Morphology Presentation

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Morphology Presentation

  1. 1. Morphology: Processes of Word Formation Presenters: Denise Brilla & Carsten Litterscheidt Session 8 20 December 2005 Reference: Bauer, Laurie. “The Morphological Structure of Words”. Introducing Linguistic Morphology . Edinburgh: EUP, 1988: pp. 19 – 42 Illustration: Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language . 4th ed. Forth Worth, Chicago, San Franciso, et. al.: Holt, Robert and Winston, Inc.: 1988: pp. 122-154 Winter Term 2005/2006 HS: Morphology
  2. 2. Your contribution to our moderation: Please refresh your memory of the following passages: Group 1: circumfixes p. 22 f., 3.1.3 Group 2: infixes p. 23, 3.1.4 Group 3: interfixes p. 23 f., 3.1.5 Group 4: transfixes p. 24 f., 3.1.6 Group 5: base modification: segmental changes p. 26 ff., 3.3 (21) – (24) incl. of text Group 6: base modification: suprasegmental chg. p. 29 f., 3.3 (27) – (28) incl. of text Group 7: subtractive morph p. 32, 3.5 – “…process.” Group 8: endo- vs. exocentric compounding p. 33, 3.6 – p. 36 “…much rice.” Group 9: dvanda compounds p. 36, “Many lges” – “prim. compounds.” Group 10: incorporation p. 36, “These are…” – p. 38 (46) incl. Group 11: neo-classical compounds p. 38, “Compounds…” – end of page Group 12: unique morphs p. 40, 3.8 Your Task: Please summarize briefly (!) the main ideas stated in your passage, and choose one good example to illustrate each phenomenon. Choose one spokesperson to present your findings. Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  3. 3. Affixation … sometimes not as easy as it seems Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  4. 4. Affixation <ul><li>Circumfix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consists of a prefix and a suffix acting together to surround a base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: German past participles of weak verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- film-en  ge-film-t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ‘ to film’ ‘filmed’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- frag-en  ge-frag-t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ‘ to ask’ ‘asked’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- lob-en  ge-lob-t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ‘ to praise’ ‘praised’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- zeig-en  ge-zeig-t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ‘ to show’ ‘shown’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> if considered a single affix, ge…t = discontinuous morph (very rare) </li></ul></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  5. 5. Affixation <ul><li>Infix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>morph inserted into the base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used derivationally OR inflectionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vŏh  v-an-ŏh sulat  s-um-ulat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ know’ ‘wise’ ‘write’ ‘wrote’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(from Chrau, Vietnam) (from Tagalog, Phillippines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> creation of discontinuous base (very rare) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the same word-form, infixes can co-occur with prefixes and suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: sulat ‘write’  base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s- um -ulat ‘wrote’  infixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s- in -ulat ‘was written’  infixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>further preterite passives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i -s- in -ulat second passive theme  infix. + prefixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s- in -ulat- an third passive theme  infix. + suffixation </li></ul></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  6. 6. Affixation <ul><li>Infix: speciality ‘Interfix’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>empty morph (i.e. it does not carry morphemic meaning) which occurs only between two other forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: German compounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auge + Arzt  Auge- n -arzt ‘eye doctor’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bauer + Frau  Bauer- s -frau ‘farmer’s wife’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strauss + Ei  Strauss- en -ei ‘ostrich egg’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geburt + Jahr  Geburt- s -jahr ‘birth year’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English neo-classical compounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electr- o -lyte </li></ul></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  7. 