General Linguistics By Rabia


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General Linguistics By Rabia

  1. 1. General Linguistics <ul><li>is concerned with the scientific study of a particular language not languages </li></ul><ul><li>provides understanding of the place of language in human life and the ways in which it is organized to fulfill the needs it serves and the functions it performs </li></ul><ul><li>Finds its material both in the languages of world-wide use, long literary traditions, and languages devoid of writing, unknown outside the community </li></ul>General linguistics Descriptive historical comparative
  2. 2. In this sense linguistics focuses <ul><li>To describe and trace the history of all observable languages, tracing history of families of languages and reconstructing the mother language of each family </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the forces that are permanently and universally at work in all languages and to deduce general laws to which all specific historical phenomenon can be reduced </li></ul><ul><li>To delimit and define itself </li></ul><ul><li>To study relationship between the linguistic domain and other subjects </li></ul><ul><li>To provide social psychology with valuable data </li></ul><ul><li>To explain language as norm for all other manifestations of speech </li></ul>
  3. 3. Linguistics and Philology <ul><li>Three stages of language development: Grammar, Philology and comparative philology </li></ul><ul><li>Philology: Love for speech and learning </li></ul><ul><li>PHILOLOGICAL SCHOOL: a scientific movement started by Friedrich August Wolf in 1777 at Alexandria </li></ul><ul><li>Focus solely on written texts in terms of author, literary history, customs, institutions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic was limited only to the comparative studied , linguistic style pecuculiar to an author and deciphering or explaining inscriptions made in an archaic and obscure language </li></ul><ul><li>Third stage “Comparative philology”: began with Franz Bopp’s comparison of Sanskrit with German and Latin with Greek in 1816 </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison was limited only to Indo-European languages </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusively comparative method not historical </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Set of false notions without having any reflection upon the facts of speech </li></ul><ul><li>“ Language’ as a specific sphere, a fourth natural kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison is only a method of reconstructing the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Now refers to the scholarly study of texts and study of culture and civilization through literary documents </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics in its narrowest interpretation concentrates on the formal analysis and description of analysis and its relation with philology can be explained in terms of dealing with meanings within the scope of the field of linguistics </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Range of General Linguistics <ul><li>1- Levels of Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on different types of features of language phenomenon and application of different types of criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Focus must be on two aspects of all utterance: content and expression or form or meaning to understand the formal composition of linguistic units and their relations with the rest of the world outside language </li></ul><ul><li>2- Language and Symbol Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols are special class of signs </li></ul><ul><li>Language is based on Arbitrary principle </li></ul><ul><li>Language itself is able to relate its symbols to every human experience therefore extremely modifiable and extendable </li></ul><ul><li>3- The Origin of Language </li></ul><ul><li>Deals the topic through the possible scientific inferences </li></ul><ul><li>a) Through the study of the acquisition of speech by children </li></ul><ul><li>b) Study of the structures and characteristics of so-called primitive languages </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of human speech from generation to generation to develop human knowledge and experience </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>4- phonetics, phonology, grammar, semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the material of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns with the organs of speech and the movement of articulation, physics of sound transmission and the physiology of hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with neurological processes involved both in speaking or hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Study of graphics or graphonomy or graphetics </li></ul><ul><li>Study of meanings beneath the surface; semantics and pragmatics </li></ul><ul><li>Formal patterning and arrangement of structures and units </li></ul><ul><li>Studies morphology and syntax </li></ul>
  7. 7. Implication of term Science <ul><li>Deals with the specific body of material, namely spoken and written language </li></ul><ul><li>Proceeds by operations that can be publicly communicated, described and justified by reference to stable principles and to a theory capable of formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the material and making of general statements </li></ul><ul><li>Guided by Three Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustiveness, the adequate treatment of all the relevant material </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency, the absence of contradiction between various parts of total statement and within the limits and scope of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Economy, a shorter statement or analysis employing fewer terms is to be preferred </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Unlike science which speaks only about a specific topic, linguistics is about the refinement and elaboration of the language habits in relation to the world </li></ul><ul><li>It both uses language and has language as its subject matter </li></ul>
  9. 9. Practical Scientific Applications <ul><li>Covers both actual techniques of teaching and the production of text books differ from the descriptions of language </li></ul><ul><li>Practical analysis and findings in relation to second language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the practical problems of automatic machine translation </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation of techniques connected to with the use of language </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of the power-language phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Application of linguistics to other activities, known as applied linguistics </li></ul>