 | P a g e 1. INTRODUCTION We are going to develop this software for the “PATNA UNIVERSITY”. They have large number of library, students and faculty members so, they are facing problems in manual system to keep record and finding the details related to issuing & returning of the books So, they wanted to upgrade their library system from manual to computerized system. The project “Library Management System” is developed in Win32 console application, which mainly focuses on basic operations in a library like adding new member, new books, and updating new information, searching books and members and facility to borrow and return books. One of the most important modules of the Library Management System is the LOGIN module. Each user of the system has its own user name and password. The librarian has the highest access priority which enables him/her to perform all the functionalities that exist in the application. The students have the lowest access priority that only enables them to view the details of books available. Our software is easy to use novice, casual and expert user because of the attractive screen design & proper validation for the each field. The software Library Management System has four main modules.  Insertion to Database Module – User friendly input screen in which user can input their data related to the books issue  Extracting from Database module – Attractive Output Screen through which user can get the information related to any inquiry.  Report Generation module – In this section users can get the information about the borrowed book list & Available book list.  Search Facility system – In this module user can search for any books and members of the LMS 2. SCOPE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM To achieve the aims & objectives of this project, the main thing is to identify the main features that involved in the system. In this scenario, there are three types of users; they are student, librarian & faculties. All these users have to login to the system with separate logins ids and their respective password. New users can be registered only under librarian concern. A database is there to store the user details of user & book.
  3. 3. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 3 | P a g e Functionalities of the Student: Search for the book (by title, author.) & view their account details Functionalities of the librarian: Issue / Return books, Add/Delete/search/edit books and student information, Calculate fines. Objectives of the system:-  Develop a system that can replace the manual library management system.  Develop a database which stores user details and book details with reliable search facility.  Administrator, librarian, and users should have separate logins.  Attractive user interface to navigate through the system with user friendly environment for the users. 3. PROBLEM BACKGROUND  Previous System was time wasting because of providing the insufficient features to students like only one book per students, there is no search engine facility, sometimes user might be searching for a book that is not available in the library in such situations people get irritated and waste their time.  In manual system we generally use the issue cards for issuing the book or if the card has been lost then we have to make a new card again which take time and till then student have to wait and search the database again for the student information which is complicated.  On the other hand keepinglarge amount of maintenance workers may cost a lot & it will not be efficient for a library. Manual record keeping is also not a reliable method as people tend to forget things.  Modify the details of students/books is large process and may lead prone to errors.  Accession number of the book is calculated manually by looking up into previous records which requires a lot of manpower and if the book is lost then the entry of the book is to be deleted from all the register which is a complex task. 4. PROPOSED SOLUTION The main thing is to identify the main features that involved in the proposed system. In this scenario, there are two types of users; they are librarian & student. The advantages of the computerized system over the manual system are as follows:-  User friendly interface
  4. 4. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 4 | P a g e  Fast access to database  Less error  More Storage Capacity  Search facility  Quick transaction.  A database is there to store the user details & book details. This information can be retrieved by the users as per their advantage.  Anyone can search the system using given specifications & the availability of the books are updated by the librarian immediately. So there won’t be unavailability problem regarding the searching criteria.  All users have separate login details but student can only register their name, search and request for book but librarian can register students, issue or return books, add/delete/search/edit books and student info. All the manual difficulties in managing the Library have been rectified by implementing computerization 5. Project Planning Control 5.1 Configuration Management: It is a process of controlling changes in system requirements during the development phases of SDLC. It helps a company to manage support resources and cost after the system become operational. 5.2 Software Quality Assurance Plan: It encompasses a broad range of concern and activities that focus on the management of software quality. 5.2.1 Introduction to Software Quality: If the software is meeting all the specification functional & non-functional or reliable is called quality product. 5.2.2 Software Quality Management: Settle the level of quality achieved in software, develop the culture and make the standard of software. It totally depends on 3Cs.  Continuous improvement.  Customers satisfaction  Continue loop of solving problem. 5.6 Risk Management Plan: Step 1: Risk management planning: deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for the project (Y/N, strategies to be used)
  5. 5. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 5 | P a g e Step 2: Risk identification: determining which risks are likely to affect a project and documenting their characteristics Step 3: Risk Assessment Qualitative risk analysis in which we characterize risks, analyse them prioritize their effect on project. Step 4: Complete Risk Register which describe the identified risks, consequences and their mitigations 5.7 Documentation Standard: Documentation standards in a software project are important because documents are the only tangible way of representing the software and the software process. Following standard we are going to follow for the entire documentation are:  Font style: Times New Roman, font size 12, heading will be 14 and rest sub-headings 12 both in “Calibri” style.  Margin: 1 inch from all sides.  Indentation: 1 tab for all sub-heading & their sub parts.  Line Spacing: Line spacing between each line will be 1.5 & total no. of headings will be only 14. 5.8 Programming Standard:  Programming Standard are language-specific programming rules that greatly reduce the probability of introducing errors into the applications.  It includes the proper commenting in the coding part whatever language we chosen.  We have chosen “VB.Net” for creating the system because of its distinctive features such as inheritance, interface, overloading that makes it object-oriented programming language. It also includes structure exception handling, custom attributes, and common language specification (CLS) compliance. 5.9 Communication Mode: It deals with communication or interaction between the people involved in the system and how they communicate with each other. In our system LMS we have two users student and librarian in which librarian have high access priority.  Student can only login when they registered by the librarian. They can issue book & return by the librarian.
