Society for American Archaeology
Brazilian Archaeology in 1968: An Interim Report on the National Program of Archaeologica...
AMER I CAN ANTI QUITY
VOLUME 35 JANUARY,1970 NUMBER 1
BRAZILIAN ARCHAEOLOGY IN 1968:
AN INTERIM REPORT ON THE NATIONAL PRO...
2 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35,No. 1, 1970
such studies could not be undertaken without
the prior establishment of a reliabl...
PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 3
RORAA MA
;^Ot g ) )$ P~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~CARA'q
AMAONA 'RGRRA w
I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I...
4 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No.1,1970
along most of the coast. In the states of Rio
Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paran...
PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 5
* VIAEIP1RA0j
* TAUNARA'* >g Muul
CASPEIDER PEDRAi U
A ARATU ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~APdr...
6 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35,No. 1,1970
preliminary information from areas not yet
included in the survey indicates that t...
PRONAPA] BRAZILIAN ARCHAEOLOGY
............................. ................ ........................... .......... ........
8 AMERICANANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No. 1, 1970
O I. 2 3 CM
RIM SCALE
Xrn U II
O 4 8 12 CM
VESSEL SCALE
FIG. 4. Characteristic ri...
PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY
0 4 8 12 CM
VESSEL SCALES"
0F 2 3 CM
RIM SCALE
FIG.5. Characteristic rim profiles and recons...
10 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL. 35, No. 1, 1970
C7LfHIt II
IU rr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1r r%tf
0 4 8 12 CM
VESSEL SCALE
0 1 ...
PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY
VESSEL SCALE2C
4 223 CM
RIM SCALE
FIG.7. Characteristic rim profiles and reconstructed vesse...
12 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35, No. 1,1970
limited to minor occurrences of incision and
polishing striations. Rounded bowls...
PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 13
712W/U
<9111*1)
0 4 e 12 CM
0 8 1624 CM
VESSEL SCALE
o 1 2 3CM
RIM SCALE
FIG.8. Character...
14 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL. 35, No. 1, 1970
'I~~~~~~~~~_
* PAINTED SUBTRADITION '
A CORRUGATED SUBTRADITION r
* BRUSHED SU...
NONAPA ]15
-.::.:.. - ....... ....... ....................... ........... . ...":.....-.......... -...... :..''..,....:.:....
16 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No.1,1970
be kept in mind in efforts to trace the origin
of the Tupiguarani tradition.
Amon...
PRONAPAI 17
. ..-... ... , :' .:..'-..........'- .:,...."": :i:::.:'.'..,!::.i;:i!i.".'.!:i:i:.:.::.::::-.::,.:.:.::.::.::...
18 ~~~~AMERICANANTIQUITY [VOL.35, NO.197
G.12TpialdcrtoofteNoBaiintaiina-,icsde-,zndpntt;ioicson vr
*erte ois;p,iciiondpuc...
PRONAPA ] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 19
Island, and it places pottery at the mouth of
the Amazon by 980 B.C. ? 200 (SI-385). Fro...
20 AMERICANANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No. 1,1970
Neri caguao
- ~~~ < 1/ '*, )_Jauor >/~onguiro
* 9 )fe~~~
* ZONED HACHURE f,
* POL...
PRONAPA J BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 21
Pottery collections from 12 habitation sites
were classified into two phases, Diauarum a...
22 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35, No. 1,1970
ed. Since both polychrome painting and urn
burial are widespread in the eastern ...
PRONAPA ] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 23
SCHMITZ, PEDRO IGNACIO AND OTHERS
1967 Arqueologia no Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisas,
Antr...
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Brazilian archaeology in 1968 an interim report on the national program of archaeological research

  1. 1. Society for American Archaeology Brazilian Archaeology in 1968: An Interim Report on the National Program of Archaeological Research Author(s): Pronapa Source: American Antiquity, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1970), pp. 1-23 Published by: Society for American Archaeology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/278174 . Accessed: 10/07/2011 20:34 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=sam. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Society for American Archaeology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to American Antiquity. http://www.jstor.org
  2. 2. AMER I CAN ANTI QUITY VOLUME 35 JANUARY,1970 NUMBER 1 BRAZILIAN ARCHAEOLOGY IN 1968: AN INTERIM REPORT ON THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF ARCHAEOLOGICALRESEARCH PRONAPA* (PROGRAMANACIONALDE PESQUISASARQUEOLOGICAS) ABSTRACT Brazil can be divided into two geographical areas: the Coastal Strip and the Amazon Basin. Coordinated sys, tematic survey and testing on the Coastal Strip be- tween 1965-68 shows the Preceramic period to have last- ed until about A.D. 500 except in an enclave on the Bahia Coast, where the Periperi ceramic tradition dates from the ninth century B.C. Although a variety of pre- ceramic complexes has been recognized, particularly in the south, primary attention has been placed on the ceramic period. Seven regional ceramic traditions have been identified, and these appear to be generally con- temporary with the area-wide Tupiguarani tradition. The latter is divisible into three subtraditions: the earliest emphasizes painted decoration; the second, corrugation; and the most recent, brushing. Subsequent to European contact, a Neo-Brazilian ceramic tradition developed, in which aboriginal and European traits are amalgamated. Although the archaeology of the Amazon Basin is more poorly known, none of the existing data shows any evidence of contact with the occupants of the Coastal Strip, or vice versa. The strength of the ecological bar- rier between the two areas is reflected in the affiliati3n of complexes on the upper Rio Xingii, on the ecological border, with the Amazonian Incised and Punctate tradition, and in the total lack of any features suggest- ing contact with cultures of the Coastal Strip. ALTHOUGH ARCHAEOLOGICAL re- A search has made great headway during the past 20 years in many parts of the New World, Brazilhas received little attention. Since knowledge of this vast area is essential for re- construction of prehistoric cultural develop- ment and diffusion over the continent, field work has been urgently needed. Brazilcontains some 3.3 million square miles, however, and there are fewer archaeologists in the who,le country than in most single states in the Unit- ed States. Under these conditions, the acquisi- tion of meaningful informationin a short period of time and with a minimum of financial sup- port presented a challenge in research design. The first systematic attack took the form of a month-long conference in 1964, organized by the Universidade Federal do Parana'with the support of the Fulbright Commission in Brazil and CAPES (Comissao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior), which brought to- gether archaeologistsfrom many parts of Brazil. During this meeting, standardized procedures for analysis and description of pottery were dis- cussed, a glossary of archaeological terms was agreed upon, and the condition of Brazilian archaeology was reviewed from the standpoint both of research problems, and of institutional facilities and financial support. From these dis- cussions emerged the Programa Nacional de PesquisasArqueologicas (PRONAPA), which rep- resents a collaboration between representatives of 11 Brazilianuniversities and museums under the cosponsorship of the Brazilian Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas and the United States Smithsonian Institution, and with the collabora- tion of the Diretoria do Patrimonio Hist6rico e Artistico Nacional. Field work began in the fall of 1965 and was planned for five years, three of which have been completed. The research design had to take into consid- eration several factors. First, although our ulti- mate goal was the understanding of the pro- cesses by which successive groups of pre- European immigrantswith different subsistence patterns adapted to the diverse environmental conditions within Brazil, we recognized that *The authors of this report, arranged in alphabetical order, are Jose Proenza Brochado, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Valentin Calderon, Univer- sidade Federal da Bahia; Igor Chmyz, Universidade Federal do Parana; Ondemar Ferreira Dias, Patrim6nio Hist6rico e Artistico da Guanabara; Clifford Evans, Smithsonian Institution; Silvia Maranca, Museu Pauli- sta; Betty J. Meggers, Smithsonian Institution; Eurico Th. Miller, Museu Arqueologico do Rio Grande do Sul; Nassaro A. de Souza Nasser, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; Celso Perota, Museu de Arte e Hist6ria, Espirito Santo; Walter F. Piazza, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Jose Wilson Rauth, Uni- versidade Federal do Parana; and M'arioFerreira Simoes, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. 1
