Semantics Introduction By Riaz

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Semantics Introduction By Riaz

  1. 1. SEMANTICS PRESENTED BY: RIAZ AHMAD SARFRAZ MUNIR CHAUDHARY M.NASIR ASLAM KAHLOWN M.ASIF SALEEM
  2. 2. What is semantics? <ul><li>Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>In semantic analysis there is always an attempt to focus on what the words conventionally mean, rather than on what a speaker might want the words on a particular occasion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conceptual meanings <ul><li>Conceptual meaning covers those basic essential components of meaning which are conveyed by the literal use of a word. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example : Some of the basic components of a word like needle in English might include “ thin sharp steel instrument”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Associative meanings <ul><li>In associative meaning you may have ‘associations’ or ‘connotations’ attached to a word, </li></ul><ul><li>For example : like needle which lead you to think of ‘painful’ whenever you encounter the said word. </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘association’ is not treated as a conceptual meaning of needle. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conceptual vs Associative meaning <ul><li>When linguists investigate the meaning of words in a language they are normally interested in characterizing the conceptual meaning and less concerned with the associative meaning of words. </li></ul><ul><li>However, poets and advertisers are very interested in using terms in such a way that there associative meanings are evoked. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: In the ad of Pepsi “generation next” or in Zong advertisement “sub keh do”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Semantic Features <ul><li>How does semantic approach help us to understand the nature of language? </li></ul><ul><li>It might be helpful as a means of accounting for the ‘ oddness ’ which we experience when we read English sentences such as the follows: </li></ul><ul><li>For example: 1- The hamburger ate the man. 2- My cat studied linguistics. 3- A table was listening to some music. </li></ul><ul><li>Above sentences are syntactically right but semantically odd. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>According to some basic syntactic rules for forming English sentences we have well structured sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>The hamburger ate the man NP V NP </li></ul><ul><li>This sentence is syntactically good, but semantically odd. Since the sentence “The man ate the hamburger” is perfectly acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>The kind of noun which can be subjects of the verb ‘ate’ must denote entities which are capable of eating. </li></ul><ul><li>The noun ‘hamburger’ does not have this property and man has. </li></ul>

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