  6. 6. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 6 | P a g e  Librarian can add/search /delete / edit books and student to the system. They can calculate the fine related to book from the students account. 5.10 WBS(Work Breakdown Structure): 5.11 Organization Chart: Tasks Undertaken Team Member Project Leader & Developer (1) Developer (2) & Database Administrator Developer (3) & Documentator & Designer & Tester Ashutosh KumarPankaj KumarShweta Kumari 5.11 Gantt chart: A horizontal bar chart that graphically represents the relationships between the different tasks in a project
  7. 7. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 7 | P a g e ID Task Name Start Finish Duration Oct 2012Sep 2012Aug 2012 330 8 246 22181415 11 1928 1312 252318 92 13 26101 28 2025 211529 169 272211 175 19 434 5 16211731 307 76 114 1026 2920 23 12272428 1 4d31-08-201228-08-2012Introduction 2 2d02-09-201201-09-2012ProblemBackground 3 2d04-09-201203-09-2012ProposedSolution 4 2d06-09-201205-09-2012SchedulePlanning 5 3d09-09-201207-09-2012SelectionofMethodology 6 5d14-09-201210-09-2012ProjectPlanningControl 7 2d16-09-201215-09-2012CostEstimation 8 2d18-09-201217-09-2012RiskManagement 9 2d20-09-201219-09-2012ProjectManagement 10 2d22-09-201221-09-2012RequirementAnalysis 11 3d25-09-201223-09-2012ProcessModeling 12 2d27-09-201226-09-2012DataModeling 13 2d29-09-201228-09-2012DataDictionary 14 5d04-10-201230-09-2012 DesignPrinciplesand Concepts 15 3d07-10-201205-10-2012ArchitecturalDesign 16 3d10-10-201208-10-2012InteractiveScreenDesign 17 3d13-10-201211-10-2012ReportDesign 18 7d20-10-201214-10-2012ProgrammingEnvironment 19 2d22-10-201221-10-2012Testing 20 5d27-10-201223-10-2012OverallDocumentation 5.12 Staffing Plan: The purpose of the staffing plan is to make certain the project has sufficient staff with the right skills and experience to ensure a successful project completion 5.13 Resources Allocation: Resources Description Availability Allocation 1.ManPower No. of members involved in the project. 3 2 2.Material It includes the material which we require to create our system efficiently CD, hardware, software. CD,software, hardware 3.Service Internet for the feedback from users. Internet, Books, Internet, Books, 4.Equipments The equipments which we required to create the system. Printer, computer. Printer, pen computer. 5.Time It contains the time taken to complete the system. 6.Money It is total amount of money we required to
  8. 8. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 8 | P a g e make the system. 7.Location College project (not needed in our team.) --- ----- 6. PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Project management is a process of planning, monitoring and controlling all the aspects of the project and motivating all those involved in the process to achieve the project objective on scheduled time as well as at specified cost, quality and performance. It includes a project plan, defining project goals or objectives, specifying tasks or how the goals will be achieved, what resources are needed Q. why we need to manage our project? (i). It focuses on the need to manage the interests of various stakeholders to implement a project successfully. (ii.) It is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software. 6.1 Characteristics of project management:  Scope: It define what will be together with this in a project.  Resource: It defines the objects or the tools essential to complete the project.  Time: It defines the tasks to be performed according to the program and the period for which the work resolve continuously.  Quality: It is extend or difference which is allowed from a preferred standard.  Risk: It defines what fear a system can face and search for a prior solution to manage all the risks. 6.2 Task involved in Project Management by our team: The main tasks which were undertaken by our team for making our project a success are:- (1.) Objective of the project – The main goal of our project is to make “Computerized library management System” online very effective and efficient and user satisfactory. (2.)Identify stakeholders – In our system stakeholder will be admin, librarian & students (3.)Planning & designing–Firstly we plan and then we start designing part of the project.
  9. 9. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 9 | P a g e (4.) Maintain Consistency – LMS should be consistent throughout the project. (5.) Maintain Accuracy – We all take care about operation would be correct and ensures that whatever information is coming from the centre must be accurate. (6.)Schedule planning – We have limit the time constraints and then made the system. (7.) Monitoring of task –We have constantly monitored each activity of our system in terms of cost,f acilities, time and resource usage to minimize error. (8.) Testing – We have test our system so that all the bugs and errors can be removed from it and thus the system will be more efficient to use. 6.3 Project planning process: Analyse the project specification Establish the project constraints Make initial assessment of the project parameters Define project milestones and deliverables While project has not been completed or cancelled loop Draw up project schedule Initiate activities according to schedule Wait (for a while) Review project progress Revise estimates of project parameters Update the project schedule Re-negotiate project constraints and deliverables If (problems arise) then Initiate technical review and possible revision End if End loop .
  10. 10. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 10 | P a g e 7. SHEDULE PLANNING Task Duration Milestone/Deliverable Introduction 20-08-2012 to 20-08-2012 Problem Background 20-08-2012 to 20-08-2012 Proposed Solution 21-08-2012 to 21-08-2012 Schedule Planning 22-08-2012 to 24-08-2012 Milestones Table(M) Selection of Methodology 23-08-2012 to 28-08-2012 Project Plan 29-08-2012 to 02-09-2012 WBS, Organisation Chart, Gantt Chart, Staffing Plan (M) Cost Estimation 03-09-2012 to 04-09-2012 Cost Estimation Report(M) Risk Management 04-09-2012 to 05-09-2012 Risk Estimation Report(M) Project Management 05-09-2012 to 07-09-2012 Requirement Analysis 10-09-2012 to 13-09-2012 SRS(M) Process Modelling 14-09-2012 to 18-09-2012 Data Modelling 19-09-2012 to 21-09-2012 Data Dictionary 24-09-2012 to 25-09-2012 Design Principles & Concepts 26-09-2012 to 27-09-2012 Architectural Design 28-09-2012 to 01-10-2012 Interactive Screen Design 02-10-2012 to 03-10-2012 Report Design 04-10-2012 to 04-10-2012 Design Report(M) Programming Environment 05-10-2012 to 11-10-2012 Coding Report(M) Testing 12-10-2012 to 16-10-2012 Testing Report(M) Overall Documentation 17-10-2012 to 25-10-2012 Documentation Delivery(D)
