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Social innovation in neighbourhood policing colloquium sept 2017

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Social innovation in neighbourhood policing colloquium sept 2017

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Social innovation in neighbourhood policing colloquium sept 2017

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2 A retrospective critical realist investigation, using soft systems methodology, into social innovation in action; in the context of neighbourhood policing. Tim Curtis, The University of Northampton June 2016 aka ‘social innovation practices in neighbourhood policing’
  3. 3. The context • “engagement and consultation with their communities was predominately focused on public meetings, local priorities were based on the concerns of a small and unrepresentative part of the community, and some hard-to-reach groups in these areas reported that neighbourhood teams did not engage with them” • Myhill, A (2006/12) Community engagement in Policing; Lessons from the literature. National Policing Improvement Agency 3
  4. 4. The social innovation research question • How did I go about creating the toolkit? - antecedents • How was it implemented by PCSOs – case studies, soft systems analysis • What mechanisms (for social innovation) are at work in the toolkit? Critical realist analysis • Is it a reliable tool for designing socially innovative interventions? • How can the toolkit be improved? 4
  5. 5. What the investigation is not: • An evaluation study • A tool for measuring social impact • An investigation into social impacts of neighbourhood policing – Impossible to create a counterfactual – Long chains of causality and effect • Criminology • A review of police effectiveness or legitimacy 5
  6. 6. The story so far 6
  7. 7. First engagement Nov 2012 • Discussing community profiling and rich picturing as a community engagement technique • NP seeking better ‘data’ from LIPS – hard data, closed question set. • How to ‘use’ the JDI Vulnerable Localities Index • What is ‘intensive community engagement’ and how does it differ from: – Super cocooning: Inform – Reassure – Advise – SARA/NDM – Social media and community events 7
  8. 8. LIPS data seriously flawed 8 The disparity between respondents to LIPS survey and census population
  9. 9. Methodology Participatory Action Research • Rapid Appraisal • Insights & themes • Initial response • Effectuate • Review and Amend PAR is collaborative, critical, participatory, and developmental. 9
  10. 10. Participatory Action Research • acknowledge that the problem originates in the community itself and is defined, analyzed, and solved by the community. • ultimate goal of PAR research is the radical transformation of social reality and improvement in the lives of the individuals involved; thus, community members are the primary beneficiaries of the research. • PAR involves the full and active participation of the community at all levels of the entire research process. • PAR encompasses a range of powerless groups of individuals: the exploited, the poor, the oppressed, and the marginalized. • the ability to create a greater awareness in individuals’ own resources that can mobilize them for self-reliant development 10
  11. 11. Rapid Appraisal • Interviews in St James/Dallington team • Vertical sample through from Inspector through PC to PCSO and to residents • Use of Rich Picturing (RP) as exploratory tool • Engagements recorded film/audio • Seeking insights and themes • Verify insights through extending sample • Theoretical saturation 11
  12. 12. Insights and Themes • Significant change in discourse about communities between Police Officer and PCSO • PCSO actively solving problems • PSCO acting as a “boundary spanner” (Tushman 1977) • Intuitive rather than deliberate community engagement and problem solving • Frustrated by limited power and locus of control (being ‘abstracted’ to other tasks) Tushman, Michael L (1977). "Special Boundary Roles in the Innovation Process". Administrative Science Quarterly 22 (4): 587–605. 12
  13. 13. Initial response • PCSOs operating in complex (messy) social environments – Soft Systems Methodology specifically designed for this • Police being measured on performance where solutions owned by non-Police actors – Community organising to get other working to deliver Police outcomes • Long tradition of expecting Police to solve everything – Weekly ‘you said, we did’ closed loop cycle – Required developing ‘self-efficacy’ in neighbourhoods 13
  14. 14. Unfreeze and Reframe ‘The Socially Entrepreneurial PCSO’ think piece Jan 2013 • PCSO needs to have autonomy and locus of control to act effectively • PCSOs will go about a consistent and repeatable set of information gathering and problem analysis/solving tasks • encouraging and training new ‘engaged citizen informants’ to become smart customers of the Police equipped to ask the right questions • PCSO’s remit should follow natural community ‘neighbourhoods’ rather than parish boundaries • Retain and motivate this talent for localities through long-term engagement • neighbourhood based Police & Community Foundations would operates companies, led by the Police but securing funds and incomes from a variety of contracts Prompted by Policing 2020: What kind of police service do we want in 2020?” 14
  15. 15. Designing & Trialling LISP 15
  16. 16. First cohort • Generic but open framework of – Community profiling – Rich picture dialoguing – Issue prioritising – Intrinsic Motivation theory • Too much detail/academic • Too open and generic • Needed case studies • Methods well tested but never done in Police before 16
