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  1. 1. MORPHOLOGY <ul><li>The science and study of the smallest grammatical units of language </li></ul><ul><li>The science of the formation of words including inflection, derivation, and composition </li></ul><ul><li>The study of the patterns of word-forms </li></ul><ul><li>The study of: </li></ul><ul><li>how the words are formed </li></ul><ul><li>where they originate from </li></ul><ul><li>what their grammatical forms are </li></ul><ul><li>what the function of prefixes and suffixes in the formation of words are </li></ul><ul><li>on what basis the parts of speech of a particular language are formed </li></ul><ul><li>How and why the word forms change </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>The synchronic and diachronic study of the </li></ul><ul><li>Word-forms </li></ul><ul><li>When it is only synchronic, it is termed as morphemics </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological analysis refers to the observation and description of the grammatical elements in a language by studying </li></ul><ul><li>their form and function </li></ul><ul><li>Their phonological variants </li></ul><ul><li>Their distribution and mutual relationships within larger stretches of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological analysis may be synchronic or diachronic or may be both </li></ul>
  3. 3. Morphology is complementary to Syntax <ul><li>Grammar of words </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the internal structure or forms of words </li></ul><ul><li>Refers directly to the forms o words in language system </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar of sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with how the words are patterned into sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the form of the arrangement of words in the phrases and sentences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Words and Morphemes <ul><li>Word: any unit of language that, in writing, appears between spaces or between a space and a hyphen </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with defining the ‘word’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Dinner-table one unit? </li></ul><ul><li>Word is not really a unit of language but an articraft of the writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with pauses: pauses occur often at the end of the phrase, clause and sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Speech with discernable pauses within each word would seem highly abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with defining word as minimum free forms </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Concept of competence </li></ul><ul><li>Role of nonlinguistic factors that interfere with the competence at the time of performance </li></ul><ul><li>The writing system is a way of representing language not language itself </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the word interconnection of both linguistic and nonlinguistic information </li></ul><ul><li>Word: combination of three related concepts </li></ul><ul><li>1- word as pure linguistic unit of competence </li></ul><ul><li>2-word as a unit of performance used in speech </li></ul><ul><li>3- word as a unit of performance used in writing </li></ul><ul><li>The first concept is the most important: It deals with the abstract, unconscious knowledge of the language that makes the other two possible </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic Words can be identified on the basis of uninterruptability and mobility </li></ul>
  6. 6. Morphemes <ul><li>Minimal, distinct, syntactical units of grammatical structure </li></ul><ul><li>The units of ‘lowest’ rank out of which words, the units of next highest rank are composed </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical function </li></ul><ul><li>Semantically different from other phonemically similar or identical linguistic forms </li></ul><ul><li>Not divisible or analyzable into smaller forms </li></ul><ul><li>If try to analyze a morpheme by breaking it up, it loses its identity and is left with meaningless noises </li></ul><ul><li>Morpheme leads us directly into the realm of phonology </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Morphemes may or may not have meaning </li></ul><ul><li>They also may have or may not have phonological representation </li></ul><ul><li>In plural words we have two morphemes in each words: </li></ul><ul><li>The first has a phonological representation </li></ul><ul><li>The second is zero morpheme as it has no phonological representation, and present on at the semantic level not in spelling or pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in Phonological representations: </li></ul><ul><li>As the plural morpheme is pronounced in plural words like cats, dogs, hands /z/ , and in churches, judges, classes /iz/, but no phonetic form in words like sheep, fish etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Then we have completely idiosyncratic forms such as oxen, children, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>It is not always clear whether or not given sound sequence should be considered a morpheme for ex. The word animal </li></ul><ul><li>The word ‘natural has two morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>{nature} {al} </li></ul><ul><li>Then we should regard the word woman as having two morphemes {wo-} {man} or not </li></ul><ul><li>A sound sequence is a morpheme in some words while absent in others as {un} is a morpheme in unnatural, unfaithful etc. but not in under or sun </li></ul><ul><li>A morpheme may be monosyllabic as {man} or polysyllabic as {happy} and {nature} etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Martinet has called a morpheme ‘a grammatical moneme” </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Glosseme’ another synonym of the morpheme </li></ul>
  9. 9. MORPHEMES Free Bound Prefix Initial position Infix Middle position Suffix Final position Derivational Inflectional Bound bases Class-maintaining Class-changing