  11. 11. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 11 | P a g e 7.2 Pert chart: 28/8/2012 31/8/2012 4 Days1 Introduction 1/9/2012 2/9/2012 2 Days2 Problem Background 3/9/2012 4/9/2012 2 Days3 Proposed Solution 5/9/2012 6/9/2012 2 Days4 Schedule Planning 30/9/2012 4/10/2012 5 Days14 Design Principles and Concepts 28/9/2012 29/9/2012 2 Days13 Data Dictionary 5/10/2012 7/10/2012 3 Days15 Architectural Design 8/10/2012 10/10/2012 3 Days16 Interactive Screen Design 17/9/2012 18/9/2012 2 Days8 Risk Management 15/9/2012 16/9/2012 2 Days7 Cost Estimation 10/9/2012 14/9/2012 5 Days6 Project Planning Control 7/9/2012 9/9/2012 3 Days5 Selection of Methodology 19/9/2012 20/9/2012 2 Days9 Project Management 21/9/2012 22/9/2012 2 Days10 Requirement Analysis 23/9/2012 25/9/2012 3 Days11 Process Modeling 26/9./2012 27/9/2012 2 Days12 Data Modeling Start 28/8/2012 PERT CHART 23/10/2012 27/10/2012 5 Days20 Overall Documentation 21/10/2012 22/10/2012 2 Days19 Testing 14/10/2012 20/10/2012 7 Days18 Programme Environment 11/10/2012 13/10/2012 3 Days17 Report Design Finish 27/10/2012 8. SELECTION OF METHODOLOGY: 8.1 Introduction: We have selected the RAD (“Rapid Application Development”) to develop our software. It is way of developing software that uses modern, powerful, developing environments and seeks to deliver system faster and cheaper but still maintain high quality. Prototyping are especially
  12. 12. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 12 | P a g e used to design user’s requirement & to design the final system. There are four phases of RAD are as follows:- Requirements Planning phase – It combines elements of the system planning and systems analysis phases of the SDLC. Users, managers, and IT staff members discuss and agree on business needs, project scope, constraints, and system requirements. User design phase – During this phase, users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, inputs, and outputs. They use Joint Application Development (JAD) techniques and CASE tools to translate user needs into working models. Construction phase – It focuses on program and application development task similar to the SDLC. In RAD, however, users continue to participate and can still suggest changes or improvements as actual screens or reports are developed. Cutover phase – It resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase, compared with traditional methods, the entire process is compressed. As a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much sooner. Its tasks are data conversion, full-scale testing, system changeover, user training. 8.2 Advantages & Disadvantages of RAD: Advantages Disadvantages Time savings on the system development. Less time may leads to lower system quality Can save time, money and human effort Danger of misalignment of system developed via RAD due to missing info. Tighter fit between user requirements and system specifications May have inconsistent internal designs within and across systems Works especially well where speed of development is important Possible violation of programming standards related to inconsistent naming conventions & documentation. Ability to rapidly change systems design as demanded by users Difficulty with module reuse for future systems System optimized for users involved in RAD Lack of scalability designed into system Concentrates on essential system elements from user viewpoint Lack of attention to later systems administration built into system Strong user stake and ownership of system High cost of commitment on the user
  13. 13. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 13 | P a g e 8.3 Scope of the selected Methodology (“RAD”): RADis aimed at producing highqualitysoftwareinareasonablyshort spaceoftime. Toachievethis, processes and guidelines have been formulated to help provide a standard and systematic approach to rapid software development RAD has four elementary characteristics which include methodology, people,managementandtools 8.4 How it will be implemented in Library Management System? In RAD model, we firstly move towards the planning and analysis of the system. We discuss about the project scope, constraints, and system requirements and finally ends when the team agrees on the key issues and obtains management authorization to continue with that design. In second stage, we interact with user to know their requirement and develop a prototype that represents all system processes, inputs, and outputs. Then we use a combination of Joint Application Development (JAD) techniques and CASE tools to translate user needs into working models. And represent them a user design that allows them to understand, modify, and eventually approve a working model of the system that meets their needs. In third stage we focus on program and application development task so that users continue to participate and can still suggest changes or improvements in actual screens & develop a report on that. In last stage we resemble the final tasks including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training. As a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much sooner. We move towards the tasks which are data conversion, full-scale testing, system changeover, user training. 9. COST ESTIMATION 9.1Introduction: A software cost estimate process is the set of techniques and procedures that an organisation uses to arrive at an estimate. It is the process of predicting the effort and resources required to develop a software system computed on the basis of available information. It is needed for the early pricing of the software and Software Price= Cost + Profit.
  14. 14. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 14 | P a g e 9.2 Different Techniques Available 1. Algorithmic cost modelling: A model based on historical cost information that relates some software Metric (usually its size) to the project cost is used. An estimate is made of that metric and the model predicts the effort required. 2. Expert Judgement: Several experts on the proposed software development techniques and the application domain are consulted. They each estimate the project cost. These estimates are compared and discussed. The estimation process iterates until an agreed estimate is reached. 3. Estimation by Analogy: This technique is applicable when other projects in the same application domain have been completed. The cost of a new project is estimated by analogy with these completed projects. Myers (Myers 1989) gives a very clear description of this approach. 4. Parkinson’s Law: Parkinson’s Law states that work expands to fill the time available. The cost is determined by available resources rather than by objective assessment. If the software has to be delivered in 12 months and 5people are available, the effort required is estimated to be 60 person-months. 5. Pricing to Win: The software cost is estimated to be whatever the customer has available to spend on the project. The estimated effort depends on the customer’s budget and not on the software functionality. 9.3 Selected Technique Algorithmic cost modelling - COnstructive COst MOdel (COCOMO) : It is a cost model for estimating the number of person-months required to develop software. The model also estimates the development schedule in months and produces an effort and schedule distribution by major phases. This model is based on Barry Boehm's Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO). This is the top-level model, Basic COCOMO, which is applicable to the large majority of software projects. Estimating size using Object points Object Points: Objects include screens, reports and modules in third generation programming languages. Object Points are not necessarily related to objects in Object Oriented Programming. The numbers of raw objects are estimated, the complexity of each object is estimated, and the weighted total (Object-Point count) is computed. Objects can be determined by the standard definitions of screens, reports and 3GL components in your ICASE environment. Then each object is classified into simple, medium and difficult complexity levels depending on values of characteristic dimensions Estimated Lines of Code Minimum lines of code, si = 500