  3. 3. 2 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35,No. 1, 1970 such studies could not be undertaken without the prior establishment of a reliable chronolog- ical framework. Second, qualified personnelwas limited. Third, work would have to be concen- trated, initially at least, in those states where the participating archaeologists were based, namely, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana, Sao Paulo, Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, and Rio Grande do Norte. The avail- ability of only one archaeologistfor the Amazon Basin was partly offset by the larger amount of information available for that part of Brazil (e.g., Meggers and Evans 1957; Hilbert 1968). Since PRONAPA was planned for five years, the primarytaskwas to select those areaswithin which intensive archaeological survey would produce the most significantresults during that period of time. Within each state, five regions were selected that represented different drain- ages and various parts of the state. One region was to be intensively investigated each year. Within it, as many sites as could be discover- ed were to be recorded, mapped, and sampled, both by surface collections and by stratigraphic excavation. Radiocarbon samples and soil samples were obtained where feasible, and photographs supplemented notes in describing the site location and environmental situation. Sites that might profit from more thorough in- vestigation were also noted for the future. Following each season of field work, the cultural materials collected were classified. For the preceramic remains, this involved segregat- ing distinctive groups of artifact types, which in most cases were found to be correlated with differences in settlement pattern. Pottery sherd samples were classifiedby the method of quanti- tative analysis developed principally by Ford (1962) as a preliminary to the construction of seriated sequences. Each seriated sequence rep- resents an archaeological phase or culture, characterizedby specific types of stone artifacts, settlement pattern, and burial pattern, as well as a distinctive ceramic complex. In most regions,the relative antiquity of the several pre- ceramic and ceramic phases could be establish- ed on the basis of changes in artifact types, stratigraphicsuperposition,or evidence of trade or acculturation. In a number of cases, the rela- tive sequences constructed in this way have been confirmed by radiocarbon dates. Annual preliminary reports have been prepared for publication in Portuguese in one of the scien- tific seriesof the Museu ParaenseEmilio Goeldi (PRONAPA 1967, 1969a,b). During the first three years of PRONAPA, 22 regions have been investigated in nine Brazilian states, eight of them representing the Coastal Strip and one the Amazon Basin (Fig. 1). In excess of 1,000 sites have been recorded, span- ning the time from at least 5310 B.C. ? 100 (SI- 440) to the post-European period and repre- senting several preceramic complexes and 42 pottery-makingphases. In addition, three sam- baquis, or shell middens, have been intensively excavated in the Paranagu'aregion of coastal Parania. Having passed the halfway point in PRONAPA, it seemed appropriate to review the progress achieved and to make tentative chronological alignments between the regional sequences, which might bringto light problemsthat should be attacked during the final two years of the coordinated research. A conference was held for this purpose at the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi in Bellem, Par'a,from July 14-29, 1968, and this paper is one of the tangible results of the group discussion. For greater completeness, the historical reconstruction takes into account the work of other investigatorswhere it can be related to that accomplished by PRONAPA. Brazilian prehistory cannot be understood apart from the characteristics of the environ- ment. It has long been evident that, with the exception that polychrome painting on a white- slipped surface occurs throughout most of the country, the ceramic complexes of the Amazon Basin are distinct from those of the Coastal Strip. In general terms, this cultural division correlateswith contrastinghabitats which have marked differences in climate and vegetation. The Amazon Basin is too vast an area to be uniform environmentally, but low, seasonally inundated land, warm temperatures, and exu- berant vegetation predominate. Flora and fauna of use to man are similar from one edge to the other, and agriculture throughout the area is confronted with the same kinds of prob- lems. The Coastal Strip is generally higher in elevation, and climate ranges from temperate with winter frost and nonseasonal rainfall in the south to tropical with seasonal and much diminished rainfall in the north. Forest pire- dominates in the south, but it constricts to the coastal fringe in the north, giving way to large extents of "cerrado"and other kinds of semi- arid upland vegetation. Although flora, fauna,
  4. 4. PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 3 RORAA MA ;^Ot g ) )$ P~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~CARA'q AMAONA 'RGRRA w I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~IU ; ' CINATAR ERIISA FIG.1. Boundary between the Amazon Basin and the Coastal Strip in relation to regions investigated during the first three years of PRONAPA. Numbers identify investigators as follows: 1-2, Jos Proenza Brochado; 3-5, Eurico Th. Miller; 6-8, Walter F. Piazza; 9, Jose Wilson Rauth; 10-12, Igor Chmyz; 13, Fernando Altenfelder Silva; 14, Silvia Maranca; 15-17, Ondemar Ferreira Dias; 18-21, Valentin Calderon; 22, Nassaro A. de Souza Nasser; 23, Mario F. Simoes. Geographical information after Atlas Nacional, Instituto Brasileiro de Geo- grafia:A, Limit of equatorial and transitional bioclimatic region; B, Limit of Amazonian forest vegetation; C, Limit of northern physiographic zone; D1,Land use. and agricultural potential vary from north to south, the area as a whole contrasts sharply with the Amazon Basin in climate, vegetation, physiography, and land use (Fig. 1). This en- vironmental contrastcreated a more impenetra- ble baffler to the movement of people or cultural elements than the more impressive physical obstacle of the Andean mountain range. As a consequence, the prehistory of the Coastal Strip must be considered separately from that of the Amazon Basin. THE COASTAL STRIP The PreceramicPeriod Prior to the initiation of PRONAPA in 1965, most of the data available from southern Brazil referred to the preceramic period. Shell mid- dens, or sambaquis, are a prominent feature