  17. 17. Three ‘test-sites’ • Dallington/St James –wider issues around Operation Isotonic, gold burglaries amongst Bangladeshi community, first cohort PCSOs • Holy Sepulchre -complex neighbourhood with street drinking/homelessness and sex trade. • Rockingham Rd, Kettering- street drinking and ASB, Polish community • Training sites for subsequent cohorts 17
  18. 18. LISP Proforma • Various re-ordering of toolkit- attempt to connect to National Decision Model • Better fit with SARA framework- familiar to PCSOs, but with more in-depth investigation • Refocus on ethos of engagement and community organising • Back burner for data, profiling, and issues ranking • Lower priority for rich picturing- requires community engagement first • LISP coined as a counterpoint to LIPS 18
  19. 19. Second Cohort June/July 2013 • More focussed on LISP proforma • Less academic • Aide-memoire plus light touch ‘how-to’ • PCSOs still charged with reading all the background materials • Supported by regular PCSO usergroup • Challenges • Handling through A01 process • ECINS as collaboration tool • Exclusion (of residents) arising from ‘technological responses’ • Sgts and Inspectors –’reinterpreting’ PCSO expectations, tasking LISP as additional duties rather than 40% core business 19
  20. 20. PSCO responses • Consistent language and process across county • Open framework allows different responses according to local conditions • Written copy of work completed • Evidence of crimes prevented • Option to escalate to overcome blocks • Hold partners to account • ‘allows you to chip away at the [persistent] problem’ 20
  21. 21. Risks going forward • Short term targets lead to frustration with apparent lack of progress • PSCOs given ‘activity’ rather than ‘outcome’ targets • Confusion between SARA/NDM/AO1 and new imports like super-cocooning • PCSOs timid about addressing difficult challenges ‘being faced with an unresolvable issue’ • LISP proforma completion measured according to ‘numbers done’ rather than quality of outcomes • LISPs remain a predominantly Police-led activity- Police remain addicted to ‘being in charge’ 21
  22. 22. Third cohort • Remaining PCSOs trained in Nov/Dec 2013 • Version #6 of training slides and #12 of LISP handbook published • Concentration on St Seps area as training location • Improvement in ‘assent’ from PCSOs and grasp of RP approach • Some PCs and Sgt involvement • Briefing of all Sgts ‘Managing a LISP’. 22
  23. 23. Widening range of LISP projects • PCSOs undertaking ‘practice’ LISPs • Sgts clearer about selection criteria for LISPS • Better justification for LISP areas, RD working with stats team to create better crime rates data in standard set • Evidence of more intensive engagement in some LISPs • Reluctance to engage with RP as a planning technique • Still tendency to ‘own’ the process and create unsustainable ‘projects’ • Discussion about measuring cohesion. • Success measures are still Police-led. 23
  24. 24. Widening scope • Supt RJ shifted to new command Dec 2013- control room. • Supt Dave Hill in Corporate Services picking up and widening LISP and IE to new Target Operating Model in ASPIRE transformation programme • Consider involving Special Constables and volunteers in LISPing • LISP project to be incorporated into Police and Community Institute at University • E-learning module created in Jan 2014 • Wider context of ‘Policing the Future’ project 24
  25. 25. Going forward In Jan 14 • Reinforce training with PCSO fora • Thorough case study on St Seps project as demonstrator • Laura Brodrick art work for better RP • Briefing of Inspectors and PCC. • Complete review of LISPs under progress- full analysis of patterns and issues 25
  26. 26. The LISP toolkit 26
  27. 27. The 8 step process 27 Intensive Engagement- Locally Identified Solutions and Practices (LISP)- 8 step toolkit LISP step 1 Clarify the justification for commencing Intensive Engagement -scan what is known about the neighbourhood. What does crime and other data tell us? What are the issues identified? What is the evidence for this? Is there an evidence base for adopting as a location? LISP step 2 What community assets already exist in the location? What networks and associations are there? What are the vulnerabilities are in the area? (what makes this area already mostly successful?) LISP step 3 Who shares the problem? Stakeholders & networks Identify who are directly involved in this issue? (individuals, agencies, businesses, residents etc). How are all people/ agencies involved associated? LISP step 4 Develop Problem Rich Pictures – Engage with community members to establish how all stakeholders see the problem? Where do the issues arise? What parts of the neighbourhood are successful? Map the results LISP step 5 Form a working group made up of stakeholders who are engaged and able to make changes LISP step 6 Develop Solution Rich Pictures –Engage the working group to identify what the solutions look like from the stakeholders perspective? How can they be achieved? What would the neighbourhood look like if all the issues were solved? LISP step 7 Agree Interventions & Evaluation (Who is doing what, when, how, by when, what does success look like?) LISP step 8 Establish escalation processes with stakeholders, authorities and agencies- what will make the interventions fails? What are you going to do about it to prevent that happening? Who will you need to approach to unblock barriers to progress?
