Society for American Archaeology
Advances in Brazilian Archeology, 1935-1985
Author(s): Betty J. Meggers
Source: American Antiquity, Vol. 50, No. 2, Golden Anniversary Issue (Apr., 1985), pp. 364-
Published by: Society for American Archaeology
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ADVANCES IN BRAZILIAN ARCHEOLOGY, 1935-1985
Betty J. Meggers
Although Brazil occupies almost half the continent of South America, its archeology attracted
little interest until recently from either nationals or foreigners. This is attributable to the charac-
teristics of the remains. There are no buildings of stone, tools and ornaments of metal, or elaborate
artifacts of cloth, wood, and bone. Except along the Amazon, pottery is not noted for its aesthetic
qualities; even there, complete vessels with well preserved decoration are scarce. Shell middens
along the southern coast are spectacular in size but deficient in cultural content. Other sites are
predominantly shallow middens containing fragments of pottery, or flakes and minimally shaped
tools of stone. Specialized techniques and skills are necessary for extracting cultural and chronological
meaning from such evidence and their introduction about 1965 revolutionized Brazilian archeology.
An overview of progress during the past 50 years is provided by tabulating the annual totals of
publications listed in two general bibliographies. The Handbook of Latin American Studies, initiated
by the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress in 1935, provides annotated lists of books and
articles. Coverage is restricted by two factors: (1) unavailability of many publications and (2)
limitations on space. Tabulating works by Brazilian authors by year of publication shows annual
productivity of five titles or less prior to 1955 (Figure 1). Between 1956 and 1966, output during
most years varied between five and eight. In 1967, there was a pronounced surge. Forty-three titles
are listed for 1969 and 35 for 1971. Although there have been several large fluctuations, productivity
has generally remained high to the present.
Tabulating titles by foreign and domestic (Brazilian) authors in the farmore complete bibliography
published by Prous (1982) shows the same pattern. Prior to 1950, 10 or fewer titles are listed per
year. Between 1950 and 1956, 10 to 20 are reported during most years. In 1966, there was a rapid
expansion that peaked at 69 titles in 1969 and has usually exceeded 40 in subsequent years.
These patterns provide a basis for recognizing three general periods in the history of Brazilian
archeology during the past half century. Period 1, between 1935 and 1955, continues earlier isolated
and predominantly amateur activities. Period 2, between 1955 and 1965, is characterized by several
long-term programs of research and training that introduced scientific methods of excavation,
analysis, and interpretation. Period 3, from 1965 to the present, reflects the adoption and widespread
application of these methods throughout Brazil.
PERIOD 1: 1935-1955
Prior to 1950, archeological activities did not differ significantly from those of earlier decades.
The foci of interest were also the same. The sambaquis (shell middens) continued to attract attention
from geologists and paleontologists, as well as those interested in their cultural significance. The
Argentine archeologist, Antonio Serrano, is credited with "modifying completely the conception of
archeological problems in southern Brasil" as a consequence of visiting sites and collections in Rio
Grande do Sul, Parana, Santa Catarina, and Sao Paulo during 1937 (Brochado 1969:16). In Rio
Grande do Sul, he recognized five archeological regions, each characterized by a different type of
culture. He also placed local developments within a larger context by proposing relationships with
the Andean region. With specific reference to the sambaquis, he differentiated two kinds: (1) an
BettyJ. Meggers,NHB-112, SmithsonianInstitution,Washington,D.C. 20560
AmericanAntiquity,50(2), 1985,pp. 364-373.
Copyright? 1985 by the SocietyforAmericanArchaeology
Meggers] BRAZILIANARCHEOLOGY 365
z 60 -
IL 30 -
(0 0 000
a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a)
Figure 1. Numbers of publications on Brazilian archeology reported in two bibliographies. The Handbook
of Latin American Studies (solid line) represents Brazilian authors only. The Prous (1982) bibliography (broken
line) includes contributions by foreigners. Both exhibit a sudden rise in production after 1966.
"archaic" group exemplified by sites in Sao Paulo, distant from the present shore and composed of
distinctive fauna, and (2) a "southern" group including the rest of the sites, which contained stone
artifacts and pottery of types also encountered inland.