  5. 5. 4 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No.1,1970 along most of the coast. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana',and Sao Paulo, they were not only very abundant prior to destruction by recent commercial activ- ities, but were also of mammoth size. Ac- cumulations up to 27 m. are reported, and those under 10 m. have been characterized as "small" (Emperaire and Laming 1956: 36). By contrast, little attention had been paid to in- land preceramic sites, with the exception of several rocksheltersin Minas Gerais. More than a century ago, remains of Pleistocene fauna such as dire wolf, glyptodon, and sabre tooth tiger stimulated excavation of caves in the Lagoa Santa region, with the result that human skeletal remains were discovered. Although the antiquity of "Lagoa Santa man" has long been a matter of controversy, recent investigations have produced radiocarbondates that establish man's occupation of the region for more than 9,000 years (Hurt 1964: 26). One project within PRONAPA has been de- voted to investigation of sambaquis around the Baia de Paranagu'aon the Parana'coast. Sao Joao, Porto Mauricio, and Godo have been ex- cavated during the past three years, and the results can be compared with Macedo, Saqua- rema, and Gomes, previously investigated in the same region. A series of radiocarbondates from the latter sites indicates that they cover a timespan from 2937 B.C. ? 65 (P-915) to 1321 B.C. ? 48 (P-485). Percussion-made core and flake tools (choppers, pounders, picks, scrapers, knives) predominate, and crudely formed stone projectile points, typically with a single barb, are also a characteristic.Shell and bone points, polished stone pendants, fish verte- bra beads, and polished or semipolished axes are represented. Burials are frequently encoun- tered. The cultural inventories from the three previously excavated sites are similar, but there is a difference in emphasis on mollusk species composing the refuse. In the predominance of oyster, Godo, Porto Mauricio, and Sao Joao re- semble more closely Gomes and the lower levels of Saquarema than they do the upper levels of Saquarema and Macedo, where Anomalocardia brasiliana is the dominant species. At Ilha dos Ratos, dated at A.D. 410 ? 150 (Sa-48), Anomalocardia brasiliana is also dominant. By contrast,the sambaquiof Maratua' on the Sao Paulo coast, which dates 5853 B.C. + 1300, is composed principally of Modiolus brasiliensis (Emperaire and Laming 1956: 44, 92). It seems likely that these changes in die- tary emphasis reflect alterations in the mollusk habitat resulting from rise and fall in sea level during the past several thousand years, but verification of this hypothesis requires more specific data on the region than have been available so far. Percussion-shapedchoppers, pounders, scrap- ers, and knives also predominate in inland pre- ceramic sites, several hundred of which have been recorded in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana, Sao Paulo, and Bahia. A number of phases and complexes have been tentatively recognized, and these fall into two general classes. Most numerous and probably earliest are sites producing only heavy percus- sion-shaped core and flake tools. One complex in this class is characterized by a boomerang- shaped biface, a tool type previously identified from the Altoparanaense complex of the pro- vince of Misiones, Argentina (Bormida 1965: 10 and Fig. 7). A radiocarbon sample from western Santa Catarina gives this complex a minimum date of 5310 B.C. ? 100 (SI-440). The more recent group of complexes includes stemmed and unstemmed projectile points, polished stone implements, and bola stones. Radiocarbondates from a rockshelter in north- eastern Rio Grande do Sul range from 4000 B.C. ? 190 (SI-234) to 2330 B.C. ? 180 (SI-233), while an open site in eastern Santa Catarina has been dated at 1050 B.C. ? 120 (SI-441). Whether the sambaquis and the inland pre- ceramic sites were produced by the same groups of people, who alternated between hunting- and-gathering in the interior and living on the seashore, or whether they represent independ- ent adaptations to different kinds of subsistence resources is not yet clear. The majority of arti- facts from sites in both locations are core or flake tools shaped by percussion, with little attention to any part except the working edge. Conditions of differential preservation compli- cate the task of recognizing similarities, since bone projectile points survive in rockshelters and sambaquisbut usually disappearfrom other kinds of sites. If sambaquis and inland sites represent seasonal occupations by the same cultural group, artifact differences are likely to have a functional explanation or to reflect diff- erences in available raw materials rather than differencesin cultural tradition.When the large quantity of artifacts from the preceramic sites investigated during PRONAPA has been more
  6. 6. PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 5 * VIAEIP1RA0j * TAUNARA'* >g Muul CASPEIDER PEDRAi U A ARATU ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~APdr c xiueuS AgunquIirm Toquoru;u Tlbirom 2t Il=~ ~~Taquara > : /~~~ioira Cerritos FIG.2. Distribution of the regional ceramic traditions on the Coastal Strip and location of their constituent phases. Pit houses occur throughout the hatched area. The ecological boundary has been abstracted from data presented on Fig. 1. carefully classified and compared, it may be possible to evaluate some of these factors more adequately. The Ceramic Period Recognition of significantdifferencesbetween ceramic complexes has been more successful, in part because differential preservation is not a major factor and in part because primary attention has been directed toward the ceramic period. Priorto the inception of PRONAPA, most of the known sites were assigned to the Tupi or Guarani, who were the historic inhabitants of the Braziliancoast. It is now possible to identify several non-Tupiguarani regional traditions as well as to subdivide the Tupiguarani tradition into three chronologicalvariants.Each tradition or subtradition is represented by from 2 to 13 archaeological phases, all of which are defined by settlement pattern, seriated ceramic se- quences, stone artifacts, and other cultural re- mains, and in many cases also by burialpattern. The Regional Traditions Seven regional ceramic traditions of non- Tupiguaraniaffiliationhave been identified, and
  7. 7. 6 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35,No. 1,1970 preliminary information from areas not yet included in the survey indicates that this num- ber will increase with further work. With the exception of the Periperi tradition of coastal Bahia, existing radiocarbondates imply general contemporaneity with local phases of the Tupi- guarani tradition, and evidence of trade or ac- culturation in the pottery leads to the same conclusion. In general, these traditions are characterizedceramically by rarityor absence of decoration and by small vessels of simple shapes; decoration, when present, is by in- cision, punctation, fingernail marking,pinching, or striated polishing. A brief descriptionof each traditionwill proceed geographicallyfrom south to north. The Vieira Tradition. Three archaeological phases described by Schmitz and his coworkers (Schmitz and others 1967: 10-19) from south- eastern Rio Grande do Sul and adjacent Urug- uay have been grouped into the Vieira tradi- tion. They are the Cerritos phase, the Vieira phase, and a third phase as yet unnamed (Fig. 2). All three occupy regions that undergo extensive inundation in the rainy season, and in the dry season they abound in lagoons, ponds, and marshes. No radiocarbondates are yet available, and Schmitz tentatively correlates these remains with the Charrua, who were the historic occupants of the area. The sites con- sist of groups of two to eight (rarely one) oval or circular mounds, 20-100 m. in maximum diameter and between 30 cm. and 3 m. in elevation. The refuse contains an abundance of fish or animal bones, pottery, stone artifacts, and small unretouched quartz flakes. Primary burialsoccur in some mounds. Characteristicstone artifactsaregroovedaxes, bolas, pitted anvil stones, and stemmed projec- tile points. Pottery is sand tempered and pre- dominantly plain. Rare decoration consists of one or two rows of stamping below the rim, executed with a two-, three-,or four-toothed im- plement. Vessels have a broad, flattened base, insloping walls, and tapered rim. Perforations for suspension occur below the rim on two or more opposite sides. The Taquara Tradition. Three archaeologi- cal phases have been assigned to the Taquara tradition: the Taquarucuiphase in western Rio Grande do Sul, the Taquara phase in north- eastern Rio Grande do Sul, and the Xaxim phase in southwestern Santa Catarina (Fig. 2). Habitation sites are small, and sherd refuse is so sparse that few collections contain more than a dozen fragments.Two radiocarbondates obtained for the Taquara phase are A.D. 570 ? 110 (SI-414) and A.D. 760 ? 