  15. 15. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 15 | P a g e Maximum lines of code, sn=2000 Most likely lines of code, sm=1300 Estimated lines of code = si + sn + 0.67sm KLOC =3371/1000 = 3.371 Estimating B [disproportionate effort] Rating [1-5] Precedentedness 2 Development Flexibility 3 Architecture/Risk Resolution 3 Team Cohesion 2 Process maturity 3 Total 13 B= (sum/100) +1.01 = 0.13+1.01 = 1.14 Estimating M [multiplier reflecting product, process and people attributes] Cost Drivers Value Rating Product attributes Size of application database 1.00 (High) Complexity of the product 1.00 (Nominal) Hardware attributes Run-time performance constraints 1.00 (High) Memory constraints 1.06 (High) Personal attributes Applications experience 1.00 (Nominal) Virtual machine experience 1.10 (Low) Programming language experience 1.00 (Nominal) Project attributes Use of software tools 1.08 (Low) Required development schedule 1.00 (Nominal)
  16. 16. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 16 | P a g e M = 1.00*1.00*1.00*1.06*1.00*1.10*1.00*1.00*1.08 =1.25 Estimating Effort Effort = A *SizeB * M = 2.4 * 3.3711.14 *1.25 = 12 PM Development Time TDEV = 3 * (PM) (0.33+0.2*(B-1.01)) = 3.5 Months Actual Cost Average Cost  Hardware Cost: Rs.20, 000/-  Software Cost: Rs.1000/-  Material Cost: Rs700/-  Employee Cost: Rs.10, 000/- Actual Cost = Effort * total cost = 12 * 31700 = Rs. 3,80,400/- Staffing:- Name Of Phases No. Of Persons Required Scheduling 2 Requirement analysis 3 Requirement specification 3 Prototype development 3 Design study 2 Documentation 3 Software 3
  17. 17. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 17 | P a g e 10. RISK MANGEMENT Risk Management Process is the tool through which we can protect our project from the loss, harm, injury, adverse effect etc so that we can sorted and mitigated or eliminate that risk if necessary. 10.1Risk assessment: Risk Assessment is the process of identifying the project specific risk involved. Risk identification, risk analysis, risk prioritization and risk resolution are the process involved. It includes the controls required to eliminate, reduce or minimize the risks. 10.2Risk identification: It is a process which begins after the Risk Management Plan is constructed and continues iteratively throughout the project execution. Its objective is to identify all possible risks to the project in a timely and proactive manner. RISK TYPE POSSIBLE RISK SOLUTION PROPOSED Loss of data storage devices It might be possible that the data stored might get lost due to damage of hard disk. Work done should have at least two backups People Fewer people than necessary are available. People with specific skills that a project might require are not available. Training for critical areas of the project should provide. Schedule The underestimation of schedule also happens due to inexperience or optimism. Proper time management should be maintained Cost The degree of uncertainty that the project budget will be maintained. Underestimating the cost drivers. Proper cost estimation should be there. Development Risk Availability and quality of the tool used to make the project. Make the software available and have proper training on it. Data Communication Communication gap between the developing members of the project. Frequent meetings should be organized for better
  18. 18. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 18 | P a g e 10.3 Risk Analysis: It is used to identify the high risk elements of a project & provides detail impact of risk mitigation strategies .It is important in software design phase to evaluate criticality of the system, where risks are analyzed. Note: Risk Factor = Impact * Probability Calculation of risk factor: - No. Risks Identified Risk Impact Risk Probability Risk factor 1 Software corruption (CA) 9 (VH) 0.9 8.1 2 Inexperienced instructor (CR) 8 (HI) 0.8 6.4 3 Design and Implementation (MA) 5 (VH) 0.95 4.75 4 Application Complexity (CR) 7 (ME) 0.65 4.55 communication. Risk Categories Probability Range Probability ID Low 0.0-0.3 LO - (0.0-0.3) Medium 0.3-0.7 ME- (0.3-0.7) High 0.7-0.9 HI- (0.7-0.9) Very High 0.9-1.0 VH- (0.9-1.0) Impact Categories Level Of Consequences Range Impact ID Negligible 0.0-3.0 NE - (0-3) Marginal 3.0-7.0 MA -(3-7) Critical 7.0-9.0 CR - (7-9) Catastrophic 9.0-10.0 CA-(9-10)
  19. 19. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 19 | P a g e 5 Training & training support (CR) 7 (ME) 0.4 2.8 6 High work load (CR) 7.5 (ME) 0.3 2.15 7 Project size (MA ) 6.5 (ME) 0.3 1.95 8 Maintenance Problems (NE) 3 (ME) 0.6 1.8 9 Resource required (NE) 2 (ME) 0.7 1.4 10 Completion time (MA) 5 (LO) 0.2 1.0 11 Hardware failure (CR) 9 (ME) 0.4 0.36 12 Employee illness (MA) 3 (LO) 0.2 0.6 13 Instructor size (NE) 2 (LO) 0.2 0.4 14 Software design (CA) 9 (ME) 0.4 0.28 The above risk factors include functional as well as non – functional risks involved in the project. 10.4 Risk Prioritization: Our team will use Risk exposure technique for risk prioritization Steps involved are-  Risk-exposure quantity is an effective technique for risk prioritization  Assess risk probabilities & losses on a scale 0-10.  Multiply probability by loss to determine exposure.  The risks have been prioritized according to the risk factors calculated: Risk Factor markings: Low 0-3 Medium 4-6 High 7-10
  20. 20. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 20 | P a g e The following are the details of Risk Exposure: No. Risks Risk Exposure 1 Software corruption 8.1 2 Inexperienced instructor 6.4 3 Design and Implementation 4.75 4 Application Complexity 4.55 5 Training & training support 2.8 6 High work load 2.15 7 Project size 1.95 8 Maintenance Problems 1.8 9 Resources required 1.4 10 Completion time 1.0 11 Hardware failure 0.8 12 Employee illness 0.6 13 instructor size 0.4 14 Software design 0.28 10.5 Risk Control: Risk control is a technique that utilizes finding from risk assessment. It covers more area than risk management. These are the entire process of policies, procedures and systems an institution needs to manage carefully all the risks resulting from its financial transactions. No. Risk Identified Control Plan 1 Design and Implementation Keep it simple for implementation 2 Maintenance Problems Proper use of the resources so as to avoid any hardware failures and taking timely backups. 4 Inexperienced instructor Alert client of potentially difficulties and the possibility of the delays, investigate buying-in components. 5 Staff size Proper staff-sizing in order to avoid overstaffing or understaffing. 6 High work load Divide the work into smaller tasks. 7 Application Complexity Keep the design simple.