In Minas Gerais, H. V. Walter, British Vice-Consul in Belo Horizonte, began excavating caves
and rock shelters during the early 1930s in search of early human occupancy. The results of his first
15 years of investigations were published in 1948. A second volume appeared in 1958. Among his
long-term collaborators was Anibal Mattos, who published one of the firstgeneral books on Brazilian
prehistory in 1938. He was preceded by Joao Angyone Costa, whose Introduqdo d arqueologia
brasileira appeared in 1934 and was revised in 1938.
Prior to 1948, Amazonian archeology was the subject of works based on pottery in museums
from the Santarem region (Palmatary 1939) and Maraj6 (Meggers 1947). George Howard made a
valiant effort to distill patterns and relationships in his analysis of Prehistoric Ceramic Styles of
Lowland South America (1947). Other comparisons of more limited scope by Rouse (1940), Meggers
(1947, 1948), and Palmatary (1939) served mainly to underscore the need for better contextual and
chronological data before any reliable reconstructions could be made. Hence, when confronted with
the problem of selecting topics for our doctoral dissertations, Clifford Evans and I chose the mouth
of the Amazon for fieldwork.
We arrived in Rio de Janeiro in July 1948 after a three-day trip from Miami in a DC-3. Heloisa
Alberto Torres, the Director of the Museu Nacional, was one of the few Brazilian scholars who had
been to Maraj6. She authorized us to work under the auspices of the museum, thus fulfilling the
legal requirements. We proceeded to Belem, where we found the famous Museu Goeldi in pitiful
condition. Its decline had commenced with the collapse of the rubber boom and by 1948 it was
barely surviving. Nevertheless, we were welcomed by the director, Machado Coelho, who offered
us an empty house on the grounds that served as our residence and laboratory during the rainy
season. While negotiating with landowners, we had several conversations with Frederico Barata, a
journalist interested in archeology in general and the Santarem region in particular. His subsequent
publications remain among the few worthwhile sources on the pottery from that region (Barata
1950, 1951, 1953a, 1953b, 1954).
After securing the necessary permissions from landowners, we boarded a wood-burning steamer
that took us to Chaves on the north coast of Maraj6. During the following three months, we traveled
by horseback, oxback, dugout, sailboat, and foot; we hung our hammocks in all kinds of shelters,
moving on the average every three days; we ate agouti, paca, cayman, lizard and cayman eggs, lots
of fish and farinha (a derivative of bitter manioc); we accustomed ourselves to doing half a day's
366 AMERICANANTIQUITY [Vol. 50, No. 2, 1985
Figure2. CliffordEvans(left) and Peter Hilbert transportinga large Marajoaraburialurnexcavatedin
hard labor with only a cafezinho for breakfast; we learned to accommodate our schedule to the
hours of daylight and the rhythm of the tides. We returned to Bel&mjust before Christmas with a
large amount of fragmentary pottery from numerous sites on the north coast of Marajo, and on
Mexiana and Caviana, none of which resembled the ceramics hitherto termed "marajoara."
Consequently, after the rainy season began to taper off in May, we spent another month surveying
and testing artificial mounds in the center of Maraj6 accompanied by Peter Paul Hilbert, a young
German ethnologist who had arrived in Bel&mduring our previous fieldwork. One of the excavations
produced a large anthropomorphic vessel with well preserved painted decoration (Figure 2), which
has been on exhibit at the Museu Goeldi ever since and become a symbol of the Marajoara culture.
In 1975, it appeared on a postage stamp (Figure 3) and more recently it has been reproduced on
T-shirts and tote-bags sold to tourists-something we could never have imagined in 1949.
After our departure, Hilbert continued the work on Maraj6and conducted investigations in Amapa
and along the middle Amazon under the auspices of the Instituto de Antropologia e Etnologia do
Para, founded by Barataand other local amateurs in 1947. Conditions at the Museu Goeldi continued
to deteriorate, but total collapse was averted by its transfer in 1954 from administration by the
State of Para to a subsidiary of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas na Amaz6nia (INPA) head-
quartered in Manaos. Our monograph presenting the results of the investigations at the mouth of
the Amazon appeared the same year (Meggers and Evans 1954).
