Borderless eGovernment services for EuropeansBetter eGovernment servicesISA – Interoperability Solutions for European Public AdministrationsEIA – European Interoperability ArchitectureAll this is accompanied by EU directives and actions for PSI re-use
No real focus on access to citizens or businesses -> Lack of tools, guidelines, consultation on business models
The actual meaning of the data itselfCommon data models and meta-data models are neededENGAGE – eInfrastructure for PSI curation etc.Data interchange, querying, defining rulesLAPSI – Legal Aspects of Public Sector InformationThe LAPSI project intends to build a network apt to become the main European point of reference for high-level policy discussions and strategic action on all legal issues related to the access and the re-use of the PSI, namely in the digital environment.PositiveSpaces (+Spaces)Was a research project aiming at real-world-policy – making in popular online communities. Modelling real-world behaviour. Engage citizens from different online communities by utilizing these virtual spaces for assisting policy makers in reaching out and gaining insight from the citizens about their opinions and potential acceptance of new policies.
epSOS attempts to offer seamless healthcare to European citizens. Key goals are to improve the quality and safety of healthcare for citizens when travelling to another European country. Moreover, it concentrates on developing a practical eHealth framework and ICT infrastructure that enables secure access to patient health information among different European healthcare systems.Language:Translation mechanisms, language is inherent in the meta-data model used for datasets.Interoperability and provenance: more systems are using varied sources and multiple information manipulation engines, thus increasing interoperability requirements Financial: The level of effort required to make data connectable post-hoc is significant – frequently unbearable
Existing “standards”, models, vocabularies, APIs in the ODC (e.g. For the representation of PoI, Transportation information etc) updated as they become available.Mapping between existing datasets and the standardsInteroperability doesn’t necessarily have to start top-to-bottom. Bottom-up initiatives can contribute to the realisation of interoperable European eGovernment.
Conférence Open Data par où commencer ? Round table 2 How to use open data ?
Round Table 2: How to use open data? Moderator: Hugo Kerschot (IS-practice, Belgium)
Agenda• What kind of data do we publish first? Why? How? John Keys, e-Business Officer Manchester Digital Development Agency (United-Kingdom)• Open data: what impact on the local authoritys internal organisation? Frédéric Romanczuk, Business Development Manager Public sector Microsoft (France)• Open data: Free or Fee ? William Gilles, Director of the "Master in Administration-Companies Digital Law " at Sorbonnes Law School, President of IMODEV (France)• What is the platform we could use to host our open data? Bruno Pinna, Director Cloud Computing Bull (France)• Open data: How to achieve interoperability? Evangelos Arzygoukis, ICT Expert Intrasoft (Greece)
What kind of data do we publish first?Why? How?John Keyspen data. Free or Fee?e-Business Officer at Manchester Digital DevelopmentAgency (United-Kingdom)
What kind of data do we publish first?• In each instance it will be different;• Identify your priorities & ease of doing it;• Engage with developers, residents & businesses to define priorities;• Personal data?• Do it.
Why ?• Business Case: – Every day there are an estimated 600 staff in the public sector in Greater Manchester looking for data, trying to access databases and converting data into single formats for cross analysis…. Cost estimated at £8,500,000 p.a. – 14,000 + Bus Stops 15 Bus Stations 50 + trams stops– soon to be 100 + 200 + Train Stations 2,000 + Bus Routes 300,000,000 passenger journeys 40 + Bus Operators.• Legislation: – EU & National legislation coupled with the local context. Manchester’s digital strategy is committed to making Manchester the UK exemplar for Open Data.• Social & political: – Improving communities & peoples lives• Economic: – New businesses – More efficient ways of working
How?• Make stuff available• Make it structured• Non proprietary• Linked data• Ecosystem – Develop & engage e.g. Hackathon – DataGM & Open Data Manchester – Eurocities KSF, Open Data Working Group – Open Knowledge Foundation e.g. OK Fest
Open data: what impact on the localauthoritys internal organisation?Fee?Frédéric RomanczukBusiness Development ManagerPublic sector, Microsoft (France)Email : email@example.com
Organisation modernisation• An open data project is a way to move the internal organisation and to review the working process – creates the dialog between business directions – cross direction collaboration (IT, Comm, business) – changes the way to get and store data
Open data. Free or Fee?William GillesAssociate Professor at the Sorbonne Law schoolDirector of the Master of Digital Law (Public sector and Firms)President of IMODEVEmail : firstname.lastname@example.org
If you question people about the free or paying access topublic data… the majority are going to demand a free access and re-use Poll For free as regards both For free as regards non- 585 requesters commercial and non- commercial re-use? commercial re-use? agree strongly 30,43% 49,23% agree 20,00% 17,26% no opinion 9,06% 7,86% disagree 16,75% 6,50% disagree strongly 11,28% 7,86% Source : UE, 2010 William Gilles – Email : email@example.com Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
