SAFEGUARDINGSafeguarding children and vulnerable adultsThe role of the Volunteer
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES• To explore what safeguarding means through the social and political context.• Clarify role and responsibilities in safeguarding.• Is there a difference between safeguarding and protecting?• The role of the volunteer in safeguarding.• Safeguarding the volunteer.
The Social and Political Landscape• Society – ‘There is no such thing. There are individual men and women and their are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first’ (Thatcher, 1987).• The welfare systems were reviewed with the policy and political focus on the family and the individual taking responsibility for their own lives.• A reduction in state intervention in the family was promoted.• A growth in volunteering services – Home Start.
Wicked Issues• Social exclusion.• Inter-generational problems identified as the following: Unemployment Poverty Racism Poor housing Teenage pregnancy Crime Anti-Social behaviour Truancy Social isolation Substance misuse Mental health
Tough Love• Joined-up solutions for joined-up problems.• Social rights come with social responsibilities.• Policies targeted parents with children who were deemed errant or families that were called ‘toxic’.• Policies and interventions were considered moralistic in character with an emphasis on being tough with parents.• The biggest growth of legislation to deal with the problems aimed at transforming the futures of the next generation.
Schoolboy Torturers• Doncaster torture case: Brothers, 12 and 10, used sticks and noose on boys
Secrets• A slow evolutionary process for adults who needed protection.• Initiatives, guidance and recommendations – no legislation.• Two areas of concern – physical assault of older people and the sexual abuse of adults with learning difficulties.
Vulnerability• How is this defined? DoH (2000) – ‘Abuse is the violation of an individuals human and civil rights by any other person or persons’.
Having a Voice• Acknowledge that many adults were not heard or that they did not want to speak out about abuse.• Communicating with others particularly for those with dementia, learning disabilities and limited accessibility.• Incidence reporting was limited and data lax.• Limited number of professionals trained.
Safeguarding Children• In children’s services a move from protecting to safeguarding linked to policies developed by the social inclusion policy department. Aimed at targeting those families who were identified as ‘toxic’.• A move that was then embedded in Every Child Matters as the result of the death of Victoria Climbie.
Safeguarding Vulnerable Adults• In adult services there was a similar move from protection to safeguarding.• The move and recommendations were aimed at widening society and professional understanding about who is ‘in need’.• Legislation took much longer to be implemented.
Criticisms• Wide ranging debates about the move from protecting to safeguarding. Loudest challenge has come from those involved in policies linked to children.• Challenges have said that professionals and society do not know who to target for interventions and services.• Equal challenges have been made about multi- disciplinary working together and who is now responsible and accountable.
Child DeathThe death of Peter Connolly and thefollowing inquiry has led to a wideranging review of services for childrenin England, Wales, and NorthernIreland ever seen.Professor Eileen Munro wascommissioned to review services forchildren and the focus was on ChildProtection. Munro (2010 and 2011)has recommended that the termsafeguarding was too wide and easilyover generalised by professionals. Sheis now recommending a move to usingthe term Child Protection. However,the term safeguarding remains inpolicy and practice documents. Thefuture is about who providesprotection services and who providessafeguarding.Clues are in the use of the ‘Big Society’and the Locality Bill.
Adult deathsAbout 400 more people died atStafford Hospital between 2005 and2008 than would be expected, theHealthcare Commission said.Inquiries into the care of vulnerableadults at Stafford hospital was one ofthe first major investigations intopatient care. There have followed anumber of other investigations in thedeaths and professional misconduct ofnursing staff across England.Services for adults have refocusedwithin a similar time-line for those in.Adult services identify protective workwithin the framework of positiveattention to the vulnerable adultswelfare.
Pause and Reflect• Do you think there is a difference between the terms safeguarding and protecting?
BICHARD INQUIRY - CRB• Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006.• Introduced a new vetting and barring scheme.• Recruitment of staff and volunteers more robust.• Introduction of a list of those barred from working with children and adults.• Further vetting introduced in 2010.• Produced a media outcry about the use of CRB checks for volunteers – support with reading groups in schools. A range of literary writers voiced their anger. This led to the system being reviewed.
Keeping children and adults safe• Apart from CRB checks, • Robust recruitment. what other steps can • Training and learning. we take to help • Supervision. safeguard vulnerable children and adults ? • Assessing risks. • Lone working policies. • Knowledge about the group you are providing a service for.
A Culture of Safety – Safeguarding the Volunteer• Understand and have access to appropriate policies and procedures.• Be clear about who you report to.• Find out if the agency has a supervision policy.• Know what the procedures are for reporting allegations or claims of abuse.• Does the agency have a training policy?
The Big Society• The role of the volunteer in the community and service provision is expected to grow under the current coalition government.• Research suggests that communities are served well by volunteers (Edwards and Mooney, 2001).• There are concerns about expectations and role of the volunteer in providing services – volunteer social workers!• Women have identified the need for volunteers to be financially recognised and feminist writers – Dominelli (2006) are cautious. Highlighting the fact that women historically make up the largest group of unpaid carers/volunteers propping up state services and that this needs to be exposed.
Reading• http://www.volunteering.org.uk/resources/good practicebank/Core+Themes/ProtectionandSafegu arding/apartfrom.htm• Brown, K. (2010) Vulnerable Adults and Community Care, 2nd ed, Exeter: Learning Matters.• Cocker, C; Allain, L. (2011)(eds) Advanced Social Work with Children and Families, Exeter, Learning Matters.• http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/30/3/444.short Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly