The Development Of Writing


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The Development Of Writing

  1. 1. The Development of Writing When we consider the development of writing one thing should kept in mind that there are large number of language in the world toady that exist only in speech and do not have written from for those languages which have not writing system yet the process of development of writing is a relatively recent phenomenon an account of the early history of writing has gradually emerged, but it contains many gaps and ambiguities. The matter is problematic by the fact that in this early period, it is not easy to decide whether a piece of graphic expression should be counted as an optimistic image or as a symbol of primitive writing. In principle, the difference, the difference is clear; the former convey personal and subjective meanings and do not combined into a system with accepted values in contrast with later is conventional and institutionalized, capable of being understood in the same way by all who are using the system. Problematic area: in Egyptian and Greek the same word was used for both write and draw. Although, one point is dear that the writing systems evolved independently of each other at different times in several parts of the world in Mesopotamia, China, Meso-America etc. Much of the evidence
  2. 2. used in the reconstruction of ancient writing systems comes from inscriptions on stones on tablets found in the rubble do ruined cities. Precursors:- The earliest examples of a conventional use of written symbols are on clay tablets discovered in various parts of the Middle East and South east Europe from around 3500 B.C. Large numbers of tablets made by the Sumerians have been found in sites around the rives figures and Euphrates in presently Iraq and Iran but those Symbols have been listed, most of them abstract in characters. That tablet seems to have recorded matters such as business transactions, tax account, land sales etc. These taken of several distinctive shapes, seem to have been used as system of accounting from at least the 9th millenumium B.C. there are no clear borders between picture/ symbol and what is already a sign in a writing system (specific phonetic content which would be radium the name way by any reader in a group of redoes. Scribes:- Scribes were very important people and trained to write confirm and record many of the languages spoken in Mesopotamia. Without scribes, letters would not have been written or real, Royal monuments would not have been carved or stories would have been told and forgotten. Scribes
  3. 3. wrote those things on different shaped objects depending on the type of information they wanted to record. Changing in Signs:- Although the signs had changed over the centuries. There were more changes to come. Nobody can explain why the changes happened. In the most ancient times tablets have signs drawn in bones. Later, a change came and the signs were written in rows, and arranged them in order in which they were real. After that a change was came that the tablets were written in the manner so that all of the signs appeared to be lying on their side.
  4. 4. Changing in Usage:- In the serve ear, not only the change came in the shape, but also the use of the sign had been changing. The barley sign could now be used in two ways, Firstly; It could represent barley, as on the tablet, which tells us that Uranium (name of person) was given barley Secondly; It could also be used to represent a sound the Sumerian word for barley was she. So the barely sign was used to represent the sound she in a word.
  5. 5. Stages in development of writing Stage 1:- Signs are only used as symbols. Stage 2:- The beginning of writing: limited standardization: The surviving sources indicate that the hieroglyphics writing system followed the systems and rules which were used thourout Egyptian history. Early development include the emergence of rooms in writing direction, forms of individual signs, orthography of single words, and the gradual tendency towards writing longer inscription. Stage 3: Developing Standardization:- It seems that at the beginning only very few people could write but standardization. It seems that at the beginning only very few people could write but standardization was not needed so much. At that point were the writing was used for more people a fixed system was needed, and soon developed. The signs and the writing of many words are already those found in the old Kingdom. Types of Writing PICTOGRAMS Pictogram when some of eh pictures came to represent particular images in a consistent way, we can be to describe the product as a from of picture writing or pictograms. In this system, the graphemes provide a
  6. 6. recognizable picture of entities as they exist in eh world. Cave drawings may serves to record some events but they are not usually thought of as any type of usually thought of as any type of specifically linguistic message. They are normally considered as part of a tradition do pectoral art pictograms constitute the earliest system of writing and are found in many parts of the world where the remains of easily people have been discovered. Thus, a form such as might come to be used fro the suncomes to represent particular image or recognizable picture of entities in a certain way, it can be described as a form of picture writing or pictograms. This problem can be illustrated with modern pictograms, such as road sign (right/ left). Without knowing the context the sign could be real in all kinds of ways such as some other modern pictograms leads you to the phone booth, bus stop, coffee shop and to the restrooms at the airport even if you don’t speak and real the particular language but there is must be a conventional relationship between the symbol and its representation when a pictogram takes a more fixed symbolic from and comes to be used for instance not only to represent sum but also heat and daytime, it is considered as part of a system of idea writing or ideogram. There is no intension to draw the reality artistically or exactly, but the symbols must
  7. 7. be efficiently clear and simple to enable then to be immediately recognized and reproduced as occasion demands as part of a narrative. Ideograms:- Ideographic writing is usually distinguished as a later development of pictographic. Ideographic can be defined as “Ideograms have on abstract or conventional meaning, no longer displaying a clear pectoral link with external link. Ideograms or ideographic display no clear pictorial link with external reality. In olden days, two factors account for this, the shape of an ideogram may so alter that is no longer recognizable as a pectoral representation of an object; and its original meaning may extend to include notions that lack any clear pectoral form. It is rare to fined a pure ideographic symbols refers directly to the notions or things. Most systems that have been called ideographic infect contain linguistic element. Distinction b/w ideogram and pictogram:- The difference between ideogram and pictogram is essentially a difference in the relationship between the symbol and its representation. The other difference is that picture like forms are called pictograms and the abstract and derived forms are called ideograms.