  28. 28. Policing the Future project brief 28 Anon (2014) policing the future - project brief v3 Northants Police 19th Aug
  29. 29. or no future? • 4th Dec 2014. • Private meeting with new head of Institute- “apart from niggles over communication and misunderstandings (wilful or not), there is a fundamental disjuncture between the long-term embedded nature of LISP and the very short-term operational demands of the Policing the Future experiments. What constitutes success for PtF is not defined and there is no evaluation process in place. IE is not a package or intervention per se but a way of delivering interventions within PtF” 29 Personal notes 4th Dec 2014
  30. 30. Force-wide Review Jan- April 2015 • “At some point in the last two years each of you have been involved in developing and implementing a new approach to Intensive Engagement called LISP (Locally Identified Solutions and Practices). ACC Balhatchet has requested a review of how the implementation has progressed in order to refine and improve the LISP toolkit and to inform future development.” From: George Jen Sent: 26 January 2015 12:25 To: Lyall Nick; Murray Dennis; Thompson Thomas; Evans Mark Cc: James Richard (Superintendent) Subject: FW: Intensive Engagement Review- POD action 30
  31. 31. Self-evaluation survey • A self-evaluation rubric was devised, based on the key stages of LISP implementation, and key factors highlighted by Pawson that influence the implementation and success of policy interventions. The rubric was structured with three levels of statements that Police officers could select, representing three levels of implementation; beginning, intermediate and full implementation. The survey was sent to all community policing teams in the county in Jan 2015, with a two week window for completion. The researchers received 21 responses representing 11 distinct locations in the county 31 Curtis, T (2015) Interim Report -Force Wide Review of Intensive Engagement Feb 2015 #2 Curtis, T (2015) PHD Brief Research proposal- LISP-Social Innovation in Intensive Community Policing Jan 2015#8b
  32. 32. Summary of Strategic Recommendations • TARGETING • Identify new Priority Areas for Intensive Engagement: Review Priority Area data to widen the data set from SAC to a basket of measures that better reflect community vulnerability to crime and police demand management challenges. Set top level outcomes based on a basket of measures • Prepare teams for IE Implementation: utilise existing skills and experience from across the force to support and mentor the teams identified in the new Priority Areas and arrange training for senior staff to ensure consistent implementation of intensive engagement. Select teams based on behaviours and attitudes that promote public confidence and resilience in tackling complex and sensitive issues • Critical risk issues: explore the use of Intensive Engagement as a consistent approach to investigate and design force responses to upcoming critical risk issues such as FGM, radicalisation, school exclusions, troubled families and human trafficking. • TESTING • Prepare for evaluation: gather data on public confidence and resilience (i.e. that is not already available) in new Priority Area locations • TRACKING • Governance and delivery: Identify and secure strategic governance to provide strategic lead and individual to lead operational deliverability across BCUs and specialist and expert topic areas. 32 Curtis, T (2015) Proposed Recommendations from Forcewide Review of Intensive Engagement March 2015#2
  33. 33. Beginning to seek Mechanisms Community Policing Evidence Features of LISP based Intensive Engagement What works In-depth understanding of people, place and problems In-depth investigation of the police crime problem in the context of the other problems experienced in the locality Full and consistent application of interventions The training and subsequent evaluation of the quality of LISP work, and standard proforma Sufficient ‘dose’ of intensive engagement with sufficient time Success, i.e. depth of understanding of the problem and success of the interventions is determined by the working group rather than police timeframes Proactive contact Deliberate choices are made at the screening stage about the importance of the locality to policing outcomes. Process requires identification of all potential stakeholder groups, including hard to reach. A group of residents Where community organisations appropriate to the problems don’t exist, the LISP process creates the social capital and networks to allow this to happen Joint problem solving Co-production of the problem analysis and solving stages is central What is promising A consistent process As above Highly connected individuals The LISP working group is made up of highly connected and highly capable people, Support is won Working group members elicit a clearly understood self-interest that underpins expected successes to secure and ‘win’ support Attuned to community dynamics The rich picturing processes develop a nuanced and empathetic understanding of the community and the issues and tensions within it. Tacit skills Training, with the aid of the publically available handbook, briefings to senior officers and a process of identifying the best implementations of LISP and mentoring of officers ensure that police skills are embedded and propgated across the force Not reliant on multi-agency delivery Where statutory partners are actively engaged, LISP provides a clear and discrete method for limited involvement. Where statutory agencies are not engaged, LISP provides a clear evidence base for Police and community to hold statutory agencies to account. 33 Curtis, T (2015) Why we think that Intensive Engagement using LISP works#1 1st May 2015