PERIOD 2: 1955-1965
During this decade, Brazilian archeology was transformed from an amateur pastime to a profes-
sional activity. A great deal of the credit belongs to Jose Loureiro Fernandes, Director of the Centro
de Ensino e Pesquisas Arqueol6gicas of the Universidade do Parana (Figure 4). Beginning in 1955,
Meggers] BRAZILIANARCHEOLOGY 367
CERAMICA MARAJOR PARA
Figure3. Postagestampillustratingthe burialurnin Figure2.
he sponsored work in local sambaquis by the French husband-wife team, Jose'Emperaire and Annette
Laming, who had previously excavated similar sites on the coast of Siio Paulo (Figure 5; Laming
and Emperaire 1958). After Emperaire's accidental death in 1957, Laming continued. Brazilian
students participated in the fieldwork and analysis and many of those most prominent today were
trained by her. During 1958-1959, Wesley Hurt was a Fuibright Professor at the Universidade do
Paran'aand did fieldwork, again with participation by Brazilians. From July to September 1962,
Laming conducted a formal course in field and laboratory methods focusing on sambaquis. This
was followed in October 1964 by a workshop on the analysis of fragmentary pottery and the
construction of relative chronologies, directed by Meggers and Evans. This experience gave us first-
hand appreciation of the amount of ingenuity, tenacity, and drive expended by Fernandes to organize
and fund these programs, and of the significance of his efforts. Students from many states were
exposed to the same field and analytic methods, whose subsequent application has given Brazilian
archeology a unity unknown elsewhere in Latin America. Equally importantly, they became ac-
quainted personally. The participants of the ceramic workshop in 1964 developed a special sense
of camaraderie during the month they lived and worked together in the Museu de Arqueologia e
Artes Populares in Paranagud, which has been vital to the success of programs that developed from
During this decade, other centers emerged or were revived. The Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi
resumed its leadership in Amazonian archeology in 1955, when Peter Hilbert joined the staff. The
first paper in the Anthropology series of the Boletim was authored by him (Hilbert 1957). When
368 AMERICANANTIQUITY [Vol. 50, No. 2, 1985
Figure 4. Jose Loureiro Fernandes (left) in 1964.
Hilbert returned to Germany in 1961, his place was taken by M6rio F. Sim6es, who reorganized
the storage, put the records in order, and began conducting fieldwork. In Rio Grande do Sul, Pedro
I. Schmitz began working on ceramic sites under the auspices of the Instituto Anchietano de Pes-
quisas, a Jesuit institution that had previously concentrated on botany, zoology, and history. The
first publication in the Anthropology series of Pesquisas appeared in 1957 and by 1962, 14 numbers
had been published. Valentin Calderon, who was trained in archeology in Spain, joined the faculty
of the Universidade Federal da Bahia and began an inventory of sites in that state. Walter F. Piazza
was assembling a similar record in Santa Catarina. Jodo Alfredo Rohr, Director of a Jesuit high
school in Florian6polis, began excavating cemeteries on the Isla de Santa Catarina and publishing
his results in Pesquisas.
Other research programs were initiated without the support of academic institutions. In Rio
Grande do Sul, Eurico Th. Miller began recording and surface collecting sites surrounding his home
town of Taquara. In 1961, he excavated a rock shelter and established the first typology for stone
projectile points dating between about 6000 and 4000 B.P. (Miller 1969). In Rio de Janeiro, Ondemar
F. Dias adopted another course. In 1961, he founded the Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (JAB)
as a mechanism for bringing together local people interested in archeology. From the beginning,
there were two categories of members: (1) those permitted to take part in fieldwork, and (2) those
allowed to attend lectures and other activities conducted in the IAB headquarters. This structure
permitted increasing professionalization of the JAB in subsequent years.
PERIOD 3: 1965-1985
The opportunity to build on the foundation laid during the preceding decade came in 1965, when
the Smithsonian Institution and the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas signed a five-year agreement
Meggers] BRAZILIANARCHEOLOGY 369
Figure 5. Jose Emperaire and Paul Rivet (left) at a large sambaqui on the coast of Sao Paulo being excavated
to conduct the Programa Nacional de Pesquisas Arqueol6gicas (PRONAPA), implementing a plan
developed during the ceramic workshop at the Universidade do Parani. The immensity of the
coastal region requiring investigation-extending from the mouth of the Amazon to the Uruguayan
border-and the paucity of funds and personnel made it necessary to maximize results. The research
design proceeded from the assumption that the shore and the major rivers served as primary routes
of movement of people and ideas. In the states with resident archeologists, sectors along these routes
were designated for intensive survey. Each state was divided into areas for purposes of standardized
numbering of sites. All sites, extending from preceramic to neobrazilian (post-European), were
recorded, mapped, surface collected, and where possible tested stratigraphically. The pottery was
classified using uniform criteria and described using uniform terminology (Chmyz 1976). Meetings
were held at the end of the first, third, and fifth years, at which each archeologist presented details
of the data (Figure 6). Because multi-year funding could not be obtained, the participants had to
do the fieldwork, analyze the materials, and prepare publishable reports each season as a basis for
requesting continuing support, in addition to teaching and performing other duties for the Brazilian
institutions that paid their salaries.