  21. 21. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 21 | P a g e 8 Training & training support Training the agents and administrators to operate the system. 9 Software corruption Making timely back-up and restoration points. 10 Hardware failure Invest in good quality hardware components. 11 Operating environment Invest in technologies which is most suitable to make the project and in which the personnel feels comfortable working. 12 Completion time Investigate buying-in components, investigate the use of program generator 13 Resources required Invest wisely in all hardware and software resources. 11. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS 11.1Intrduction: Requirements analysis is the process of understanding the customer’s needs and expectations from a proposed system or application. It includes the frequent communication with system users to determine specific. 11.3 Data Gathering Techniques: (a.) Questionnaire: This technique is a set of question which is used to elicit the specific information & gives the qualitative and quantitative result. (b.) Interviews: It involves asking someone a set of question face-2-face. (c.) Workshop or focus group: It is one 2 many communication in which one facilitator is there which is required to keep conversation on track. (d.) Naturalistic Observations: In this technique observer spend time with stakeholders in their day to day tasks & observing the reality how particular thing is made. (e.) Documentation: It is a kind or research in which we get the background information on procedure & rules. 11.4 Technique chosen for the data gathering: Data gathering technique chosen for our system is questionnaire because of following reasons:-  Can contact a large number of people at a relatively low cost.  Potentially information can be collected from a large portion of a group.  The results of the questionnaires can usually be quickly and easily quantified by either a researcher or through the use of a software package.
  22. 22. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 22 | P a g e Sample of Questionnaire:- 1. Do your system have account security? 2. Can student issue their books? 3. Student can search books or not? 4. Do your system have database to store the data for books? 5. Can your system calculate the fines according to due dates? 11.5Types of Requirement Analysis:  User requirements: These are the requirements expected from the system like if we consider the admin, librarian we have provided the login.  System requirements: A structured document setting out detailed descriptions of the system’s functions, services and operational constraints. It defines what should be implemented in the system. S No. Requirement Type Description 1. Login User Requirement It is used to login the user to the system. 2. Issue System Requirement Used to issue book to the user. 3. Return System Requirement Used to return book to the system. 4. Registration User Requirement Used to register student to the system. 5. Fine calculation System Requirement Used to calculate fine. 6. Add/delete/Search/Edit book User Requirement Used to perform the add, delete, search, or edit the function for book 7. Add/delete/Search/Edit Student User Requirement Used to perform the add, delete, search, or edit the function for student
  23. 23. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 23 | P a g e 12. PROCESS MODELLING 12.1Context Diagram: Library Management system Books Librarian Student Student receive Registration info. Login confirmation login Maintain student info. Maintain registration info. Maintain fine info. 12.2Level 0 Diagram: Student Registration Registration info 1.0 Store in D1 Registration table Login 2.0 Login detail Access granted Book Request Book Search Return Issue Display Status Compute Fine Login Authentication Add/ delete/ search/edit student Add/ delete/ search/edit book 4.0 D2 Valid detail Book details 3.0 Display table Requested book detail 5.0 11.0 6.0 12.0 D3 D4 Issue table 7.0 Book Fine details Librarian Book Info. Calculated no. of days. Issue info. Student receive Calculated fines store in Updated info. 8.0 Student database Book store 9.0 10.0 D5 D6 Maintain registration info. Login confirmation Student info. Update info. Update info. Maintain fine info. Maintain Student info. login D7 Book database Student details Retrieve book details View details Retrieve requested book details
  24. 24. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 24 | P a g e Level 1 Diagram: Student Registration 1.0 1.11.21.3 Student registration details store in Add student status Verified student details Checking details Valid details Enroll students Registration confirmation Student status Search student Registered student D1 Student database D2 Student Record D3 Student Level 2 Diagram: Registration Table Search Student Academic Block 1.211.2 Student data Input data Course 1 Course 2 Course 3 Student status Record 1.211 1.212 1.213 1.22 Valid details Courses info New account Existing account Registered student 1.241 1.242 1.243 1.25 Over dues account Account typeReg. info Courses info Courses info Courses info Account type Account type Account type Process Specification:- (a.) Structured English Process 1. Process 2. Name : Registration Name : Login Process Description: Input data flows: Registration information. Output data flows: Store in. For each Registration If student detail= correct. Output registered successfully. Else Output not registered. Process Description: Input data flows: Login detail Output data flows: Valid detail. For each Student Login If login detail= correct. Output login successfully. Else Output invalid details.
  25. 25. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 25 | P a g e Process 3. Process 4. Name : Access Granted Name : Book Request Process Description: Input data flows: Valid details Output data flows: Enter data. For access the student accounts. If student enter valid details Output permission granted for further access Else Output Invalid details. Process Description: Input data flows: Confirm ID Output data flows: Display information. For each Book request If student login successfully Output Accept Request. Else Output Request Rejected. Process 5. Process 6. Name : Book Search Name : Issue Process Description: Input data flows: Enter data Output data flows: Book info. For Enter data for book search If book info. = correct. Output book available Else Output Not available Process Description: Input data flows: Book info. Output data flows: Updated info. For If student’s account have < =3 Output message display Book issued Else Output enters invalid details. Process 7. Process 8. Name : Display Status Name : Login Authentication Process Description: Input data flows: Issue info. Output data flows: Student receive For Receiving books. If issued book is updated Output display message for issued book with student account details. Else Process Description: Input data flows: login Output data flows: Book info., student info. Login confirmation For each librarian login If login info.= Correct and if student & Book info. = correct
  26. 26. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 26 | P a g e Output display earlier details. Output login confirmation & add/delete/search/edit student and book info. Else Output invalid ID & updates the student and book info. Process 9. Process 10. Name : Add/Delete/Search/Edit Student Name : Add/Delete/Search/Edit Book Process Description: Input data flows: Student info. , Maintain student info. Output data flows: Updated info. For Add/delete/edit/search each student Ifstudentinfo. add/delete/search/edit =valid Output Updated to student database. Else Output entered invalid option. Process Description: Input data flows: Enter student data. Output data flows: Updated info. For If Retrieve book details = correct. Output updated to book store Else Output enters invalid details. Process 11. Process 12. Name : Return Name : Compute fine Process Description: Input data flows: Student details Output data flows: Calculated no. of days For returning book from the student account. If student return book on time Output book returned. Else Output calculated fine according to no. of days. Process Description: Input data flows: Calculating over dues, maintain fine info. Output data flows: Store in For calculating the fines related to books If Student’s Account have dues Output calculated fine store in fine detail database. Else Output enters invalid details. 1. Registration