… and a majority is hostile to fees…. except if re-users are charged at marginal cost. Charges based on Charges based on full cost Charges based Charging at marginal Poll full cost recovery, recovery? on partial cost costs for reproducing 585 requesters together with a recovery? and disseminating the reasonable return documents? on investment? (PSI 2003 reviewed) (PSI 2003) agree strongly 3,76% 3,25% 2,56% 12,82% agree 6,32% 9,57% 12,99% 26,67% no opinion 4,62% 5,30% 9,74% 10,26% disagree 24,27% 31,11% 29,91% 19,49% disagree strongly 46,84% 35,90% 27,52% 16,58% Source : UE, 2010 William Gilles – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
Beyond the poll… Reality is much more complex William Gilles – Email : email@example.com Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
3 Questions on the Possibility of Charging or Not the Accessand the Re-use of the Public Sector Information • What? – The Concepts? • Open Data, Public Sector Information, Free Access, Fee Access, Open Access – The Scope ? • What data are concerned? • Why? – The Reasons • Why might you have a Free or a Fee Access and Re-Use of Public Sector Information? • How? – The modalities • If local governments choose a Fee or a Free Access and Re-Use, how can do develop their open data policy. William Gilles – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
What? The concepts. The scopeWhat legal framework? If we make something free or charged, • What does it concern ? • And what is the legal framework ? – Local governements will be allowed to make money with their data only if they have the right to do that! Indeed, this conference treats with Open Data • But there is no « Open Data Legal Framework » itself. • However we can refer to the Public Sector Information (PSI) Directive of 2003… and to its transposition at national level – i.e. : ord. 6 june 2005 (France) William Gilles – Email : email@example.com Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
What?There is no one data, but several data. When we wonder about the possibility to charge the access or re-use of data, we should make a distinction between : – “Public Sector Information” The PSI directive deals with the concept of “information”, not with data. • Data are part of information • but information are more than a simple data : – “Information corresponds to a set of contextualised and structured data, the producer’s intention being to make them meaningful”. Cf. J. Pénin (coord.), BETA – “Raw Data” ≠ Structured, contextualised or commented data – Good Quality Data ≠ without quality data – Formatted data ≠ Unformatted data William Gilles – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
What?Open data, access and re-use. • We should also make a distinction between Open Data, Access and Re-Use – Access is not the re-use of data – Free access or re-use is not synonym to “open access or re-use” – A paid access or re-use does not give all rights to the one who accepts to pay William Gilles – Email : email@example.com Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
4 extreme models Free Fee Access or Re-Use 1 2 without conditions Access or Re-Use 3 4 with conditions – Free access and re-use without (real) conditions for the re-use • apparently the most favorable model for re-users – Free access or re-use with conditions for the re-use • the re-user has to respect more or less strong condition in the license – Access or re-use with Fee and conditions for the re-use • the re-user has to pay but should also respect more or less strong conditions in the license – Access and re-use without fee and without (real) conditions for the re- use: • the re-user will have more rights for the re-using because he/she has accepted to pay (even selling of public data that have already been bought) William Gilles – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
4 extreme modelswith intermediate models… FREE FEE… Becausethere is no Free policy can be Fees can be calculated promotedone but as regards non- on full cost recovery (no)several commercial re-possibilities use on partial cost recovery (no)to charge or as regards both on full cost recovery, together with a reasonablenot the cost commercial and return on investment (PSI 2003)of public non-commercial at marginal costs for reproducing anddata. re-use disseminating the documents (Next PSI Directive) William Gilles – Email : email@example.com Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
Another distinction is the difference between Dataconcerned by the 2003 PSI Directive # Data excluded fromthis scope • Data concerned by the 2003 PSI Directive: – Private ≠ Public data corresponds to all the information produced, collected or paid by public bodies. • For instance: geographical data, statistics, meteorological data, data from publicly funded research projects, and digitalized books from libraries • But the scope of the current Directive (of 2003) is restricted. – Data excluded from the scope of the PSI Directive of 2003 are ruled by the common law (copyright) : • Bodies of industrial or commercial character, e.g. public transport authorities; • Educational and research establishments, • Performing cultural institutions such as operas, ballets and theatres as well as public service broadcasters, as there may be issues related to intellectual property rights. • New possibilities should be offered with the review of the Directive : • New bodies such as libraries (including university libraries), museums and archives • Limitation of fees (marginal cost) William Gilles – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
Why? The Reasons : Free or Fees? • Why should we have a Free Access and Re-Use of Public Sector Information? – No doubt to make a Free Access. • According to me, the question of Fee concerns only the re- use of data, not the access. • Transparency – Question is about the re-use even in if this case, the free re-use should be the rule according to advantages • Development of the economy • New public services William Gilles – Email : email@example.com Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