These years were exhausting but exhilarating for us as well as for the 11 Brazilian archeologists
who did the work. More than 1,500 sites were investigated in Para, Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia,
Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara, Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do
Sul. The ceramic sites were grouped into phases and traditions; dozens of seriated sequences provided
relative chronologies, and some 150 carbon-14 dates permitted their alignment. When the final
meeting of the PRONAPA was held in Washington in 1973, a general time-space framework had
been established for the Coastal Strip, which permitted preliminary interpretations about the course
and process of cultural development from initial settlement to the eighteenth century (PRONAPA
1967, 1969a, 1969b, 1971, 1974; Sim6es 1972).
Simultaneously, an intensive program using similar methods was initiated in Rio Grande do Sul
370 AMERICANANTIQUITY [Vol. 50, No. 2, 1985
Figure6. Meetingof the participantsin the ProgramaNacionalde PesquisasArqueologicas(PRONAPA)
at the MuseuParaenseEmilioGoeldiin 1968. Left to right:BettyJ. Meggers,WalterF. Piazza,NassaroA.
de SouzaNasser,Jose ProenzaBrochado,EuricoTh. Miller, Silvia Maranca,ValentinCalderon,Jose Wilson
Rauth,CelsoPerota,OndemarF. Dias, IgorChmyz(standing),CliffordEvans,andMarioF. Sim?ies.
under the coordination of Pedro I. Schmitz (Schmitz 1967). In 1967, the first of several symposia
bringing together archeologists from Santa Catarina, Parand, and Rio Grande do Sul, and from
Uruguay and Argentina, was held at the Instituto Anchietano de Pesquisas. In the same year, the
Museu Arqueol6gico do Rio Grande do Sul was established in Taquara, supported by the state of
Rio Grande do Sul. About the same time, archeologists were added to the faculties of the Univer-
sidade Federal do Espin'to Santo and the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
During the early 1970s, two important programs involving French and Brazilian collaboration
were directed toward rock shelters. Fieldwork in the Lagoa Santa region was organized by Laming
and carried out in 1971 and 1973 (Laming-Emperaire et al. 1975). A long-term study emphasizing
pictographs and their contexts has been underway in the northeastern state of Piaui since 1973,
directed by Ni&de Guidon (1975), under the sponsorship of the CNRS (France) and the Museu
The Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira enhanced its scientific activities in 1974 with the creation
of a Centro de Pesquisas Arqueol6gicas housed in a restored colonial residence in the suburbs of
Rio de Janeiro, provided by the State. By 1984, its staff had grown to 14 professional investigators,
8 students, and 3 consultants. The first two volumes of a monograph series were published the same
year, and the Boletim was revived after a lapse of more than a decade. Long-term research programs
underway include intensive excavation of sites of theItaipPr Tradition along the coast of Rio de
Janeiro, which have produced subsistence remains and a large skeletal sample, as well as artifacts
permitting reconstruction of a specialized subsistence adaptation during the millennia preceding the
Christian Era. Another multi-year program focuses on the Sio Francisco valley in Minas Gerais.
Meggers] BRAZILIANARCHEOLOGY 371
Since 1977, the IAB team has also been collaborating with similar teams from the Museu Goeldi,
the Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, and the Secretaria de Cultura, Turismo e Deporte de
Rond6nia in the Programa Nacional de Pesquisas Arqueol6gicas na Bacia Amaz6nica (PRONA-
PABA). Patterned after the PRONAPA and incorporating several of the same investigators, this
program has recorded and sampled hundreds of sites in Amazonia, including survey of the entire
Madeira and Guapore courses, sections of the Jurua, the upper Purus, the upper Xinguiand Tapajos,
the lower and middle Negro, the left margin of the lower Amazon, and parts of Acre and Mato
Grosso (Sim6es and Araujo-Costa 1978; Sim6es 1983).