7. Affixation <ul><li>Infix: speciality ‘Transfix’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affix which occurs throughout the base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only appears in the Semitic languages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- roots are created by a concatenation of consonants, they never occur in isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- transfixes, which always consist of vowels, are then added to the root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- each transfix occurs in a fixed position in the root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Egyptian Arabic ktb (‘to write’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>΄ katab ‘he wrote’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>΄ jiktib ‘he will write’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mak ΄ tuub ‘written’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mak ΄ taba ‘bookshops’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ma ΄ kaatib ‘bookshops’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ki ΄ taab ‘book’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>΄ kaatib ‘clerk’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> transfixation involves two sets of discontinuous morphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> thus, transfixes are the most complex type of affix </li></ul></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  8. 8. Internal base modifications <ul><li>involve phonological changes to the base </li></ul><ul><li>are either segmental OR suprasegmental </li></ul><ul><li>segmental modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Consonantal Change: Voicing </li></ul><ul><li>N  V change: mou/  /  mou/  / </li></ul><ul><li>thie/f/  thie/v/ </li></ul><ul><li>sing.  pl. change: mouth/  /  mou/  /s </li></ul><ul><li>hou/s/  hou/z/es </li></ul><ul><li>shel/f/  shel/v/s </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel Mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Umlaut = assimilation to a following vowel, e.g. f/  /t  f/i/t </li></ul><ul><li>Ablaut = any other instance of vowel mutation, e.g. s/  /ng  s/  /ng  s/a/ng </li></ul><ul><li> mostly found in Germanic languages </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  9. 9. Internal base modifications <ul><li>involve phonological changes to the base </li></ul><ul><li>are either segmental OR suprasegmental </li></ul><ul><li>suprasegmental modifications (through superfixes) </li></ul><ul><li>Change of stress pattern </li></ul><ul><li>N  V change: ΄ discount  dis ΄ count </li></ul><ul><li>΄ import  im ΄ port </li></ul><ul><li>΄ insult  in ΄ sult </li></ul><ul><li> also called ‘replacive morphs’ = the replacement of one phonological sequence by another </li></ul><ul><li>similarly: m/  /se  m/   /ce </li></ul><ul><li> controversy: this would redefine the notion of ‘morph’ to include – in addition to form – the notion of process (  replacing a morph) </li></ul><ul><li> other scholars refer to such processes as infixation </li></ul><ul><li> term ‘replacive morph’ predominates </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  10. 10. Subtractive Morphs <ul><li>= morphs which are removed by a morphological process </li></ul><ul><li>In French: subtract the final consonant of the feminine form  masculine form </li></ul><ul><li>Example: mauvaise (f)  mauvaix (m) </li></ul><ul><li> verte (f)  vert (m) </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  11. 11. Compounding I a <ul><li>Endocentric compounds </li></ul><ul><li>denote a sub-class of the items denoted by one of their elements  hyponym of main/head element </li></ul><ul><li>Example: sea-bird </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  12. 12. Compounding I b <ul><li>Exocentric compounds </li></ul><ul><li>denote something which is not a sub-class of either of the elements in the compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Example: egg-head </li></ul><ul><li> sometimes called ‘bahuvrihi compounds’ </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  13. 13. Compounding II <ul><li>‘ Dvanda’ / copulative compounds </li></ul><ul><li>denote an entity made up of the two or more elements mentioned in the compound together </li></ul><ul><li>Example: bleu – blanc – rouge </li></ul><ul><li> I+II = root compounds / primary compounds </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  14. 14. Compounding III <ul><li>Synthetic (or verbal [nexus]) compounds </li></ul><ul><li>head element contains a verb </li></ul><ul><li>Example: dish washer </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation </li></ul><ul><li>= a compound created in this way is itself a verb </li></ul><ul><li>noun in the modifying element has same semantic function as direct object of verb involved </li></ul><ul><li>frequently denote an activity </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Maori ‘hoko rare’ (= lolly-buy) </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  15. 15. Compounding III <ul><li>Neo-classical compounds </li></ul><ul><li>two lexemes involved in their maku up are not English lexemes  Greek, Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Example: biology, geometry </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  16. 16. Unique morphs <ul><li>= only occur in one fixed expression </li></ul><ul><li>bound to a particular collocation </li></ul><ul><li>no own meaning, but make something a subclass </li></ul><ul><li>Example: cranberry </li></ul><ul><li> often called ‘cranberry morphs’ </li></ul>Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  17. 17. Conclusion Bauer: There is a hierarchy of word formation processes. Compounding [norm] Affixation Suffixation other affixation processes Other word formation processes [deviation from norm] Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  18. 18. Summary of previously known processes of word formation Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  19. 