  27. 27. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 27 | P a g e Students Registration Y es Fulfill all details of Students Registration Confirmation Message Yes No Incorrect Details Fulfill 2. Student login Students Login Username password Login Successfully Incorrect Username Incorrect Password Y es Y es No No Yes 3. Book Search Book Search Select Book Invalid Book Select Book Code Invalid Book Code Retrieve Book from Library 4. Book Request Book Request Confirm ID Display Table Of Books Invalid ID Yes Yes No 5.Issue
  28. 28. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 28 | P a g e No. Of Books Available Fulfill all details Issue book by Librarian Books not Available Issue of Book Incorrect details YES YES YES N O NO 6. Login Authentication: Login Authentication Enter Valid Username and Password Login Successfully Book database Students Info Invalid Username and password Yes Yes Yes No Yes 7. Add/Delete/search/Edit Books: Add/Delete/Edit/Search Books Add Proper Info Search Proper Info Edit Proper info Delete Proper info Update Book Info Yes Y es Yes Yes Yes Invalid Add Proper Info Invalid Add Proper Info Invalid Edit Proper info Invalid delete Proper info No No No No 13. DATA MODELLING
  29. 29. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 29 | P a g e 13.1 Entity Relationship Diagram: This is a graphical model used to show the relationships among system entities. Cardinality describes how instance of one entity relate to instance of another entity. Student Librarian Books Book code Book Name No. of books available No. of copies Name ID Name Login ID Issue Add/Delete/ edit/search Return Add/Delete/ edit/search 13.2 Entity Life History: ELH is a diagrammatic representation of the life of a single entity, from its creation to its deletion. Entity Life History of Librarian: Librarian Login Yes Students Registered Add/ Edit/ Delete/Search Login successfully Login unsuccessfull y No Check Fine on issued book Issue Calculate Fine Logout Yes No Return Entity Life History of Students:
  30. 30. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 30 | P a g e Students LogoutLogin Search Book Book Issued by librarian Book Return to librarian Login successfully Login un successfully Entity Life History of Books: Book librarian add books Edit Delete Search(No. of book ) Issued to students Available Not Available Check Book returned Yes No 14. Data dictionary: Data dictionary is a repository of information about data such as meaning; relationships to other data and it contain dataflow, data store, external entity & process. 14.1 Data Flow: It is a specific piece of data name consists of adjectives and a singular noun. Name Registration information Alias Content Descriptions Allows new users (student) to register their name in the system. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Student (Entity) Destination: Registration (Process) Name Login Alias Login details. Content Descriptions Allows Librarian to login their details in the system. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Librarian (Entity) Destination: Login Authentication(Process)
  31. 31. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 31 | P a g e Name Maintain Registration info. Alias Content Descriptions It is used to transfer the data of registered students. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Librarian (Entity) Destination: Registration table (Data Store) Name Maintain Fine info. Alias Content Descriptions It is used to transfer the data related to fine on the student accounts. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Librarian (Entity) Destination: Fine details ( Data store) Name Enter book details Alias Content Descriptions It is used to transfer the book details entered by the students for book search. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Access Granted (Process) Destination: Book Search (Process) Name Maintain Student info. Alias Login details. Content Descriptions It is used to transfer the updated data of students. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Librarian (Entity) Destination: Add/delete/search/edit student (Process) Name Retrieve book details. Alias Content Descriptions Used to transfer retrieve book details from the database. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Book Database Destination: Add/delete/search/edit book Name Updated info. Alias Content Descriptions It is used to transfer the updated data’s which is modified by the librarian. Supporting Descriptions Origin: Issue (Process) Destination: Issue Table (Process)
  32. 32. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 32 | P a g e 14.2Data Store: It is a repository of data which can only connect to process and name consisting of adjectives and a noun. Name Registration Table Alias Content Descriptions It is used to store the registered student details. Supporting Descriptions Librarian can also maintain the registration info. From this data store. Name Display table Alias Content Descriptions Used to display the requested book details give details to book search for requested book. Supporting Descriptions Display book detail on screen. Name Issue Table Alias Content Descriptions It is used to store the updated details of issued book in the student accounts. Supporting Descriptions It only stores the data but display on the screen for librarian regarding the updated issued books. Name Student Database Alias Content Descriptions It stores all the updated details related to the student like if any book is added ,deleted, search or modified Supporting Descriptions
  33. 33. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 33 | P a g e Name Student Alias Content Description This is the user who is going to use the system & has low accessibility. Supporting Description Registration is sources of this entity Name Book Alias Content Description This is the user who is going to use the system & has low accessibility. Supporting Description It is a Sink which receive data from the system. Name Fine details Alias Content Descriptions It stores the data related to the fines on book of any particular student. Supporting Descriptions Librarian can also maintain the fine information related to the students. Name Book Store Alias Content Descriptions It stores all the updated details related to the books like if any book is added, deleted, search or modified. Supporting Descriptions
  34. 34. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 34 | P a g e 14.4 Process: Processes are transformations, changing incoming data flows into outgoing data flows. Name (9.)Add/ delete/Edit/Search student Description Allow the librarian to add the new student, delete, edit, search any student in the student database. Name (12.) Compute fine Description Allow librarian to calculate fine. Name (8.)Login authentication Description Allows the librarian to login Name (5.)Book Search. Description Allows the students to search books. Name (2.)Login Description Allows student to login to the system. Name (4.)Book request Description Allows student to request for book. Name (6.)Issue Description Allows the librarian to issue books to the student. Name (8)Login Authentication Description Allows the librarian to login to the system.