100 (SI-409). Stone tool types carried over from the pre- ceding nonceramic period include bifacial and unifacial choppers, flakes exhibiting traces of use, hammerstones, core and flake scrapers,and possibly pestles. Bone projectile points and shell beads are also characteristic. Pottery is tempered with fine sand; surfaces are medium to dark brown and well smoothed. Diagnostic decorative techniques are punctation, finger- nail markingin a varietyof combinations,pinch- ing, and incision, often covering the exterior (Fig. 3). Vessels are small (maximum depth 35 cm.) and thin walled. Shallow bowls and deep cylindrical jars with rounded or slightly flattened base are characteristic. Rims are type ically exteriorly thickened with a tapered 11p (Fig. 4). Pottery of the Taquara tradition has also been found in pit houses, which occur by the hundreds on the planalto extending from southern Parana'to northern Rio Grande do Sul (Fig. 2). Diameter of these pit houses varies from 1 to 13 m. and depth is between 2.8 and 5.0 m. They occur in irregularor pat- terned arrangementscontaining up to 36 houses of different sizes, or in isolation (Schmitz and others 1967: 2-10, Figs. 2-4). Since the area of their distribution coincides with that of the Araucaria pine, they were probably occupied during the season in which the seeds of this pine were available in great abundance. Only a few have been excavated, and not all of these have produced pottery. Consequently, it is not yet clear whether all of the pit houses should be included in the Taquara tradition. Small low artificialmounds occur on hilltops in the planalto within the range of pit house distribution. Groups are sometimes surrounded by a low earth wall. Elevation of mounds and wall is 40-50 cm. The few that have been tested produced no artifacts or skeletal remains, but their size and form suggest that they represent burials. The Casa de Pedra Tradition. Undecorated pottery has been reported from several sites in northeasternRio Grande do Sul, central and southwestern Parana', and southern Santa Catarina (Fig. 2), and one of these has a radio-
  8. 8. PRONAPA] BRAZILIAN ARCHAEOLOGY ............................. ................ ........................... .......... ........ ....................... ....................... ...................... ............... .. ...... . .... ..... $ ........... .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .... .. . .. . .. . .. .... .... ... .... ...... . .... .. ...... . .... .... .... .... .... . .... ..... ...... ......... .. ........ ..... . .... .... .... X :z ...... ...... .... ......... .... .... ... ..... . .... . .. . . .............. .. . . . ... . . .... ...... ... . .. . .. ........... X . . .. .... . . .. . . .. . . .. . ........ .... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . ...... . .. . . .. . ... . . X X. ..... .... ...... . . ... ........ . .... ........ . . . . . . . . ... . .. ...... .... ...... ... . . . .. . .. . . . ... ... .... .. .. . . .. ................ .... ...... .... ...... . . ............. x . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . ... ............ .... .... ....... . .. .... .. . .. . . . . .. . . ... . ... .... . .. . . . . . ... . ...... . ... X . ...... ... ... ...... . J." ...... . . . .. . ........ . . . . . . . . ... . . .. .......... X . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . XX . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .... . .. . .... ...... . ......... .......... X . ..... . . .. . . X.. . .... . . .. . . . . . . . .... . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. ... .. ... ........... -X . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . .......... .. . ......... .. .. .. . .. ...... . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . ......... . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. ....... . . . .. . ... . .. .. .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. ...... . .. ...... .. ... .... ...... ... . . .. . . X . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .......... . ......... .... ........ .. ......... ..... . . ............ ... . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . .. . .. .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. ....... ..... .. . ...................... .. . .. .. .. . .. . . . . .... .. . . . ......... .................... .............. X .............. .. ....... . ........... . . ... ... .. . . ....... . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . ... . . .... .. .... . . ........... . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . ........ .. . . .. . .. .. . .... .... . .. . ..... .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .... . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ......... ...... . . ..... ....... ... .. . ... ..... .. ......... . .. .............. .. .......... .......... ............ .. .......... . . . . . ..... ...... . .. . ......... . . . .. . .... . .. . . .. .... ........... ............. X . . .... .... . ........ . . .. . .. . . .. ........... . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .... . .. . .. . ..... .. ............... ................ .... ...... .... .......... .. ................ .. . ... ........... . .... .... . .... .... . . .... ........... . . . .... .... ...... .... .. ......... . X., . .... ...... .... ............. ... ...... ..... . ......... .. .. ...... .... .. ... . .. . .......... .. ...... .... . .... ... ........... x.......... FiG.3. Typical decoration of Taquara phase pottery. a-b, punctate in rows; c-e, drag-and-jab; f-g, ir- regularly spaced punctate; h, dentate stamped; i-k, pinched; 1, n-p, fingernail marked; m, fingernail scrape q-r, incised; s, cord impressed; t, positive impression of cord; u, incised and fingernail marked,
  9. 9. 8 AMERICANANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No. 1, 1970 O I. 2 3 CM RIM SCALE Xrn U II O 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIG. 4. Characteristic rim profiles and vessel shapes of the Taquara tradition. carbon date of A.D. 1150 ? 50 (SI-141). Intru- sive sherds occur in the Umuarama phase of the Tupiguarani tradition. The pottery has well smoothed to polished, yellowish, brown or black surfaces. Large rounded bowls with thin walls and thickened base are the typical vessel form. Lips are beveled on the exterior (Fig. 5). The Itarare Tradition. The Itarar4e and
  10. 10. PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALES" 0F 2 3 CM RIM SCALE FIG.5. Characteristic rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of the Casa de Pedra tradition. Agungiii phases in eastern Parana'have been included in the Itarare tradition, and two sites on the northern Santa Catarina coast may re- present a third constituent phase (Fig. 2). In- trusive sherds in sites of the Cambara, Condor, Guajuvira, Imbituva, Tamboara, and Calore phases imply contemporaneity with the Tupi- guarani tradition, an inference that is also sup- ported by a radiocarbondate of A.D. 1070 ? 100 (M-1202) from one of the Santa Catarinasites. Habitation sites are small, ranging from 15 by 20 m. to 25 by 30 m., and refuse rarely ex- tends to a depth of 30 cm. Burial pattern is un- known. No stone artifacts have been reported except unretouched flakes and small cores. Pottery is well smoothed but not polished, red- dish-brown to dark gray in surface color, and tempered with fine sand and crushed quartz. The only decoration is a thin red slip, which occurs on less than eight percent of the sherds. Vessels are small (rim diameter under 12 cm.) rounded bowls or wide-mouthed jars with rounded, flattened, or concave base (Fig. 6). The Una Tradition. Two archaeological phases in the state of Rio de Janeirorepresent this ceramic tradition. The Mucuri phase is undated, but a radiocarbon date of A.D. 890 + 90 (SI-436) has been obtained for the Una phase. Similar pottery has been reported from the Juciu Valley in adjacent Espirito Santo (Fig. 2). Sporadic occurrence of sherds with painted or corrugated decoration implies con- tact with nearby groups of the Tupiguarani tradition. Habitation sites vary from 50 m. in diameter to 30 by 100 m., and refuse extends to a depth of 40 to 140 cm. Rockshelterswere occupied by
  11. 11. 10 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL. 35, No. 1, 1970 C7LfHIt II IU rr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1r r%tf 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE 0 1 2 3 CM RIM SCALE FIG.6. Characteristic rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of the Itarare tradition.