  10. 10. Free and Bound Morphemes <ul><li>Bound Morphemes: classes that cannot occur alone such as less, un, pre, -up, de-, con-, -er etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Free Morphemes: classes that can occur alone such as dog, cat, yet, but, black, white, free, go etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Free Morphemes: lexical and functional </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical: that carry the content of message </li></ul><ul><li>Functional: serve some function such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Roots and affixes </li></ul><ul><li>Root morpheme is that part of word which is left when all the affixes have been removed </li></ul><ul><li>Roots may be bound or free </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially unlimited in language </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. {Un} {faith} {ful} </li></ul><ul><li>prefix root affix </li></ul><ul><li>All affixes are bound morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>Monomorphemic : The word consisting only free root morpheme ex. Cat, rat, hat etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Polymorphemic : The word consisting more than on root ex. Air-craft, dinner-table etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also called compound words, and can occur with or without affixes </li></ul><ul><li>Roots and affixes may be of any length and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Affixes generally are shorter than the roots </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion of determining the root : Its indivisibility into constituent morphemes by matching its parts with the parts of other words in the language </li></ul><ul><li>Affixes : the recurrent formative morpheme of words other than roots </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Affixes </li></ul>Prefix Infix Suffix <ul><li>Receive, remove, </li></ul><ul><li>Deceive, perform, </li></ul><ul><li>Unfaithful etc. In </li></ul><ul><li>These words re, de, </li></ul><ul><li>per, un all are </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>Affixed before </li></ul><ul><li>the root </li></ul><ul><li>Bound morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>The plural </li></ul><ul><li>formatives –s, -en </li></ul><ul><li>The verb paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>affixes –ing, -d, -ed </li></ul><ul><li>Bound morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>The plural and </li></ul><ul><li>superlative ending of </li></ul><ul><li>The adjectives –er, est </li></ul><ul><li>Other final position </li></ul><ul><li>Formatives such as </li></ul><ul><li>-ness, -less, -ment </li></ul><ul><li>Occur after the </li></ul><ul><li>root </li></ul><ul><li>Infixes are less </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly found </li></ul><ul><li>in English apart </li></ul><ul><li>from </li></ul><ul><li>one mode of </li></ul><ul><li>analysis of plural </li></ul><ul><li>Forms like geese, </li></ul><ul><li>men etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly found in </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodian, </li></ul><ul><li>Sudanese, </li></ul><ul><li>Sanskrit etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Morphs and allomorphs <ul><li>Morph: Any phonetic shape or representation of a phoneme </li></ul><ul><li>The segmentation of words: segments are referred as morphs </li></ul><ul><li>Each morph represents a particular morpheme but each morpheme does not have a morph </li></ul><ul><li>Allomorphs: frequently it happens that a particular morpheme is not represented by the same morph but by different morphs on different environments </li></ul><ul><li>Allomorph is morpheme ‘variant’ or alternant’ </li></ul><ul><li>A class of morphs which are phonemically and semantically identical </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>We can say that an allomorph is a family or class of morphs that are alike in two ways: 1- in the allophones of which they are composed </li></ul><ul><li>2- in the meaning which they have </li></ul><ul><li>Allomorphs are phonemically conditioned as their forms are dependent on their adjacent phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>Or they are morphologically conditioned </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: /-z/ = /-z/ /-s/ /-iz/ / θ / </li></ul><ul><li>They all are the various allomorphs of plural morpheme /-z/ </li></ul><ul><li>The study of allomorphs: halfway between phonology and morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Morphophonology or morphomology </li></ul><ul><li>Morphophonemics </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phonological Conditioning <ul><li>English plural morpheme provides best examples for phonologically conditioned allomorphs </li></ul><ul><li>/-s/ appears with morphs ending in /p, t, k, f, and θ / as k Λ ps, hæts, θ æ η ks, k כ fs etc. </li></ul><ul><li>/-z/ appears with morphs ending in /b, d, g, v, n, l, r, w, y, η , ðm/ as h Λ bs, d כ gz, rimz, gl Λ vz etc. </li></ul><ul><li>/-iz/ appears with morphs ending in /z,⌠, t⌠ etc. as kla: siz, di⌠iz, t⌠ Λ v ⌠iz etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus we find that </li></ul><ul><li>/-s/ appears after morphs ending in voiceless morphemes, except the sibilants and affricates </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>/-z/ appears after morphs ending in voiced morphemes, except the sibilants and affricates </li></ul><ul><li>/-iz/ appears after morphs ending in sibilants and affricates </li></ul><ul><li>Another example of phonological conditioning the past –ed tense </li></ul><ul><li>Represented by three phonological conditioned allomorphs /t/, /d/, /-id/ </li></ul><ul><li>Rule governing their conditioning is as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>/-id/ occurs after morph ending in alveolar stops /t/ and /d/ as in wanted and wedded </li></ul><ul><li>/d/ occurs after voice phonemes except /d/ as in loved, called etc. </li></ul><ul><li>/t/ occurs after voiced phonemes except /t/ as in helped </li></ul>
  18. 18. Morphological conditioning <ul><li>In pairs such as Man-men,. Child-children, deer-deer, the second item contains the plural phoneme </li></ul><ul><li>Each morpheme is referred separately, or, alternatively to their phonemic shapes, and specify the allomorph of the plural morpheme separately for each </li></ul><ul><li>Morphologically conditioned allomorphs of a morpheme are regarded as irregular in contrast to phonologically conditioned </li></ul>
  19. 19. Inflection and derivational morphemes <ul><li>Both are suffixes and bound morphemes following a root </li></ul><ul><li>They are sub-categories of suffixes </li></ul><ul><li>Inflectional: do not allow further affixation of a suffix as in agree/d/ or agree/s/ </li></ul><ul><li>Derivational: allow or may be followed by further affixes as in agree/able/ness/ etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflectional are always final in morpheme and their distribution is regular </li></ul><ul><li>They are ‘terminal’ as their termination never changes </li></ul><ul><li>Derivational may be final in the group they belong to or may be followed by other derivational suffixes or inflectional ones </li></ul><ul><li>They are of limited occurrence and their distribution tends to be arbitrary </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes are always derivationals </li></ul>
  20. 20. Class-maintaining and class-changing derivational suffixes <ul><li>Class-maintaining: that produce a derived form of the same class as the underlying form, they do not change the class of a part of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: boyhood, childhood, kinship etc. produce nouns out of nouns after suffixation </li></ul><ul><li>Class-changing: produce a derived form of another class </li></ul><ul><li>EX: teacher, boyish, national, development etc. we see the verb becomes a noun, noun adjective and so on </li></ul>