19. <ul><li>Suffix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the commonest bound morpheme in all languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used derivationally OR inflectionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constitut-ion-ality talo-i-ssa-an </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ house-pl-in-3rd person possessive’ </li></ul><ul><li>from Finnish: ‘in their houses’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When derivational and inflectional suffixes co-occur in the same word- form, the general rule is that the derivational suffixes precede the inflectional ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: égal -is- a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ equal (V, deriv.)-3rd person sing-past (infl.)’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from French: ‘he/she/it equalised’ </li></ul></ul>Affixation Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  20. 20. <ul><li>Suffix ctd. </li></ul><ul><li>How to mistake plural suffixation via analogy… </li></ul>Affixation Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  21. 21. <ul><li>Prefix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rarer than suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used derivationally OR inflectionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dis-en-tangle a-si-nga-li-jua </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ he-negative-concessive-past-know’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from Swahili: ‘if he had not known’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When derivational and inflectional prefixes co-occur in the same word- form, the general rule is that the inflectional prefix precedes the derivational prefix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: jih ji - mi -langu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ he 3rd person (younger) (infl.)-intransitive (deriv.)-swim’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from Achenese (Sumatra): ‘he swims’ (intransitive use) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the same word-form, prexifes and suffixes can occur in all possible combinations. </li></ul></ul>Affixation Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  22. 22. <ul><li>using some part of (or the whole) base more than once in a word </li></ul><ul><li>far more common in the languages of the world than any affixation process </li></ul><ul><li>base reduplication resembles compounding </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Afrikaans </li></ul><ul><li>dik  dik-dik ‘thick’  ‘very thick’ </li></ul><ul><li>can also form types of affixes </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Motu, Papua New Guinea redupl.: </li></ul><ul><li>mero  me-mero ‘boy’  ‘boys’ prefix </li></ul><ul><li>  meromero  ‘little boy’ whole word </li></ul><ul><li>  memeromemero  ‘little boys’ both </li></ul><ul><li>Maori, New Zealand indigenous language </li></ul><ul><li>aahua  aahua-hua ‘appearance’  ‘resemble’ suffix </li></ul><ul><li>often used iconically, i.e. the form of the word reflects its meaning </li></ul><ul><li> often used to indicate plurality, intensity, and repetition </li></ul><ul><li>usually determined phonologically: a reduplication rule states how much of the base is to be reduplicated in terms of consonants, vowels, syllables, and word-forms </li></ul>Reduplication Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  23. 23. <ul><li>Zero morphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>account for the difference in function between homophonous forms such as sgl-pl / N-V / N-Adj / Adj-V / … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: sheep – sheep / download – to download / a round – round / emtpy – to empty / … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>processes: conversion, zero-derivation, functional shift </li></ul></ul>Relationship with no change of form Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  24. 24. <ul><li>Backformation = derivational process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>case where the element subtracted is / looks like a morpheme with independent existence elsewhere in the language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: pointer, retriever, warbler  point, retrieve, warble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in retrospect, backformation is invisible. Only noticeable when backformation word unfamiliar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clipping = shortening a word without changing its meaning or part of speech, only stylistic change </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: deli(catessen), sci(ence) fi(ction) </li></ul>Cases involving shortening the base Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  25. 25. <ul><li>Blends = portmanteau word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two meanings packed up into one word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overlap  no information is lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: glass + asphalt  glasphalt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acronyms = coined from initial letters of the words in a name, title or phrase  pronounced as a new word </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: NATO, AIDS </li></ul>Alphabet-based formation Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology
  26. 26. <ul><li>roots so completely different </li></ul><ul><li>derived from different words </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be derived by general rules </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: good – better, go – went </li></ul>Suppletion Processes of Word Formation English Studies: Linguistics Winter Term 05/06 HS: Morphology

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