  35. 35. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 35 | P a g e 15. DESIGN PRINCIPLE AND CONCEPT: In the design phase the importance lies on quality which makes this phase an integral part of software development. During this phase the software specifications are transformed into design models that describe the details of the data structures, system architecture, interface, and components. Data design. Data design is the process of designing data for the system. Transforms information domain model into data structures required to implement software. 1.) Name of Database table: Account Description: This is used to retrieve the account details of users. Field Length Type Username 255 Text Password 255 Text Type 255 Text Name of Database table: Bookdata1 Description: This database is used to store the book information of the system for the librarian. Field Length Type Book Code 255 Text Book Name 255 Text Author 255 Text No_ of Copies 255 Text available_for_issue 255 Number Name of Database table: Bookdata2 Description: This is used to check the particular book whether it is issued or not and retrieve data for search option also. Field Length Type bookcode_no 255 Text book name 255 Text Author 255 Text Name (11.)Return Description Allows librarian to return books student accounts. Name (10.)Add/delete/Edit/Search Book Description Allow the librarian to add the new student, delete, edit, search any BooK
  36. 36. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 36 | P a g e Status 255 Text Name of Database table:- Bookdata3 Description:- This is a book database used to add/delete/edit/return/issue/fine calculation the book details handled by the librarian. Field Length Type Bookcode 255 Text Intake 255 Text book1_issue_date 255 Date/Time book2_issue_date 255 Date/Time Book3_issue_date 255 Date/Time Fine Long Integer Number Name of Database table: Data Description: This is a student database used to store the student information and perform all the functions like add/search/edit/delete etc. Field Length Type Intake 255 Text User Password 255 Text Name 255 Text Level 255 Text Email 255 Hyperlink Book1 255 Text Book2 255 Text Book3 255 Text no_of_books_issued 255 Text Procedural design: The objective in Procedural Design is to transform structural elements of the architecture into a procedural description of software construction. In DFD of the system we write the specification for Decision table like in this design we have to mention their name & description for each button used in the system. Module (Librarian) Screen 1 :- (Form1) Name: - Btsubmit Description: - This button is used to login the librarian and student separately. Screen 2 :-(Home.vb) If librarian selected then open
  37. 37. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 37 | P a g e Name: - Button1 (Librarian) Description: - This button is used to get the information about students and bookinformation. Screen 3:- Librarian.vb Name: - Button1(students) Description: - This button shows the admin home page where librarian add, search, edit, update and delete the record of student. Name:-Button2 (Bookinformation) Description: - This button shows the book home page where librarian add, search, issue and return the book. Screen 4:- adminhome.vb (if student_btn1 has been selected) Name: - Btserch Description: - these buttons search the student from the database. Name: - Btadd Description: - This button is used to add the new student to the database. Name: -Btsubmit Description: - This button is used to submit the entire required field which has been entered. Name: - Btclea Description: - This button is used to clear the field which has been already fielded. Name: - Btcancel Description: - This button is used to go back to the previous page. Name: - Button1(update) Description: - This button is used to update the information of the student into the database. Name: - Btedit Description: - This button is used to edit the information of the student. Name: - Btdelete Description: - This button is used to delete the record of student. Screen 5:- BookHome.vb (if bookinformation_btn2 has been selected) Name: - Btgo
  38. 38. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 38 | P a g e Description: - This button is used to submit all the record which is filled. Name: - btsubmit1 Description: - This button is used to submit all the record while we add new books to the database. Name: - btclear1 Description: - This button is used to clear the field which has been already fielded. Name: - btserch1 Description: - This button is used to search the book from the database. Name: - btadd2 Description: - This button is used to add the new books to the database. Name: - btissue Description: - This button is used to issue the book to the student. Name: - btreturn Description: - This button is used to return the book to the student calculate the fine. Name: - btdelete2 Description: - This button is used to delete the record of books from the database. Design Concept: Abstraction: Abstraction means showing the important part but hiding the unnecessary part of the system. We have use the control abstraction in our design that means that our program control is flowing without showing its internal working to its users. It allows designers to focus on solving a problem in a generalised standard without being concerned about irrelevant lower level details. Refinement: It is the process of elaboration where one or several instructions are decomposed into more detailed instructions. It is the process of elaboration where the designer provides successively more detail for each design component. So we have provided all the basic details of the designing used in the system development.
  39. 39. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 39 | P a g e Modularity – It is a single attribute of software that allows a program to be intellectually manageable. In our LMS we have divide the whole system into several modules, this reduces chances of errors as different modules are developed and tested separately. Software Architecture: Architecture is the structure of program components which describe the interaction between this product as well as the data structure. It provides the conceptual integrity for a system. Control hierarchy – The structure of the program elaborates the organization of the program mechanism in modules & their sub-modules and display relationship between them this implies a hierarchy of control. In LMS we have divide the system into modules like issue return, login and registration etc. Information hiding – It means information within one module is inaccessible to the other module means intentionally hiding the secret part. In our system we implemented it like one student can’t view the details of others. Software procedure- It is a means of specifying each module interface, the pre & post conditions and the operations to be performed. It describes all the operations that are performed by the software. 16. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN The main purpose that this architectural design serves is to determine the structure of the software. It is supposed to be one of the aims of the modularity. Architectural design is important as considering it only the system is designed. It is like designing a framework for the system and so that’s why we need to analyze this and then begin with the design. A good architecture can help ensure that a system will satisfy key requirements in areas such as performance, reliability, portability, scalability, and interoperability. Our systems architecture is shown below by means of this diagram.
  40. 40. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 40 | P a g e Layered Architecture: Application Layer Business Layer Data Layer Issue table, login table, student table, course table Librarian Student Book Login Register student Update student Search student Delete student Add book Update book Search book Delete book Issue book Return book Display report
  41. 41. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 41 | P a g e 17. INTERACTIVE SCREEN DESIGN: Input Screen for student login Output screen Fig no.1. Login Screen Description: This is the login page for the student, after entering their details a new form will open and then click on student to view your account. Input Screen for Student Account Output screen Fig no.2:- Student Account Description: After login of student this screen will appear if we click on student then a new form will appear to view their account for issued book info.
  42. 42. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 42 | P a g e Input Screen for student login Output screen Fig no. 3. Login Screen Description: This is the login page for librarian after entering their details click on submit button then a new form will open and click on librarian to access your account. Input Screen of Student Record Output screen Fig no.4. Student Screen Description: This is librarian account select the student then a new form will appear of student details. Here we can add/delete/edit/search the student information and store in the database.
  43. 43. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 43 | P a g e Input Screen student login Output screen Fig no.5:- Login Screen Description:- This is the main screen of librarian to access the student details. If we select the any of the four (add/delete/edit/search) options then a new form will appear where we have to enter the details related to perform any function. Input Screen Book record Output screen Fig no.6:- Book Information Description:- If we select the book information to perform the function related to book then a new form will appear to add/search delete/edit the book info.