  12. 12. PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY VESSEL SCALE2C 4 223 CM RIM SCALE FIG.7. Characteristic rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of the Una tradition. the Mucuri phase; they were also used for de- posit of burial urns. Alternatively, urns were interred in the habitation site with offeringsof bone beads and small pottery vessels. Stone artifactsinclude polished celts and pounders. Pottery is sand tempered, and decoration is
  13. 13. 12 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35, No. 1,1970 limited to minor occurrences of incision and polishing striations. Rounded bowls and jars with direct or slightly everted rim are the pre- dominant vessel form (Fig. 7). The PeriperiTradition. Numerous shell mid- dens on the Bahia coast produce pottery of the Periperi tradition. The only site that has been excavated is Pedra Oca (Calderon 1964) on the eastern side of the Baia de Todos os Santos (Fig. 2), which has been radiocarbondated at 880 B.C. ? 130 (SI-470). The deposit is com- posed of Ostrea sp., Anomalocardia brasiliana, ash, and sand. Postmolds were observed, im- plying the construction of shelters. Stone artifacts are predominantly waterworn cobbles used as hammers, pounders, anvil stones, and grinding stones. Bone points, beads of fish vertebra and perforatedshells also occur. Plain, dark-brownto black, sand-tempered pot- tery was obtained from all levels. Decoration was limited to one rim sherd in which the coils were left unobliterated on the exterior. Rounded bowls, 16-18 cm. in depth and 23-28 cm. in rim diameter, are the only vessel form. Rim is direct with a tapered lip; body wall thickness is 8-12 mm. The Aratu'Tradition. Although large habita- tion sites with refuse extending to a depth of 90 cm., and cemeteries containing up to 100 burial urns have been reported from many places on the coast and interior of Bahia and in the adjacent states of Goias, Sergipe, and Alagoas, only three sites in Bahia have been investigated. One of these has provided a radio- carbon date of A.D. 870 ? 90 (SI-542). The pottery contains abundant graphite temper and is undecorated except for sporadic occurrence of incision, modeling, unsmoothed coils, or cor- rugation. Forms include globular jars, rounded bowls with four small vertical rim lobes, and pear-shaped burial urns, 75 cm. in height and 60 cm. in shoulder diameter (Fig. 8). Polished celts are the only stone artifactsso far reported. The Tupiguarani Tradition. Pottery featur- ing painted, corrugated, and brushed surface treatments occurs the length of the Coastal Strip. After consideration of possible alterna- tives, it was decided to retain the label "Tupi- guarani" (but to be written as a slingleword) for this widely disseminated late ceramic tradi- tion, in spite of its linguistic connotations; the term is well established in the literature, and ethnohistoric information substantiates the correlationof the protohistoricand earlyhistoric archaeological remains with speakers of Tupi and Guarani languages along most of the Bra- zilian coast. Twenty-seven archaeologicalphases of Tupiguarani affiliation have been identified, and these can be grouped into three subtradi- tions with chronological and distributional significance (Fig. 9). Sites occupy low eleva- tions, and their distribution correlateswith that of forest vegetation. The fact that the regional traditions were adapted to other kinds of en- vironmental zones probably permitted coexist- ence in spite of close geographical proximity. Although the constituent phases differ in the presence and relative frequency of traits, all share the same general culture. Sites are of superficial depth, implying short village per- manence, and secondary urn burial was prac- ticed in or adjacent to the habitation area. Stone artifacts of nearly universal occurrence are flakes, choppers, abraders,and large polish- ed celts. The tembeta',or lip plug, is a character- istic ornament. Pipes are also common. Diagno- stic techniques of pottery decoration are paint- ing on a white-slipped surface, corrugation,all- over brushing, and fingernail marking. Also widespread are red slipping, finger grooving, nicking of the rim, incision, punctation, and fingernail ridging (Figs. 10-11). A great variety of vessel shapes occurs, ranging from rounded bowls to large angular-shouldered burial urns; bowls are often square or oval rather than cir- cular in outline. Although this basic cultural complex is shared by all members of the Tupiguarani tradition,the relative and absolute popularityof the various techniques of pottery decoration varies markedly. In some phases, one of the diagnostic decorative techniques is dominant; in others, their combined popularity is approxi- mately equal to that of the plain types; in still others, they are barely represented. There is also considerable variation in vessel shape and rim profileas well as in the type and abundance of nonceramic artifacts. Several attempts were made to distinguish subtraditions, and segrega- tion in terms of the most popular decorative technique was most successful. Three subtradi- tions resulted, characterized by predominance of painted, corrugated, or brushed decoration. Although ceramic configurationwas used as the primary diagnostic, examination revealed several other traits to be associated principally with one of the subtraditions.