Another program of intensive investigation has been underway in southern Goias through the
collaboration of archeologists from the Instituto Anchietano de Pesquisas of Rio Grande do Sul
and the Universidade Cat6lica de Goias. Several rock shelters have been excavated, attesting to the
presence of humans by 11,000 B.P. At the late end of the sequence, tentative correlations have been
made between two ceramic traditions and the two major divisions of the Ge family of languages
(Schmitz et al. 1982). Major cultural and subsistence differences have been observed, which appear
to reflect climatic changes and ecological diversity.
Another important development during the past decade is implementation of the federal law
requiring archeological salvage in regions affected by construction of dams, exploitation of mineral
deposits, and other kinds of activities. The earliest major project was a highly successful survey of
the Brazilian portion of the reservoir created by the Itaipu dam on the Rio Parani, conducted by
Igor Chmyz. Detailed descriptions of the sites and artifacts have been published in seven volumes
(Chmyz 1976-1983). Similar projects have been completed, are in progress, or are being planned
throughout the country.
In 1980, Brazilian archeology came of age with the founding of the Sociedade de Arqueologia
Brasileira (SAB). In 1982, it had more than 100 members representing over 20 institutions. Meetings
held in 1981 in Rio de Janeiro and in 1983 in Belo Horizonte were attended by professionals and
students from all parts of the country. Unfortunately, facilities for training have not kept pace with
growing interest and need. Only the Universidade de Sao Paulo offers Master's and Doctor's degrees
in anthropology; two other institutions (the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco and the Pontificia
Universidade Cat6lica do Rio Grande do Sul) offer Master's degrees in the history of culture, which
includes prehistory (Schmitz 1983). Amplifying the opportunities for academic training is a major
challenge, which must be met to provide the personnel necessary to conduct the salvage programs
as well as to carry out other investigations to fill the gaps in our knowledge of cultural development
during pre-European times. The dedication and perseverance that have characterized the efforts
during the past 50 years make it safe to predict that this obstacle will be overcome and that significant
contributions to archeological method, theory, and data will be made by Brazilian archeologists in
the years to come.
1950 A arte oleira dos Tapaj6 (Part I). Instituto de Antropologia e Etnologia do Para, Publ. 2. Belem.
1951 A arte oleira dos Tapaj6 (Part II). Revista do Museu Paulista 5:183-197.
1953a A arte oleira dos Tapaj6 (Part III). Instituto de Antropologia e Etnologia do Para, Publ. 6. Belem.
1953b Uma analise estilistica da ceramica de Santarem. Cultura No. 5. Ministerio da Educa,cio e Sauide,
Servi,o de Documenta,co.
1954 0 muiriquita e as "contas" dos Tapaj6. Revista do Museu Paulista 8:229-259.
Brochado, Jose Joaquim Proenza
1969 Hist6rico das pesquisas arqueol6gicas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Iheringia, Antropologia 1:3-
42. Porto Alegre.
1976 Projeto Arqueol6gico Itaipu; primeiro relat6rio das pesquisas realizadas na drea de Itaipu (1975-1976).
1977 Projeto Arqueol6gico Itaipu; segundo relat6rio das pesquisas realizadas na drea de Itaipu (1976/77).
1978 Projeto Arqueol6gico Itaipu; terceiro relat6rio das pesquisas realizadas na drea de Itaipu (1977/78).
372 AMERICANANTIQUITY [Vol. 50, No. 2, 1985
1979 Projeto Arqueol6gico Itaipu; quarto relat6rio das pesquisas realizadas na drea de Itaipu (1978/79).
1980 Projeto Arqueol6gico Itaipu, quinto relat6rio das pesquisas realizadas na area de Itaipu (1979/80).
1981 Projeto Arqueol6gico Itaipu; sexto relat6rio das pesquisas realizadas na drea de Itaipu (1980/81).
1983 Projeto Arqueol6gico Itaipu; setimo relat6rio das pesquisas realizadas na drea de Itaipu (1981/83).
Chmyz, Igor (editor)
1976 Terminologia arqueol6gica brasileira para a ceramica. Cuadernos deArqueologia 1(1):119-148. Museu
de Arqueologia e Artes Populares, Paranagua.