  8. 8. But at the same time, there is a quality which qualifies both ideograms and pictograms that they do not represent words or sounds in a particular language. Cuneiforms:- The cuneiform method of writing dates from the 4th millennium B.C Cuneiforms were used to express both non-phonological and phonological writing system in several languages. The word cuneiform derived from Latin and its meaning is “Wedge- Shaped”. Cuneiform referred to the techniques that are used to make symbols. In early period, a stylus was pressed into a tablet of soft clay in order to makes a sequence of short straight strokes. But in later period, other materials were also used for made cuneiform. In the very start when the cuneiform. were start to use in different things they were written top to bottom and reflecting the direction of writing, later, they were turned onto their sides, written from left to right. The earliest cuneiform was a development of pictographic symbols. Subsequently, the script was used to write words and syllable, and to mark phonetic elements. It ws used to record variety of information such as temple activities, business and trade. Cuneiform was also used to write stories, myths and personal letters. The cuneiform script was used to write other languages also. In Mesopotamia, it was use to write both Sumerian and Akkadian. It was
  9. 9. also used to write other languages like Elamite, Hittite and as carved here in stone, Urartian. Cuneiform script was used by other people because they needed to be able to record information but they did not have their own system for writing down their languages. Egyptian Hieroglyphic:- In Egypt, a form of pictography developed around 3000 B.C., which came to be called hierslyphic. In Greek hieroglyphics means “The Scared Craving”, because it was prominently used in temple, tombs and other special places. The units of writing system are known as hieroglyphs. This term was also coined to be used for scripts of a similar character from other cultures, such as Hittite, Mayan and Indus valley but the most developed form of hieroglyphic script was used by Egyptian, the Script of hieroglyphic tends to write from right to left, with the symbols generally facing the beginning of a row, but the vertical rows are found, following the line of the building. Some symbols are used to ideograms, representing real word entities or notion. Swallow go Beetle Find Eat Fresh
  10. 10. Determination symbols are signs that have no phonetic value but are place next to other symbols to tell the reader what kind of meaning a world has Egyptian symbols that were commonly used as a determinatives in clouded the following. Sun, Sun god, day time Star, hour, time to pray City, town Pray, adore, Praise Moon, Month Mountain See Weep, grief Logograms Logographic writing system are those when the symbols come to represent words in a language, they are described as example of word writing or logograms where the graphiensces or characters represent words. A good example of logographic writing is that used by the Sumerians, in the southern part of modern Iraq between 5,000 and 6,000 years ago. Because of the symbols, these insertions are most generally
  11. 11. described as currfom writing. In Egyptian hierghphcis means house and derives from a diagram representing the floor plan of a house. In Chinese writing it means saver and derives from the pectoral description of a stream flowing between two banks. Several thousand graphics are involved in a logographic system. The great Chinese dictionary of K, ang Hsi (1662-1722) contains nearly 50,000 characters; most of them are highly specialized or archaic. A modern writing system based to a certain extent on the use of logograms can be found in China. Many written chinses symbols or characters, are used as representations of the meaning of words and not of the sounds of spoken language. One of the advantages of such a system is that two speakers of different dialects of Chinese, who might have great difficulty in understanding each other’s spoken forms, can read the same written text. These symbols are widely used in modern written language. Their spoken equivalents, of course, vary from language to language. The most developed logoraphic systems are found in scientific notations, such as logic and mathematics.