  14. 14. PRONAPA] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 13 712W/U <9111*1) 0 4 e 12 CM 0 8 1624 CM VESSEL SCALE o 1 2 3CM RIM SCALE FIG.8. Characteristic rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of the Aratu tradition. The Painted Subtradition. Phases in which red and/or black painting on a white-slipped surface is the dominant decorative technique are earliest in all of the regional sequences where this subtradition is represented. Phases recognized so far are Irapua in Rio Grande do Sul; Umuarama, Condor, Guajuvira,and Cam- bara in Parana; Itapicuru'in Bahia; and Curi-
  15. 15. 14 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL. 35, No. 1, 1970 'I~~~~~~~~~_ * PAINTED SUBTRADITION ' A CORRUGATED SUBTRADITION r * BRUSHED SUBTRADITION 4) Tomboarai S'Itabapoana' Fi. 9 Locaiono phass comosngo thIaitd,Crugtd,adBrsedshradiin-fte uiurn ceramic tradition.erambtib Condor at>n bb i Mond ndo , - Imbituva Irpapu ,Indua ;*;ro n h o~~~~arnhan Icomaqua~~~g w FAaquine J ~~~~~~Toropi FIG.9. Location of phases composing the Painted, Corrugated, and Brushed subtraditions of the Tupiguaran;' ceramic tradition. mata-u in Rio Grande do Norte. Imbituva in Paran'a,Ipuca and Guaratiba in Guanabara ex- hibit equal frequencies of painted and corru- gated decoration, making them transitional be- tween the first and second subtraditions.Exist- ing initial radiocarbondates are A.D. 570 ? 150 (Gsy-81) for the Umuarama phase, A.D. 980 ? 100 (SI-433) for the Guaratiba phase, and A.D. 1270 ? 130 (SI-471) for the Itapicuru'phase, suggestingdiffusion from south to north. When the techniques of ceramic decoration are compared with those diagnostic of the Taquara tradition, it is evident that, with the exception of the southernmost and northern- most phases, all phases included in the Painted subtradition are hybrids in the sense that about 50 percent of the decorative techniques are shared with the Taquara phase. The fact that the earliest date available for this sub- tradition is the same as the earliest date obtain- ed for the Taquara phase, and the concentra- tion of the Painted subtradition in Parana'ad- jacent to the area occupied by the Taquara tradition (Figs. 3 and 9) suggest that this re- flects acculturation. Although this inference requires further testing, the possibility should
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  17. 17. 16 AMERICAN ANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No.1,1970 be kept in mind in efforts to trace the origin of the Tupiguarani tradition. Among vessel shapes, the griddle is more common than in the later subtraditions. With few exceptions, habitation sites are between 10 and 30 m. in diameter. The Corrugated Subtradition. In all of the regional sequences, phases emphasizing cor- rugation follow those dominated by painting and precede those dominated by brushing.The 13 phases representing the Corrugated sub- tradition are Vacacai, Toropi, Ijui, Indua, Ica- maqua, Comandai, and Maquine in Rio Grande do Sul, Mondai in Santa Catarina, Tamboara in Paran'a,Itaocara and Sernambitibain Rio de Janeiro, and Cabrob6 and Coribe in Bahia (Fig. 9). Paranhana in Rio Grande do Sul and Itabapoana in Rio de Janeiro are transi- tional between the Corrugated and Brushed subtraditions. The Maquine phase has been radiocarbon dated at A.D. 880 ? 110 (SI-413), the Mondai phase at A.D. 1180 ? 100 (SI-439), and the Semambitiba phase at A.D. 1380 ? 100 (SI-438), suggesting that the subtradition developed in Rio Grande do Sul and diffused northward. About half of the phases in this subtraditionexhibit strongTaquara tradition in- fluence; in the remainder, Tupiguarani decora- tive techniques predominate. Although present from Rio Grande do Sul to Bahia, this subtradi- tion is strongest in the south where it includes 8 of the 10 Tupiguarani phases known from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Among lithic artifacts, pitted anvil stones, hammerstones, pestles, small polished celts (length 5-10 cm.), and trianguloid polished pendants are characteristic.Although habitation sites less than 50 m. in diameter predolminate, those exceeding 100 m. are more frequent than in the Painted subtradition. The Brushed Subtradition. Tupiguarani phases in which brushing is the most popular surface treatment are the most recent in the regional chronologies, and the replacement of corrugation by brushing can be observed in several of the seriated phase sequences. Ex- amples are the Tibagi and Calore phases in Paran'a, which contain artifacts of European origin.The Miss6es phase, associatedwith Span- ish missions in western Rio Grande do Sul, is transitional between the Tupiguarani and Neo- Brazilian traditions. The Brushed subtradition representsthe end of the aboriginalculture, be- fore European influence had affected the form and decoration of indigenous ceramics. Euro- pean contact is reflected, however, in a re- duction in the frequency and variety of stone artifacts;for example, pestles, perforators,shaft smoothers, and polished celts have not been re- ported. The geographicalrange of this subtradi- tion is smaller than that of the earlier ones, no phases having as yet been recognized north of Parana. In view of the time lag in diffusion to- ward the north, manifested by the Painted and Corrugated subtraditions, this absence is likely to reflect the relative recency of the Brushed subtradition and the absence of sufficient time for its diffusion. The Neo-BrazilianTradition. By the middle of the 16th century, a ceram- ic tradition combining indigenous techniques of manufacture and decoration with European elements of form had developed on the Bra- zilian coast. The Monjolo phase in Rio Grande do Sul, the Lavrinha phase in Parana, and the Calundu' phase in Rio de Janeirobelong to this Neo-Brazilian tradition, and it has also been reportedfrom Bahia. Brushingis common, and corrugationalso occurs, but painting is ab- sent. Typical decorative techniques include fingerpressing on applique ribs or the vessel lip, zoned punctation, and deep incision on a smoothed surface or across heavy unobliterat- ed coils. Curved shoulder lugs and flat and pedestal bases are characteristic elements of European origin (Fig. 12). Pitted anvil stones are the principal stone artifact. Pottery elbow pipes, often elaborately sculptured, are also characteristic. THE AMAZON BASIN The PreceramicPeriod No preceramic groups have as yet been recognized in the Amazon Basii, and several factors help to account for this situation. One is the dense vegetation, which makes sites diffi- cult to find. Another is the rarity of stone, so that most artifacts had to be made of perish- able materials that do not survive archaeologi- cally. Still another is the absence of intensive search. Thus, while the possibility exists that the tropical forest was avoided by early hunt- ing and gathering groups, we are not in a posi- tion to confirmor deny it at the present time.
