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Linux slides fort_2013_upload

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Unix/Linux für Fortgeschrittene, Kurs auf der Informatica Feminale 2013

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Linux slides fort_2013_upload

  1. 1. Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene Rosa Freund, freund@lrz.de
  2. 2. 2Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Was? ● Tools, die dazu benötigt werden, das System zu verwalten: ● Regelmäßig ein Skript ausführen ● Nutzer, Gruppen und Rechte verwalten ● Software verwalten ● Netzwerk konfigurieren ● Das System absichern ● Das System als Serversystem konfigurieren
  3. 3. 3Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 I/O-Umleitung ● Umleitung mit >, >>, < ● 3 verschiedene Datenströme mit Deskriptoren : ● 0: Standardeingabe /dev/stdin (Tastatur) ● 1: Standardausgabe /dev/stdout (Terminal) ● 2: Fehlerausgabe /dev/stderr (Terminal)
  4. 4. 4Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 I/O-Umleitung: Beispiele ● kommando < file.txt ● kommando 2> error.log ● kommando > /dev/null 2>> error.log ● kommando > /dev/null 2>&1
  5. 5. 5Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Cron ● Daemon, führt Tasks im Hintergrund aus ● Systemweit: /etc/crontab (Produktivdatei) ● User-/Root-Crontabs: crontab -l, crontab -e ● liegen in /var/spool/cron/crontabs
  6. 6. 6Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Cron - Beispiel Minute Stun- de Tag Monat Wo- chen- tag Befehl Aktion 17 3 * * * ls -la /home/rosa/login.log > /dev/null 2>&1
  7. 7. 7Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Aufgabe 1 ● Umleitung Datenströme ● Cron
  8. 8. 8Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Bash konfigurieren ● Welche Shell benutze ich? ● echo $SHELL ● grep <username> /etc/passwd ● Bash-Konfigurationsdateien ● source /etc/profile ● source /etc/bash.bashrc ● source ~/.bash_profile ● source ~/.bashrc ● Andere Konfigurationsmöglichkeiten: ● setenv, export
  9. 9. 9Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Umgebungsvariablen, Aliasse ● Können in der Bash (aktuelle Session) oder in Konfigurationsdatei (alle Sessions) definiert werden ● Umgebungsvariablen: ● z.B. $PATH, $SHELL, $HOME ● in einer der Konfigurationsdateien gesetzt ● printenv ● Aliasse: ● alias findlog = 'find . -name *.log'
  10. 10. 10Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Aufgaben 2 Bash-Konfiguration
  11. 11. 11Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Benutzer- Gruppenverwaltung ● Ein Superuser (Root), beliebig viele User ● Beliebig viele Gruppen ● Ein User gehört einer oder mehr Gruppen an ● Jedem User ist eine eindeutige ID (=UID) zugeordnet, Root die UID 0 ● Jeder Gruppe ist eine eindeutige ID (=GID) zugeordnet, der Root-Gruppe die GID 0
  12. 12. 12Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Dateirechte und -owner ● chmod: Ändert Dateirechte ● chown: Ändert Dateiowner (User und Gruppe) ● useradd: Fügt Nutzer hinzu ● groupadd: Fügt Gruppe hinzu ● /etc/passwd: Liste aller User ● /etc/group: Liste aller Gruppen ● /etc/shadow
  13. 13. 13Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 sudo Quelle: http://xkcd.com/149/
  14. 14. 14Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 sudo ● sudo: Lässt Benutzer bestimmte Befehle als anderer Nutzer (ohne Parameter: als Root) ausführen ● su: Wechsel zum anderen Nutzer (ohne Parameter: Zu Root) ● /etc/sudoers ● visudo
  15. 15. 15Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Aufgaben 3 sudo, Nutzer- und Gruppenverwaltung
  16. 16. 16Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Software installieren und verwalten ● Systemabhängige Paketverwaltung-GUI, z.B. Synaptic bei Ubuntu bzw. YaST2 bei SUSE ● Systemabhängige Paketverwaltungstools, z.B. apt/dpkg (Debian / Ubuntu), zypper (SuSE), pacman (Arch Linux) ● Kompilieren aus dem Quellcode mit ./configure, make, make install ● Skript “Software installieren aus dem Quellcode”, http://www.trish.de/downloads/kompilierkurs.pdf
  17. 17. 17Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Aufgabe 4 Software installieren und verwalten
  18. 18. 18Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Prozesse ● Laufendes Programm ● Zustände: dead, ready, running, sleep, trace, wait, uninterruptible sleep, zombie ● ps aux, Spalte “STAT” ● ps ● pstree ● renice ● pidof
  19. 19. 19Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Prozess-Eigenschaften ● PID (Prozess-ID) ● PPID (Parent PID) ● UID, EUID: reale und effektive Benutzer-ID ● GID, EGID: reale und effektive Gruppen-ID ● real: wer den Prozess erzeugt hat ● effektiv: unter welchen Rechten der Prozess gerade läuft ● nice: -20<nice<19, -20 entspricht höchster Priorität, Default-Priorität ist 0.
  20. 20. 20Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Prozesse beenden ● kill ­<Signal> PID ● kill ­15 (TERM, Standardwert), höflich, Programm soll sich selbst beenden ● kill ­9 (KILL), bestimmt, Betriebssystem soll Programm beenden ● kill ­1 (HUP), Programm soll sich selbst beenden und neu starten ● killall ­<Signal> Prozessname: Beendet *alle* Prozesse dieses Namens
  21. 21. 21Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Daemons ● Programme, die im Hindergrund laufen und Dienste zur Verfügung stellen. Starten: ● von Hand ● Systemstart ● per inetd / xinetd: Daemon, der andere Daemons startet, ● Serverdienste (z.B. cupsd, dhcpd, httpd, named, ● portmap, sshd, squid, vsftpd...) ● Kernel-Prozesse (z.B. aio, events, kapmd, kjournald, kswapd, pdflush)
  22. 22. 22Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 init ● erster Prozess, der gestartet wird (PID 1) ● definiert “Run Levels”: Welche Systemressourcen werden aktiviert ● Konfiguration in /etc/inittab und /etc/init.d/* bzw. /etc/rcX.d/* ● ansprechen: z.B. ● init 1: Single-user mode ● init 3: Full multiuser with network (keine grafische Oberfläche) ● init 5: Full multiuser with network and xdm (mit GUI)
  23. 23. 23Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 xinetd ● früher: inetd ● jetzt: xinetd, Extended Internet Service Daemon ● Zwei Arten von Internet-Diensten ● laufen permanent im Hintergrund, überwachen IP-Ports (Bsp: httpd 80, sshd 21) ● starten nur bei Bedarf – gesteuert durch xinetd (z.B. vsftpd, smtpd)
  24. 24. 24Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Was es sonst noch gibt (Auswahl) ● Dateiattribute: lsattr, chattr ● Netzwerkkonfiguration / -überwachung: ifconfig, iwconfig, netstat, ping, traceroute, tcpdump ● Sicherheit: /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny, iptables, nmap ● Logs: syslogd, logrotate, /var/log/*
  25. 25. 25Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Aufgaben 5 Prozesse, Daemons, init
  26. 26. 26Unix / Linux für Fortgeschrittene – Informatica Feminale 2013 Das war's, vielen Dank! Noch Fragen?

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