  34. 34. • Richard will cover TVP project • The PhD begins to take shape • Piloting in Northants halts- new Chief Constable, new PCC 34
  35. 35. Critical realism: a post- post-modernist epistemology 35 Epistemologies Ontologically real http://starecat.com/this-is-true-this-is-truth-square-circle-please-consider-before-talking-typing/ Accessed 10 May 2016
  36. 36. Contexts: Case studies • 2012 over 100 PCSOs rapidly trained • 2012-2013 PCSOs pursue ‘LISP’ projects where they can, with or without support • 2013 receive coaching and mutual support, provide ‘pro-forma’ reports (graded), self- evaluation and interviews 36 Case No. Location Origin Priority Area Crime Confidence Stable team Mgt involved LISP Quality 1 Spencer/Asian Gold Pilot yes down up yes yes Gold 2 Spencer Haven Pilot yes down up yes yes Gold 3 Holy Sepulchre Pilot no steady steady no no Silver 4 All Saints Kettering Pilot yes steady steady no no Silver 5 Daventry Skatepark Pilot no low up yes no Gold 6 Towcester Self generated no down up no yes Bronze 7 Daventry no LISP N/A no steady steady yes no None 8 Wellingborough no LISP N/A no up down no no None
  37. 37. Soft Systems Methodology: Making sense of complex contexts situation considered problematic problem situation expressed real world systems thinking about real world conceptual models of systems described in root definitions 4 comparison of models and real world 5 6 changes: systemically desirable, culturally feasible 7 action to improve the problem situation 3 root definition of relevant systems 2 1 Checkland, 1985 37
  38. 38. PCSO picturing 38
  39. 39. PCSO feedback and planning 39
  40. 40. Conceptual modelling 40
  41. 41. Archer 1995, Bhaskar, 2013 and Pawson 2013 41
  42. 42. Neighbourhood Policing Evidence Features of LISP based Intensive Engagement Features of Holy Sepulchre LISP case What works 1. In-depth understanding of people, place and problems In-depth investigation of the police crime problem in the context of the other problems experienced in the locality The LISP got a good start because the PCSOs had been working in this district for some time, but the analysis in the LISP documentation, and the choice of intervention was simplistic, indicating that the PCSOs and their senior officers had limited local knowledge 1. Full and consistent application of interventions The training and subsequent evaluation of the quality of LISP work, and standard proforma The intervention chosen, the community garden, was not seen through to full implementation. Developing a conceptual model 42
  43. 43. Contexts 43 C1 Vulnerable locality or area of significant multiple deprivation, and C2 Long-term chronic crime patterns C3 Complex, publicly contested crime types inc ASB, SAC
  44. 44. Mechanisms 1 44 No. Proposed Mechanism Features of LISP based Intensive Engagement Neighbourhood Policing Evidence: What works M 1 In-depth understanding of people, place and problems In-depth investigation of the police crime problem in the context of the other problems experienced in the locality M2 Full and consistent application of interventions The training (and subsequent evaluation of the quality of LISP work), and standard proforma M3 Sufficient ‘dose’ of intensive engagement with sufficient time Success, i.e. depth of understanding of the problem and success of the interventions is determined by the working group rather than police timeframes M4 Proactive contact Deliberate choices are made at the screening stage about the importance of the locality to policing outcomes. Process requires identification of all potential stakeholder groups, including hard to reach. M5 A group of residents Where community organisations appropriate to the problems don’t exist, the LISP process creates the social capital and networks to allow this to happen M6 Joint problem solving Co-production of the problem analysis and solving stages is central
  45. 45. Mechanisms 2 45 What is promising M7 Highly connected individuals The LISP working group is made up of ‘highly connected and highly capable people’ M8 Support is won Working group members elicit a clearly understood self-interest that underpins expected successes to secure and ‘win’ support M9 Attuned to community dynamics The rich picturing processes develop a nuanced and empathetic understanding of the community and the issues and tensions within it. M10 Tacit skills Training, with the aid of the publicly available handbook, briefings to senior officers and a process of identifying the best implementations of LISP and mentoring of officers ensure that police skills are embedded and propagated across the force M11 Not reliant on multi-agency delivery Where statutory partners are actively engaged, LISP provides a clear and discrete method for limited involvement. Where statutory agencies are not engaged, LISP provides a clear evidence base for Police and community to hold statutory agencies to account.