Costa, Joao Angyone
1934 Introdu,do d arqueologia brasileira. Biblioteca Pedag6gica Brasileira, Serie 5, vol. 34. Sao Paulo.
1938 Introdu,co d arqueologia brasileira. 2 Edi,co. Sao Paulo.
1975 Peintures rupestres de Varzea Grande, Piaui, Bresil. Cahiers d'Arche,ologied'Ame,riquedu Sud 3. Paris.
Hilbert, Peter Paul
1952 Contribuioo a arqueologia da ilha de Maraj6. Instituto de Antropologia e Etnologia do Para, Publ. 5.
1955 A ceramica arqueol6gica da regiao de Oriximina. Instituto de Antropologia e Etnologia do Para, Publ.
1957 Contribuicdo a arqueologia do Amapa. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, n.s., Antropologia,
No. 1. Belem.
Howard, George D.
1947 Prehistoric Ceramic Styles of Lowland South America, Their Distribution and History. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology No. 37.
Laming, A., and J. Emperaire
1958 Bilan de trois campagnes de fouilles archeologiques au Bresil Meridional. Journal de la Societe des
Laming-Emperaire, A., A. Prous, A. Vilhena de Moraes, and M. Beltrao
1975 Grottes et abris de la region de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Bresil. Cahiers d'Archeologie d'Amerique
du Sud 1. Paris.
1938 Prehistoria brasileira. Biblioteca Pedag6gica Brasileira, Serie 5a, vol. 137. Sao Paulo.
Meggers, Betty J.
1947 The Beal-Steere Collection of Pottery from Maraj6 Island, Brazil. Papers of the Michigan Academy of
Science, Arts and Letters 31(3):193-213.
1948 The Archeology of the Amazon Basin. Bureau of American Ethnology Bul. 143(3):149-166.
Meggers, Betty J., and Clifford Evans
1954 Archeological Investigations at the Mouth of the Amazon. Bureau of American Ethnology Bul. 167.
Miller, Eurico Th.
1969 Resultados preliminares das escava,6es no sitio pre-ceramico RS-LN-1: Cerrito Dalpiaz. Iheringia,
Antropologia 1:43-112. Porto Alegre.
Palmatary, Helen C.
1939 Tapajo Pottery. Ethnographical Studies 8. Gothenburg Ethnographical Museum.
1967 Resultados preliminares do primeiro ano, 1965-1966. Publs. Avulsas 6. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi,
1969a Resultados preliminares do segundo ano, 1966-1967. Publs. Avulsas 10. Museu Paraense Emilio
1969b Resultados preliminares do terceiro ano, 1967-1968. Publs. Avulsas 13. Museu Paraense Emilio
1971 Resultados preliminares do quarto ano, 1968-1969. Publs. Avulsas 15. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi,
1974 Resultados preliminares do quinto ano, 1969-1970. Publs. Avulsas 26. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi,
1982 Hist6ria da pesquisa e da bibliografia arqueol6gica no Brasil. Arquivos do Museu de Hist6ria Natural
1940 Some Evidence Concerning the Origins of West Indian Pottery-making. American Anthropologist 42:
Schmitz, Pedro Ignacio
1967 Arqueclogia no Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisas, Arqueologia 16. Instituto Anchietano de Pesquisas, Sao
Meggers] BRAZILIANARCHEOLOGY 373
1983 Avaliaqdo perspectivas: ciencias humanas e sociais. No. 47, Arqueologia. Secretaria de Planejamento
e Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnol6gico, Brasilia.
Schmitz, Pedro Ignacio, Irmhild Wust, Silvia Moehlecke Cope, and Ursula M. E. Thies
1982 Arqueologia no centro-sul de Goias; uma fronteira de horticultores indigenas no Centro de Brasil.
Pesquisas, Arqueologia 33. Instituto Anchietano de Pesquisas, Sao Leopoldo.
Sim6es, Mario F.
1972 Indice das fases arqueol6gicas brasileiras. Publs. Avulsas 19. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem.
1983 Pesquisa e cadastro de sitios arqueol6gicos na Amaz6nia Legal Brasileira, 1978-1982. Publs. Avulsas
38. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem.
Sim6es, Mario F., and Femanda Araujo-Costa
1978 Areas da Amaz6nia Legal Brasileira para pesquisa e cadastro de sitios arqueol6gicos. Pub/s. Avulsas
30. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem.
Walter, H. V.
1948 A pr&historia da regido de Lag6a Santa, Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte.
1958 Arqueologia da regiao de Lag6a Santa (Minas Gerais). Rio de Janeiro.
A. V. Kidder at Canyon de los Frijoles (Bandelier National Monument) ca. 1915-1917. J. 0. Brew Collection
(Peabody Museum, Harvard University, print by Hillel Burger).