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I -,..,:,::::.:.:.....::::.::::.:.:-'---:,.::,::,.,.::.-.:,:::,:::....::.:... :---.-::::::..,::-:--..:-':, -:,.::::.:-...:: :,.:::.::.-:"""''...::.:......:.:.:::.,...:.,.::.:.:::::,::,::......:. . .....::,-:::.:.:..:..:.,:,-.:. .------::-::.:-.,:,,...,.,.,."--'..", --,:.:,.:-::..:.,...:::.::,:: -- ::.:!-::::,:..... ",;;;i;;'t.,:,:!-..:.,.;,:.-,-::-..:..:::: .:.:,.......-.- -:' '' ... .. .."t". ....-:.-:.:::,:.:: ...-.::.:-.-.::..:::.:-::..:.:::,:,:,.....:::,.:.. ---::::.:,:,-- , -..-:..............''..:: .... '' '' ...... ... . - -...: .. -...i,::::.::::::::.:.::.""', "'.'.. .... :,:,.. :':::;.:-!:!,.,.::...,,..".. .....:.--.-.:......:.. -.::.:,::--:...:::.:'-::'.! :., :......:.....:...:.:.:.:...:'.'...:..: ............ ...:......:-. . ....... ..: , -...:,:'' .. .....- " b .... ... F"" ' ...... ... - : .: .,.' - .. . . . -;:-:,-::-::.:.z:::::::,::,.::,::,:.., .:....'. .: .... .::;:j:::z,:::,-: The Ceramic Period Pottery making appears to have been intro- duced into the Amazon Basin about the time that it appeared in the shell middens of coastal Bahia. The earliest radiocarbon date has been obtained for the Ananatuba phase on Marajo
  19. 19. 18 ~~~~AMERICANANTIQUITY [VOL.35, NO.197 G.12TpialdcrtoofteNoBaiintaiina-,icsde-,zndpntt;ioicson vr *erte ois;p,iciiondpucttonovrunblteaedcols, inhd veuoliertdcol;r aaniniedvrbuhn;sigrpesdrbadbuhd,pnhd ,fne-rse n rse;v resdlu;w. lanlg
  20. 20. PRONAPA ] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 19 Island, and it places pottery at the mouth of the Amazon by 980 B.C. ? 200 (SI-385). From that time on, local evolution and influences from markedlydifferentceramiccomplexes origi- nating in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru brought into existence a mosaic of regional cultures. Several years ago, an attempt was made to find some patterning in this seemingly endless variation by following the method of trait tabulation employed to group the coastal arch- aeological phases into general classes. Although numerous ceramic complexes evaded classifica- tion because of their unique content or hy- brid nature, four horizonstyles were recognized, which are characterized by clusters of distinc- tive elements of pottery decoration and which correspond in a general way to a chronological sequence (Meggers and Evans 1961). One of the goals of PRONAPA in the Amazon Basin is to test the validity of this classification and to clarify the geographicaldistribution of the var- ious styles or traditions.A brief description will serve as a basis for comparing Amazonian pre- history with that of the Coastal Strip. The Zoned Hachure Tradition. The earliest ceramic tradition has been identified at only two places (Fig. 13), one on the north bank of the Amazon above Alenquer (Hilbert 1959) and the other on Marajo Island (Meggers and Evans 1957: 174-94). The principal decora- tion aside from red slipping and all-over brush- ing is by broad incised lines, either alone or de- fining zones of fine hachure. It has recently been pointed out (Sim6es 1969; Evans and Meggers 1968) that this complex shares many features with early Formative complexes in the northern Andean area, and a single radiocar- bon date of 980 B.C. ? 200 (SI-385) places it chronologically within the Formative period. Habitation sites are small, but refuse deposits of the Ananatuba phase are much thicker than those of later times, implying longer village per- manency than has been characteristic of most subsequent Amazonian groups.No evidence has been found of burial practices. Tubular pottery pipes are associated. The Incised Rim Tradition. A number of ceramic complexes described along the Amazon and upper Orinoco emphasize incised designs on the broad horizontalrims of bowls (Fig. 13). On Marajo Island, the Mangueiras phase re- presenting this tradition arrived during the latter part of the Ananatuba phase occupation. Radiocarbon dates includes A.D. 425 ? 58 (P- 406) at Manacapuru'and A.D. 761 ? 93 (P-161) from the Nericagua phase of southern Vene- zuela. Rare figurines,tubular pipes, ear or lip plugs, and flat circular stamps of pottery are associ- ated. There is no evidence of burial practice. The Polychrome Tradition. Sites with paint- ed pottery occur along the entire Amazon in Brazil (Fig. 13). Although red and/or black painting on a white-slipped surface is the most popular decoration, it is by no means the only technique represented. In fact, the tradition is characterizedby a great proliferationof decora- tion, both in variety of technique and in com- plexity of pattems and motifs. Incising, excis- ing, and groovingon plain, red, or white-slipped surfaces are typical, while punctation and mod- eling are also often represented. Radiocarbon dates for the Polychrome tradition are highly inconsistent, reflectingthe fact that most of the samples have been obtained from shallow sites with more than one occupation, or are from artificialmounds in which earlier charcoal may have been transportedwith the dirt composing the fill. One seemingly "pure" occupation area near the mouth of the Rio Coari has provided a date of A.D. 1150 ? 47 (P-373), and similar dates have been obtained for the Napo phase in eastern Ecuador.Three dates from the Mara- joara phase at the mouth of the Amazon ex- tend from A.D. 480 ? 200 (SI-386) to A.D. 690 ? 200 (SI-199). Habitation sites of this ceramic tradition are extensive in area, but refuse is shallow, sug- gesting large populations but little permanence of settlement. A new practice is secondary urn burial, which occurs either in isolated spots in the forest, within the village, or in cemeter- ies. On Marajo Island, the bearersof the Poly- chrome tradition built large earth mounds, but similar constructions have not been report- ed elsewhere except in lowland Bolivia. Ce- ramic artifactsinclude figurines,spindle whorls, dippers,stools, and potrests. The Incised and Punctate Tradition. For con- venience, this tradition, like the Polychrome tradition, has been designated by only one of its diagnostic decorative techniques. Equally prominent in most constituent complexes is modeling, either in the form of low relief or of biomorphic adornos on the rim or vessel
  21. 21. 20 AMERICANANTIQUITY [VOL.35, No. 1,1970 Neri caguao - ~~~ < 1/ '*, )_Jauor >/~onguiro * 9 )fe~~~ * ZONED HACHURE f, * POLYCHROMEt -w - - * INCISED AND PUNCTATE Mr8jo:r: FIG.13. Location of phases and sites of the Zoned Hachure, Incised Rim, Polychrome, and Incised and Punc- tate traditions in the Amazon Basin. wall. Painting also occurs. Incision is predomi- nantly rectilinear, and patterns are often drawn with precision in fine, evenly spaced, parallel lines. Punctation is frequently associated. Sites are concentrated along the Amazon east of the Rio Negro. Where chronological information is available, as in the Santarem area and the Territory of Amapa, sites are the most recent in the relative sequence, and in some cases they contain objects of European origin. There is little specific information on site size or permanence. Urn burial was practiced in several places; urns are small and often contain cremations. Ceramic artifacts have not been systematically recorded, but figurines are as- sociated. The Upper XingguArea The only Amazonian region investigated dur- ing the first three years of PRONAPAwas the upper Xingu in Mato Grosso,close to the ecolo- gical border of the area (Fig. 1). It was chosen because no reliable information existed, and because it was relatively accessible to the Coastal Strip and consequently might be ex- pected to show influences from the latter region that did not penetrate to the Amazon itself.