  46. 46. Mechanisms 3 46 Pawson’s Public Policy ‘Hidden’ Mechanisms Mechanism Ingredients in LISP Intensive Engagement M13 Recruit the stakeholders with care Looking for the most highly connected, capable, and motivated: whose self-interest and motivation to contribute to public safety is understood M14 Create expectations of change Intensive Engagement is oriented towards collaboratively deciding on what change is needed, to design Solutions & Practices M15 Demand effort from stakeholders The LISP approach is designed to flip the Police response from ‘what can we do?’ to ‘What solutions have you got?’ for the Police. M15 Offer encouragement and feedback The process is designed to recognise existing assets and capabilities that the community, with the help of the Police, that can be enhanced to support Police outcomes (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1993) M17 Build trust and resilience Long-term, locally based relationships are key to developing mature LISP informed interventions M18 Make accommodations for set-backs The embedding of the Motivational Interviewing ‘stages of change model’ (Prochaska and DiClemente, 1994; Rollnick and Miller, 1995; Miller and Rollnick, 2012) accounts for set- backs within the process of engagement M19 Explain the theory of change The theory of change for LISP is described as “collaboratively designed solutions and co-produced practices are more robust than short-term projects and limited engagement” M20 Share execution and control of the intervention The whole LISP model is built on recruiting capable and connected decision-makers and resources to the support of Police outcomes, and an attempt to ‘loosen the reins’ of Police controlled design and implementation M21 Ensure onward external continuation The purpose of the community designing and delivering the interventions that are unique to a locality is to ensure that the Police have a ‘step-back and sustain’ (rather than an exit) strategy freeing resource up to tackle other localities and problems, leaving a self-sustaining legacy
  47. 47. Mechanisms 4 47 Additional insights from case study Mechanism Ingredients in LISP Intensive Engagement M22 Stable team Inspectors ought to be clear about the resource implications of choosing to undertake a LISP, in terms of long-term commitment (against a backdrop of ‘weeks of action’ and three month long ‘operations’). Outcomes based resource planning is required within LISPs rather than activity based. Sergeants need to decide with Inspectors on the justification to LISP. The decision was made by the PCSOs to undertake the LISP, but in this, the decision was aligned to the sergeants’ interests in managing the high profile performance issues. This was sustained through a change of sergeant, but only after significant progress had been made on the LISP process. The long-term stability of the PCSOs allowed significant connections to a marginalised and hard-to-reach community to be made within the attention span of the senior officers. M23 Responsibilisation This LISP hinged around a form of responsibilisation, a quid pro quo where the attention of the police shifted from being visible through patrols to being the distributor of socially valuable goods- the smartwater etc. Rather than this being devalued though being given away, the LISP established a ‘transaction value’ – being required to complete the 6 points of action before receiving enhanced ‘attention’ through the distribution of freebies and receiving funding from the PCC. M24 A mix of ‘contingent’ interventions The PCSO was clear that a number of different strategies, that could be introduced at different times, and with drawn if they don’t work, would strengthen the initiative. The six point action plan developed in the Asian Gold burglaries case is insufficient here, and over 20 different initiatives are used, including those that are existing successful practices M25 Perspective taking A cognitive shift required to think of all the different stakeholders in a given problem situation, and systematically think through their interest and investment in the status quo in that context. The needs to be a deliberate attempt to this, at the point of evaluating the potential stakeholder group. The interests (and perhaps importantly, the self-interest) of the stakeholders need to be considered, as does the lived experience of those stakeholders (empathy). M26 Hidden community Attention should be paid to the less obvious communities of interest. Whilst there was a strong sense in which the street drinking was being driven by transient workers and off-licenses exploiting the immediate situation, the more powerful communities of interest were the estate agents, landlords and employers, whose interests in the features of the problem situation were significant but invisible. When doing the scanning stage in the early part of the LISP process, there needs to be a more specific attention given to the owners or operators of buildings and consider them as a part of the community of interest M27 Connecting communities The briefing in the LISP documentation regarding the stakeholders is to ask whether they can be connected to together. This is too oblique. This case indicates strongly that vulnerability localities suffer from low bonding social capital (especially when the residents are transient) and social cohesion is low. Bringing eastern European workers together may be a part of the solution, but also bringing together business interests (who might not understand their responsibility to a given neighbourhood) like landlord and employers of specific segments of the population (bridging social capital). This requires much harder work bringing together and motivating stakeholders who might consider their contribution to a neighbourhood to be even more minimal than the transient residents.