  44. 44. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 44 | P a g e Input Screen for book details. Output screen Fig no.7:- Book Information Description:- If we select the book information to perform the function related to book then a new form will appear to add/search delete/edit the book info 18. PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT: It describes the bunch Software’s used for developing a particular system. The whole topic is categorized into three parts Framework, Front-end Scripting, & Backend Programming. Tools Used to develop this system are the following:  Visual Studio 2008: Used for developing the design & building the code of the application.  Microsoft access: Required for large database maintenance.  Microsoft Word 2007: for writing the whole documentation including tables & screen-shots.  Microsoft Project 2007: For making Gantt chart.  Microsoft Visio 2007: for making DFDs, Entity Life History, ERD
  45. 45. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 45 | P a g e Framework The system is developed using the .net frame work which provides a no of advantages some of them are described as below Consistent Programming Model. Direct Support For Security. Simplified Development Effort. Easy Application Deployment & Maintenance. Frontend Programming VB.net was used as a frontend VB.NET run on the Internet Information Server (IIS) in Windows Operating System. The .NET Framework provides the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which compiles and manages the execution of VB.NET code, and the class libraries, which offer prebuilt programmatic functionality for Web Forms, exception handling. By using VB.net we have experienced following advantages:- It drastically reduces the amount of code required to build large application. It makes development simpler and easier to maintain with an event-driven, server –side programming model. Its pages are easy to write and maintain because the source code and HTML are together.
  46. 46. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 46 | P a g e The source code is executed on the server. The pages have lots of power and flexibility by this approach.. It validates information (validation controls) entered by the user without writing a single line of code. 1.1 Backend Programming Microsoft Access is used as backend database & various records are arranged in it accordingly. Access is a very powerful relational database product that both stores data for all sorts of reasons and purposes and allows users with skills ranging from beginner to world expert to input extract and manipulate that data into all the different forms that people want. Benefit of access from programmer’s perspective is its relative compatibility with SQL Query can be viewed graphically or executed as SQL statements. Advantage of using Ms Access over other database: Access is well suited for small, departmental applications. These applications may start as one user’s project. For relatively small data sets Access works very well for providing flexible information retrieval. It provides simple functionality to create pivot tables and generate graphical reports. More robust tools allow for multiple queries to run at one time, and provide transactional processes, so that if any part of the import fails all changes are rolled back to a state before the import began. 19. TESTING 19.1 Introduction: Testing is a process of technical investigation, performed on behalf of stakeholders, that is intended to reveal quality-related information about the product with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. Testing process deals with the verification and validation of a system to ensure that it meets user’s and system’s requirements. Test Item: Interface Features to be tested: Login, Search, issue, update, delete, add, return Features not to be tested: Not applicable Approach:-
  47. 47. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 47 | P a g e INTERFACE APPROACH Login Unit testing Add Unit testing Search Unit testing Update Unit testing Delete Unit testing Issue Unit testing Return Unit testing TESTING PROCESS AND RESULT Login Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Enter user name The system excepts the user name Pass 2. Enter password The system excepts the password Pass 3. Select type Select the item from the combo box. Pass 4. Click on submit button The system displays home page. Pass Add student: Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Click on add button The system displays the panel to fulfill the options Pass Add book: Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Click on add button The system displays the panel to fulfill the options Pass 2. Display the panel Fulfill all the details Pass 3. Click on submit button Click the submit button to add books. Pass
  48. 48. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 48 | P a g e Search student: Step Action Expected System Response Pass/Fail 1. Click on search button The system displays the options Pass 2. Using intake to search The system displays the fields to be filled Pass 3. Enter intake The system display list of students Pass Search book: Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Click on search button The system displays the panel Pass 2. Select search by book code The system accepts the required values Pass 3. Enter book code. The system add the new user Pass Update student: Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Click on edit button The system displays the panel Pass 3. Enter the specified fields The system accepts the required values Pass 4. Enter update button The system add the update user details Pass Update book details Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail
  49. 49. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 49 | P a g e 1. Click on books The system displays the options Pass 2. Click on update books The system displays the fields to be filled Pass 3. Enter the specified fields The system accepts the required values Pass 4. Click on update book The system add the update book details Pass Book issue: Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Click on issue a book The system displays the panel Pass 2. Click on select book Display the panel to select book 3. Click select book no. The system select book no. Pass 4. Enter the specified fields The system accepts the required values Pass 5. Click on go button The issue book to the user Pass Book Return Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Click on return button The system displays message box Pass 2. Enter the book code in the message The system accepts the required values Pass 3. Click on ok button The system accepts the required values Pass 4. Calculate fine The system return the book calculate fine Pass 5. Message box displays Message box show the fine Pass Delete student
  50. 50. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 50 | P a g e Step Action Expected System Response Pass/ Fail 1. Click on search button The system displays the options Pass 2. Search the student using intake Search the student. Pass 3. Click on edit button The system displays the fields to be filled Pass 4. Click on delete button The system deletes the student Pass TEST DELIVERABLES: Test plan PLAN APPROVALS: signature of user APPENDIX Software Quality Assurance Plan: Quality Planning: Quality Factor Goal Achieved 1. Defect The no. of defects in the system is to be rectified. Errors of the system are rectified. 2.Coustomer Satisfaction The customer’s should be satisfied with the system as per their requirements. Customers are satisfied from the system. 3.Quality Improvement Quality of the software should be maintain regularly & works on their improvement Quality is improved from initial to execution steps. Process Quality: Name of Process Descriptions Document Standard 1.Project Planning It is used to plan the entire project like cost, schedule, risk, and design etc ConfigurationManagement, SoftwareQualityAssurance plan, RiskManagement,documentation & Programming Standard, Communication mode. 2. Analysis In this phase we analyze the Problem background, Scope of
  51. 51. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 51 | P a g e existing system and create the new one by eliminating the drawbacks. the system. 3. Designing In this we design how our system looks. Data, Procedural, Interface, & Architectural design 4. Testing In this phase we test whether the software is running properly as per the user’s requirement. Black box, white box, System Testing Unit testing & integration testing. 5.Project Management Divide projects into modules then manage with respect to money & time. RiskIdentification,Risk Analysis Risk Prioritization & is impact. 6. Schedule Planning In this phase we schedule the tasks to be held on that very time. Ganttchart,Pert chart, Activity Network 7. Risk Management It describes the related risk o our project. Process Improvement: Name of Process Estimated No. of defects Actual Rectified 1.Login 1 1 2.Issue Book 3 2 3.Return Book 3 2 4.Add/Edit/Search/Delete Students 6 5 5.Comput Fine 4 3 6. Registration. 3 3 7.Add/Edit/Search/Delete Book. 4 2
  52. 52. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 52 | P a g e
  53. 53. PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICES OF SOFTWARE PRODUCATION LEVEL-2 Group-15 ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 53 | P a g e

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