  22. 22. PRONAPA J BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 21 Pottery collections from 12 habitation sites were classified into two phases, Diauarum and Ipavu (Fig. 13). Decorative techniques consist of incision, punctation, red-on-white painting, red slipping, nicking, and modeling, the latter in the form either of small applique or of rim adornos. In technique and motif, these features align with the Incised and Punctate tradition. Refuse accumulation in some habitation sites extends to a depth of 120 cm., but sherds are relatively sparse. The burial pattern was direct interment with accompanying offerings within the habitation area. Artifacts include potrests, sherd disks, and chipped and semipolished stone axes. PROBLEMS AND POSTULATIONS A review of the present state of Brazilian archaeology brings out one fact. Whereas prior to 1965 the Amazon Basin was the best known part of Brazil, today the situation is reversed. The systematicapproachand coordinatedteam- work during the past three years have pro- duced a large quantity of specific data on cul- tural content, trait distribution, relative and absolute chronology, and settlement pattern from selected portions of the Coastal Strip. By contrast, information from the Amazon Basin is sporadic, incomplete in trait inventory, and often without chronological control. Although the unequal reliability of the data makes a comparison of the prehistory in the two areas tentative, several observations can be made. Since the preceramicoccupation of the Amazon Basin is unknown, these will be concerned only with the period after the introduction of pot- tery making. In spite of the absence of any evidence of cultural interchangebetween the Amazon Basin and the Coastal Strip, the prehistoryof the two regions follows a generally parallel course. Pot- tery making appears at the mouth of the Amazon and on the Bahia coast about 1000 B.C., but in neither case does this innovation seem to have had any impact beyond the im- mediate area. Of the several hundred sites known from the lower Amazon, only two local- ities have produced pottery of the Zoned Hach- ure tradition. Similarly, nothing comparable to the Periperitraditionhas been discoveredon the Brazilian coast south of Bahia. With the ex- ceptions just noted, all of the radiocarbondates available for ceramic complexes of the Amazon Basin and the Coastal Strip range upward from about A.D. 500. The subsequent history of both areas involves the interplay between groups employing plastic techniques of pottery decoration and local representativesof an area- wide painted tradition.In both areas,this paint- ed tradition is associated with secondary burial in urns. The vast distance over which the two paint- ed pottery traditions were disseminated is an- other strikingsimilarity between the prehistory of the two areas. In the Amazon Basin, the Polychrome tradition extends from the base of the Andes to Marajo Island, a distance of over 4,800 km. The Tupiguarani tradition spans an equivalent distance along the coast. Even when it is recognized that the archaeological phases composing these two widespread traditions are far from identical in specific content, their distribution is noteworthy because its magni- tude has seldom been equalled in other parts of the world. Here again,ecological factorsmust be relevant, and when all of the data collected during PRONAPA have been reviewed and an- alyzed, we hope to be able to isolate geographi- cal, topographical, climatological, and subsis- tence factors contributing to these far-reaching disseminations, as well as to determine the length of time over which they occurred. On the Coastal Strip, where the environment changes markedly from south to north, we hope to observe whether alterations in subsistence or settlement pattern accompanied the spread of the ceramictradition. The differential accessibility of the Coastal Strip and the Amazon Basin to centers of cul- tural development elsewhere on the continent is clearly reflectedin their ceramichistories.The Coastal Strip, isolated by natural environment- al barriers from the Andean area, presents a relatively simple picture. The Amazon Basin, on the other hand, was the recipient of influ- ences from diverse cultures to the north and west. As a consequence, the general ceramic traditions are much less homogeneous than those of the Coastal Strip. Transitional and hybrid complexes are the rule rather than the exception, and the features associated with the general ceramic traditions serve more as trace elements that assist in bringingsome order out of this confusion than as descriptions of cer- amic content and chronology. Although the Polychrome and Tupiguarani traditions are distinct, it seems unlikely that the traitsthey share were independently invent-
  23. 23. 22 AMERICANANTIQUITY [ VOL.35, No. 1,1970 ed. Since both polychrome painting and urn burial are widespread in the eastern Andean Area-extending from Colombia to northwest- ern Argentina-a common derivation does not necessarily imply a common point of dispersal for the traditions with which we are concerned. In view of the magnitude of our ignorance con- cerning the archaeological remains in most of eastern Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay, however, understanding of the cul- tural dynamics underlying these extensive diff- usions is unlikely to be improved in the im- mediate future. Meanwhile, identification of their place of origin and route of dispersal re- mains among the most intriguing problems in lowland South American archaeology. During the remaining two years of PRONAPA, at least a dozen regional chronologies will be added, principally on the Coastal Strip. Cover- age will be expanded to include partsof Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Amazonas. We ex- pect to obtain additional radiocarbon dates to aid in the correlationof regionalsequences, and to provide a firmer foundation for inferences about the rates of diffusion of traditions and subtraditions. Although we have emphasized the broad general picture in this report, we are aware of the fact that the reality is much more complex. The establishment of a general framework, however, is prerequisite to an un- raveling of the complicated local situations, in which groups of similar or diverse cultural ori- gins met and intermingled or replaced one an- other in differenthabitatsand at differenttimes. In fact, each participant is accumulating a backlogof exciting researchproblemsthat await his attention after the coordinated effort of PRONAPAdraws to a close in 1970. Acknowledgments. Field work has been financed by grants from the Smithsonian Institution Research Foundation; publication costs have been borne by the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas. Various other kinds of assistance have been provided by the institutions with which the participants are affiliated. We are deeply grateful to all of these organizations for their continuing interest and support. We should also like to record our appreciation to the Diretoria do Patrim6nio Hist6rico e Artistico Nacional for its collaboration. B6RMIDA, AMALIA SANGUINErrI DE 1965 Dispersion y caracteristicas de las principales industrias preceramicas del territorio argentino. Etnia, Vol. 1, pp. 6-20. Olavarria, Pcia. de Buenos Aires. CALDERON, VALENTIN 1964 0 Sambaqui da Pedra Oca. Instituto de Ciencias Sociais 2. Universidade da Bahia, Sal- vador. EMPERAIRE, J. AND A. LAMING 1956 Les Sambaquis de la C6te M6ridionale du Bresil. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes, Vol. 45, pp. 5-163. Paris. EVANS, CLIFFORD AND BE-rrY J. MEGGERS 1968 Archeological Investigations on the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Vol. 6. Washington. FORD, JAMES A. 1962 A Quantitative Method for Deriving Cultural Chronology. Technical Manual No. 1, Pan American Union. Washington. HILBERT, PETER PAUL 1959 Achados Arqueologicos num Sambaqui do Baixo Amazonas. Instituto de Antropologia e Etnologia do Para',Publ. 10. Bel6m. 1968 Archaiologische Untersuchungen am mittleren Amazonas. MarburgerStudien zur Voilkerkunde 1. Berlin. HURT, WESLEY R. 1964 Recent Radiocarbon Dates for Central and Southern Brazil. American Antiquity, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 25-33. Salt Lake City. MEGGERS, BETFY J. AND CLIFFORD EVANS 1957 Archeological Investigations at the Mouth of the Amazon. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 167. Washington. 1961 An Experimental Formulation of Horizon Styles in the Tropical Forest Area of South America. In Essays in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology, by S. K. Lothrop and others, pp. 372-88. Harvard University Press, Cam- bridge. PRONAPA 1967 ProgramaNacional de Pesquisas Arqueol6gicas, Resultados Preliminares do Primeiro Ano, 1965- 1966. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Publica- g5es Avulsas No. 6. Bel6m. 1969a ProgramaNacional de Pesquisas Arqueologicas, Resultados Preliminares do Segundo Ano, 1966- 1966. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Publica- g?es Avulsas No. 10. Belem. 1969b ProgramaNacional de Pesquisas Arqueologicas, Resultados Preliminares do Terceiro Ano, 1967- 1968. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Publica- g5es Avulsas No. 13. Belem.
  24. 24. PRONAPA ] BRAZILIANARCHAEOLOGY 23 SCHMITZ, PEDRO IGNACIO AND OTHERS 1967 Arqueologia no Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisas, Antropologia 16, Instituto Anchietano de Pes- quisas, Sao Leopoldo. SIM6ES, MARioF. 1969 The Castanheira Site: New Evidence on the Antiquity and History of the Ananatuba Phase (Marajo Island, Brazil). American Antiquity, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 402-10. SaltLakeCity. CONSELHO NACIONAL DE PESQUISAS Rio de Janeiro,Brazil SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Washington, D. C. February, 1969

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