  48. 48. Outcomes 48 Code For whom Outcome PO1 Police Performance. Reduced demand, lower crime rates, less enforcement activity PO2 Effectiveness/Efficiency Reduced activity per outcome. Greater focus on prevention than patrolling. Other statutory partners participating fully. Skills and assets levered from community to support crime reduction PO3 Improved legitimacy and/or confidence in policing
  49. 49. Connecting the mechanisms to the evidence 49
  50. 50. Nominal ranking of mechanisms 50
  51. 51. Most ‘active’ mechanisms 51 M7 Highly connected individuals The LISP working group is made up of highly connected and highly capable people, M9 Attuned to community dynamics The rich picturing processes develop a nuanced and empathetic understanding of the community and the issues and tensions within it. M10 Tacit skills Training, with the aid of the publicly available handbook, briefings to senior officers and a process of identifying the best implementations of LISP and mentoring of officers ensure that police skills are embedded and propagated across the force M14 Demand effort from stakeholders The LISP approach is designed to flip the Police response from ‘what can we do?’ to ‘What solutions have you got?’ for the Police. M16 Build trust and resilience Long-term, locally based relationships are key to developing mature LISP informed interventions
  52. 52. ‘Least active’ mechanisms 52 M1 In-depth understanding of people, place and problems In-depth investigation of the police crime problem in the context of the other problems experienced in the locality M3 Sufficient ‘dose’ of intensive engagement with sufficient time Success, i.e. depth of understanding of the problem and success of the interventions is determined by the working group rather than police timeframes M17 Make accommodations for set-backs The embedding of the Motivational Interviewing ‘stages of change model’ (Prochaska and DiClemente, 1994; Rollnick and Miller, 1995; Miller and Rollnick, 2012) accounts for set-backs within the process of engagement M18 Explain the theory of change The theory of change for LISP is described as “collaboratively designed solutions and co-produced practices are more robust than short-term projects and limited engagement” M19 Share execution and control of the intervention The whole LISP model is built on recruiting capable and connected decision-makers and resources to the support of Police outcomes, and an attempt to ‘loosen the reins’ of Police controlled design and implementation Ps, this does not mean that they are not relevant, just more difficult to active
  53. 53. Conclusions • “The above analysis demonstrates that within the four most active mechanisms operating in the LISP toolkit, strong CMO configurations can readily be constructed between the context of a ‘vulnerable locality’, i.e that it is an area of high deprivation, chronic levels of crime and a complex problem situation. This doesn’t mean that all other types of areas (low deprivation/high crime or low deprivation/low crime or low deprivation/low crime) LISP doesn’t work, but, in the terms mentioned above, less ‘pressure’ would be necessary on different mechanisms.” 53
  54. 54. Conclusions • “This study has demonstrated that the 27 mechanisms satisfactorily map from the vulnerable locality contexts to the PEEL policing outcomes, therefore LISP is an effective new tool in the neighbourhood policing toolkit for engaging with high risk vulnerable neighbourhoods in an effective, legitimate and confidence building manner.” 54
  55. 55. Contribution to theory • Critical realism has not been utilised in social entrepreneurship or social innovation studies- mostly case studies, emerging critical theory literature. • Connecting critical realism to SSM as a methodology, only undertaken by Mingers. • The notion of ‘trigger pressure’ to activate mechanisms 55
  56. 56. P: ‘pressure’ placed on mechanism to activate it
  57. 57. Contribution to practice • Neighbourhood Policing (NP) has lacked a theory of (sustained and sustainable) change • Developing a process (social innovation) whereby sustained, repeatable and measurable social change can be secured in NP 57 Additional insights from case study Mechanism Ingredients in LISP Intensive Engagement 1.Perspective taking A cognitive shift required to think of all the different stakeholders in a given problem situation, and systematically think through their interest and investment in the status quo in that context. The needs to be a deliberate attempt to this, at the point of evaluating the potential stakeholder group. The interests (and perhaps importantly, the self- interest) of the stakeholders need to be considered, as does the lived experience of those stakeholders (empathy).
