Farm Productivity is an overall measure ofthe ability of a farm to produce aagricultural product. More specifically,productivity is the measure of howspecified resources are managed toaccomplish timely objectives as stated interms of quantity and quality of product.
Productivity of Indian AgricultureIndia with its sizable agricultural sector hasto face a number of problems. Lowproduction and low productivity are at thecore of agricultural problem In India. Theproductivity of agriculture is relatively low inIndia compared to other countries withcomparable natural environment. Therehave been some improvements in recentyears.
Measures to improve agricultural productivity Irrigation potential• It has been increased through public funding & assisting farmers to create potential on their own farms. The total irrigation potential in the country has increased from 81.1 million hectares to 102.8 million hectares• only 73.5 % irrigation potential has been created out of which 87.2 million hectares(84.9 %) is actually utilized. The scope of expanding irrigation through large & medium scale project has yet to be fully exploited.
Exploiting production potential :• To achieve expected level of productivity, farmer must be guided by experts in respect of soil & water analysis for adopting the best diversified cropping system ,meticulous adoption of technology (when & how), judicious use of seeds,fertilisers,pesticides,water,labour & credit.• supply of inputs must be of standard quality, reasonable priced & timely available. There is need to establish farm inputs & equipment regulatory & development authority.
Rural infrastructure for farm growth:• there is a positive correlation between infrastructure development & aggregate agricultural productivity.• rural infrastructure as irrigation water shed development, rural electrification ,roads,markets,credit institution rural literacy ,agriculture research & extension etc together plays key role in determining output in India.
Capital formation in agriculture:• Productivity in agriculture is also dependent on capital formation both from public & private sectors.• Gross capital formation in agriculture relative to GDP in this sector has shown an improvement from 9.6% in 2 to 12.5% but it should be raised to 14 % to achieve a growth of in this sector.
Crop Insurance• Productivity in agriculture also depends on various external factors like monsoons ,pests ,diseases ,drought & other natural calamities .So crops need to be covered under insurance to provide financial support to farmers.• For this we have NATIONAL AGRICULTURE INSURANCE SCHEME.
BETTER QUALITY SEEDS:• The seed should have the characteristic like better grain quality, resistance to pests & diseases & suitability to the agro-climatic conditions & quality of high rate of germination & high yielding.• So we have National Seed Policy 2002 provides the framework for growth of the seed sector.
Returns to Scale• Increasing• constant• decreasing
LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS For example, the use of fertilizer improvescrop production on farms but at some point,adding more and more fertilizer improves theyield less per unit of fertilizer, and excessivequantities can even reduce the yield