  12. 12. Rebus Writing One way of using exiting symbols to represent the sounds of language is via a process known as “Rebus Writing”. In this process, the symbol of one entity is taken over as the symbol for the sound of the spoken word used to refer to that entity. That symbol then comes to be used whenever that sound occurs in any words. For example, working with the found of the English word. Eye we can imagine how the pictogram could have developed into logoram This logogram is pronounced as eye, and with the Rebus principle at work, you should be able to yourself as (I) to one of your friend as ( cross eye). Take another non English example, the ideogram becomes the logograms for the word pronounced ba (meaning boat). We can then produce a symbol for the world pronounced baba (meaning father) which would be .One symbol can thus be used in many different ways, with a range of meanings. What this process accomplishes is a sizeable reduction in the number of symbols needed in writing system. Syllabus Writings:- When a writing system employs a set of symbols which represent the pronunciation of syllables, it is described as syllabic writing. In a
  13. 13. syllabic writing, each grapheme corresponds to a spoken syllable usually a consonant vowel pair. They do not seem to be any purely syllabic writing systems in use today, but Japanese can be described as having an at learn partly syllabic writing system. In the 19th century, an American Indian named Sequoyah invented a syllabic writing system which was used by the Cherokee Indians to produce written messages from the spoken language. In this Cherokee example, and (ho), (as) (get), these symbols do not correspond to single consonants or vowels, but to syllables. The Egyptian form meaning ‘house’, was adopted, in a slightly reoriented form, as . After being used logographically for the word pronounced beth (house), it came to represent syllables beginning with a /b/ sound. By about 1000 B.C, the Phoenicians had stopped using logograms and had a fully developed syllabic writing system. Alphabetic Writing With alphabetic writing, there is a direct correspondence between graphemes and phonemes, which makes it the most economic and adaptable of all the writing system. Phoenicians, who irrigated the orally alphabetic writing system, is the general source of most other alphabets to be fund in the world. The early Greeks included symbols in which the
  14. 14. single symbol to single sound correspondence was fully realized. Modern European alphabet can be traced from Egyptian to Phoenician then to early Greek. The Greek writing system was used in Eastern Europe with some modification Where Slavic language was spoken. After Greeks it finally reached to the Roman alphabet. The actual from of a number of the letters in modern European alphabets can be traced, as in the illustration, from their origin in Egyptian Egyptian
  15. 15. Written English Alphabetic writing system were based on a correct correspondence between single symbol and single sound type but there does seem to bane a frequent mismatch between the forms of written and the sounds of spoken English today. The answer to that question there must be historical influences on the form of written English, may be the influence of French and Latin in which written representation of words derived from forms used in writing other languages. Recreation from sixteenth century speeling reformers to bring their written forms more into line with what were supposed, sometimes erroneously. Written provides unreliable clues with reference to spoken English. Graph logical Contrast Once a writing system devised it can be used to convey wide range of archeological contrast. These are described from the range of possibilities available in alphabetic systems. Spellings Do not relate individual words such as it indicates the place where paper many are cut; indicates the direction and dagger (t) showing that a person is dead. Special symbols also ward to organize written react or to drown the attention.
  16. 16. Abbreviations Shortened form of words is major features of written language. Some abbreviations are used commonly such as Ms, Mr., DR, Dept, Capt., Lt or the use of acronyms such as cod, VIP, C/D and NATO. Some of abbreviations are spoken as wares such as NATO (neit u) and FATA (Fa:t:) Graphic contrast Italic, boldface, capitalization, color and other graphic variations are major expressing semantic contrast. In conveying the part of message, graphemes plays important part such as in advertisement and invitations. It should be noted that not all language has the same set of possibilities, for example there is no use of italics or capitalization in Hebrew. Capitalization Use of capital letter in the beginning of the sentence marks both grammatical and lexical units. A single graphic contrast is involved: big us small. Such as in A Vs a. Rule of capitalization does not apply on numbers either they appear in the start of the sentence or in the mind or end of the sentence very remain same e.g. 33 is remain same , it would not be written as 3 . Punctuation
  17. 17. The punctuation of a language has two functions. First, enable the stretches of written language in order to read in coherent way. Secondly, its purpose is to give an indication of rhythm and color of speech. Features that separate It is mainly used to separates the units of grammar such as sentences, clauses, phrases, from each other these marks are organized in broadly hierarchical manner. Some of them identify large units such as paragraph; some of them identify small units such as words and word parts. The main English conventional punctuations are as follows. Space It identifies paragraphs the first sentence begins a new line. It is also used to mark a break in discourse. Period (Full Stop)
  18. 18. Full stop identifies they end of a sentence. Sometimes used as a wider space than is usual between words. Some times, it is used to mark abbreviations. Indicates that the text is incomplete. Semi- colon It represents a pure of greater importance. Colon The colon marks a shill complete pause than that expressed by the semicolon. It is an explanation of what precedes it- as in the present sentence. Comma The comma represents the shortest pause. Comma has wide range of uses such as marking a sequence of grammatical units and displays a great deal of personal variation. Parentheses Parentheses ( ) and brackets [ ] used an alternate to commas. It is used in the middle or end of the sentence. Dash
  19. 19. It indicates an immediate stop or change of thought. In informal writing, often replaces other punctuation marls. Inverted commas Inverted commas are used to enclose the exact woods of a speaker, or a quotation, a caution or the special use of a word. The choice of ringlet and double quotes is variable: the latter are more common in handwrite and typed material.
  20. 20. Hyphen A shorter line than the Dash – is used to minute the part of a compound word and to rate the parts of the phrase e.g. in washing – machine. British English during hyper in many context where American English would omit them. Features that convey Meanings Some features are used to convey meanings, regardless in third grammatical context in which they occur. Question Marks Question mark is usually express Question but sometimes found with other functions such as marking silence or uncertainty. Exclamation Marks It is used to express sudden emotion or wish (e.g. Huma! was there). Apostrophe Apostrophe show the omission of a letter or letters and grammatical contractions ( I’m, couldn’t ) found also in certain words (o’clock): subjed to a great deal of usage variation (st. john’s) .
  21. 21. Bibliography Yule, the it story of language. Cambridge university press, U.K, 1996. Chapter. No 2 Crystal, d, Encyclopedia of Language. Lecture, Miss. Rabia A