  58. 58. (partial literature) Critical Realism • Archer, M (1988) Culture and Agency: The Place of Culture in Social Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Archer, M (1995) Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Archer, M, R. Bhaskar, A. Collier, T. Lawson and A. Norrie (eds) (1998) Critical Realism: Essential Readings, Routledge, London. • Archer, M. S. (1995). Realist social theory: The morphogenetic approach. Cambridge university press. • Bhaskar, R. (2010). Reclaiming reality: A critical introduction to contemporary philosophy. Taylor & Francis. • Bhaskar, R. (2013). A realist theory of science. Routledge. • Bhaskar, R.A., 1986, Learning procedures in arithmetic: the principle of cognitive vigor. Yorktown Heights, N.Y.: International Business Machines Inc., Thomas J. Watson Research Center. • Bhaskar, R.A., 1989, Reclaiming Reality: A Critical Introduction to Contemporary Philosophy, London: Verso • Bhaskar, R.A., 1993, Dialectic: The Pulse of Freedom, London: Verso • Bhaskar, R.A., 1994, Plato, etc.: The Problems of Philosophy and Their Resolution, London: Verso • Bhaskar, R.A., 1997 [1975], A Realist Theory of Science, London: Verso • Bhaskar, R.A., 1998 [1979], The Possibility of Naturalism (3rd edition), London: Routledge. 58
  59. 59. Realist Research • Pawson, R. (2013). The science of evaluation: a realist manifesto. Sage. • Pawson, R., & Tilley, N. (1997). Realistic evaluation. Sage. • Pawson, R., & Tilley, N. (2001). Realistic evaluation bloodlines. The American Journal of Evaluation, 22(3), 317-324. 59
  60. 60. Soft Systems Methodology • Checkland, P. (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. • Checkland, P. (1983). OR and the systems movement: mappings and conflicts. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 661-675. • Checkland, P. (1999). Soft Systems Methodology: a thirty year retrospective. In Systems Research and Behavioral Science. • Checkland, P., & Holwell, S. (1998). Action research: its nature and validity. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 11(1), 9-21. • Checkland, P., & Poulter, J. (2006). Learning for action: a short definitive account of soft systems methodology and its use for practitioner, teachers, and students (Vol. 26). Chichester: Wiley. • Checkland, P., & Scholes, J. (1990). Soft systems methodology in action. Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons. 60
  61. 61. Connecting the two • Mingers, J. (1980). Towards an Appropriate Social Theory for Applied Systems Thinking: Critical Theory and Soft Systems Methodology. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, 7, 41-50. • Mingers, J. (1992). Recent developments in critical management science. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1-10. • Mingers, J. (2014). Systems Thinking, Critical Realism and Philosophy: A Confluence of Ideas. Routledge. • Mingers, J., & Brocklesby, J. (1997). Multimethodology: towards a framework for mixing methodologies. Omega, 25(5), 489-509. • Mingers, John (2014) Systems Thinking, Critical Realism and Philosophy: A Confluence of Ideas. Ontological Explorations . Routledge, London 61

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