Why? The Reasons : Free of Fees? • Why might we have a re-use of Public Sector Information with fees? – Nothing is free ! • Better to say : re-use without fees • To say that it has already been paid by taxes is not a good argument. • Possibility for local government to earn money and optimize their intangible assets – But fee can also have disadvantage and be a barrier to the development of the digital economy William Gilles – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
How? Modalities of Data Access and Re-use: Free or Fees? Several questions about the modalities: – Is the open data policy opposite to the optimization and the valuation of the public data? • Small and medium local governments can have some difficulties to support the cost of the open data policy • The more local government will participate in this policy, the more the open data revolution will be important. • Charging the cost of data (at marginal cost) can be a way to encourage local government to open their data (at least at the beginning). – If there are fees, how could we do to prevent barriers in the deployment of the open data policy? • When it is not free, charging at marginal costs seems to be the future in order to discourage government to fix prohibitive fees. William Gilles – Email : email@example.com Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
Another question is also who? We should make a distinction between Re-Users: For instance: Non-profit re-user ≠ Profit re-users / Commercial re- users ≠ Non commercial re-users A distinction between big enterprises and small and medium-size enterprises seems more complicated We should make a distinction between local governments and central governments USA : Federal level : free ≠ Local governments can charge the cost We should make a distinction between data: Somme data have more value than others. The economic sector is sometime ready to pay a high price for these data. Therefore, why refusing in that case this money? William Gilles – Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Issy-les-Moulineaux – 5th October 2012
In conclusion• So, there is no unique rule but several possibilities which depend on circumstances.• It is possible to envisage complex solutions combining, according to situations,: – Free access, – Fees, – And also alternative solutions such as imposing to the re-user counterparties in exchange for the provision of public data.
What is the platform we could use tohost our open data?Bruno PinnaDirector Cloud Computing, BullEmail : email@example.com
How to achieve interoperability?Evangelos ArgyzoudisICT Expert, Intrasoft (Luxemburg)Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Outline• Vision for interoperability• Problem statement• Challenges and solutions• The Citadel On the Move approach
Vision• Improve public sector data interoperability – Across member states – Within member states• European governments being open, flexible and collaborative in their relations with citizens and businesses (Malmö Vision)• Common architecture (Citadel statement, ISA – EIA action)
Problem statement• EU Directive on re-use of PSI – 27 Member States implement the directive – A lot of data published by public authorities• But... – In what format? – No real focus on access to citizens or businesses – Interoperability (nationally or internationally) not yet a core consideration
Problem statement Tasks Distribution Pricing and Availability Data Policy Makers Providers Direction and RegulationInnovation Scope and Impact and Adaptation, Access and Conditions Requirements Specialisation Acquisition Social Technological Productisation Business/ Servification Application Citizen Developers Communities Data and Purpose Utilisation Dr. Franscesco Molinari (Alfamicro)
Challenges & Solutions• Semantic – Lack of (common) semantics – Common data/meta-data models – Core vocabularies – CITADEL, ENGAGE• Technological – Ways to upload, download, maintain datasets exist – Ways to search, link, visualise, use in applications also exist – Infrastructures – Semantic Web “stack” of standard technologies – Joinup platform, ISA programme, LOD2, CITADEL• Legal/policy – Licensing – Contractual and intellectual property rights associated with the data – LAPSI project, ISA programme, ePractice.eu, +Spaces, WeGov, CITADEL
Challenges & Solutions• Privacy – Personal, health, financial data, national security etc – epSOS• Language – eGovernment services provided internationally poses challenges – CITADEL, ENGAGE• Data Quality, Evolution, Provenance – Is the data we find of appropriate quality? Has it changed and how? Who owns it? – DIACHRON• Financial – Cost of publishing data in a way which facilitates interoperability – What happens to data which has already been published?
Within the context ofCitadel... On the Move• CITADEL will provide: – application templates to facilitate apps/services development by citizens (non-professional developers) – a repository of data and tools to facilitate finding and retrieving the right data (Open Data Commons, Citadel Hub)• Will create communities of citizen developers• Will use (at first) existing datasets published by PAs in Athens, Manchester, Issy, Ghent• An application created in Issy must be re-usable in Ghent
Within the context ofCitadel... On the Move Application Scenarios in Pilot Cities Template Template Template TemplateSemantic 1 2 3 ...nPatterns Open Data Commons API ? Query PlugRecording Data Dump API Dataset Dataset Dataset Dataset Dataset 1 2 3 4 ...n TXT, CSV, IoT Feeds, XML, KML, RDF, JPG, INSPIRE, MP3, SQL, NoSQL...