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Culture Wiki


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Culture Wiki

  1. 1. The first masterpieces in two styles of sculpture were produced in 5 B.C.E. by the Africans. The first style is classical realism. The first masterpieces in two styles of sculpture were produced in 5 B.C.E. by the Africans. The first style is classical realism. The second is the sculpture of Africa, which twists and deforms human features and limbs in a dramatically expressive way. This forms the largest part of primitive art. The sculpture of Africa can be found in the Nok culture-named for the village in Nigeria where pottery figures of this form were first discovered. The African masks in this tradition inspire Picasso's experiments with Cubism, which establish the mainstream of modern art. Classical Realism Sculpture of Africa
  2. 2. Figures in terracotta are the longest surviving tradition of African sculpture, and they date back to the Nok sculptures. The discovered figures date back to the time of the first cast-metal sculptures in the same region. Terracotta figures in Africa continue to be made in traditional style, contemporary to carved wood sculptures of modern times. The African tribal art styles do not change over time, and therefore these sculptures are all similar to the sculptures created centuries ago by African ancestors.
  3. 3. From the 12th century C.E., cast-metal sculptures have been made by the people of Ife and Benin with the use of brass and pure copper. With these elements, life-sized masks and heads and smaller full-lengthed figures are made. Benin sculptors eventually took up the task of creating brass plaques with scenes in relief. These plaques are nailed to pillars of the royal palace as decorations.
  4. 4. African wood-carving began in the 19th century and is still performed today. Tribal carving is done for a particular purpose: to create a figure representing an ancestor that is destined to stand in a shrine, to make a mask with the sole intention of being used by a shaman once a year in a special dance, to create a post to hang a chief's verandah or to form part of a palisade around his house, to make an elaborate chair for an important person to rest on.
  5. 5. African tribal art portrays true imagination. The basic subject of the art is the human body. Although parts of the body may be more focused on than others in the sculptures, the strong design of the sculpture maintains the balance of the parts. African tribal art teaches us that the human body can be distorted in so many ways that new creatures can be formed through the imagination.
  6. 6. Columns: The Greeks developed 3 types of architectural orders the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns. Doric: The Doric column has a sturdy build and a plain capital (top.) In Ancient Greece, this style was used in mainland Greece and in the southern colonies in Italy and Sicily. Among the structures that have been built with this style of order is the Parthenon, a Greek temple that is located on the Acropolis in Athens that is dedicated to Athena, the Roman Goddess of wisdom.
  7. 7. Ionic: The Ionic column is thinner than the Doric column and is designed elegantly. Its capital is decorated with a volute, a scroll-like design. This style was used in Eastern Greece and in the Greek islands. The Ionic column was used in the Erechtheum, a temple that was built on the Acropolis of Athens, the Temple of Apollo at Didyma, and the Temple of Athena Nike. The Temple of Erechtheum Athena Nike Temple of Apollo at Didyma
  8. 8. Corinthian: The Corinthian column, solely used in the Greek world, was often part of the structures of the Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves. The most notable Corinthian temples are the Temple of Zeus at Athens, the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, and the Temple of Apollo at Bassae. The Temple of Zeus at Athens
  9. 9. Mycenaean age art included curvilinear designs and naturalistic representations. Human and animal life were presented in schematized and formal forms. Geometric period (900-700 BCE) contained pottery that is characterized by two- dimensional stylized patterns that bear little relation to nature. Between 700 and 600 BCE, Asian influence encouraged the use of floral and arabesque designs and the adoption of Asian monster and animal themes. Geometric Age Pottery Mycenaean Art
  10. 10. During the Archaic Period (600-480 BCE,) sculpture emerged as a principal form of artistic expression. This period began the kouroi, fantastic statues of nude walking youths, which may have formed from Egyptian influence, and draped female sculpture, which may have come from Middle Eastern influence. Vase painters painted mythological scenes and scenes from the modern life. Three-dimensional space and naturalistic detail was formed through the creation of the red-figured style of vase painting. Vases of the Archaic Period Kouroi Draped female sculpture
  11. 11. In the Early Classical Period (480-450 BCE,) a perfect balance between verisimilitude and abstraction began as artists perfected their form of artistic expression. A remarkable sculpture of this time is from the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Marble figures from pediments became popular and gave a new insight into the structure of the human body. During the Golden Age (450-400 BCE,) the idea that human character is the expression of a divine system representing a rational ethic and reality became important. Therefore, sculptors created sculptures based on a rational ideal human figure. These sculptures were found in the Parthenon, the Erechtheum, and the Nike Balustrade. The Nike Balustrade Sculptures at the Parthenon Sculptures from the temple of Zeus at Olympia
  12. 12. The Late Classical Period (400-300 BCE) brought an increased emphasis on the expression of emotion in art. Sculptures from this time are characterized by elegance of proportion and graceful beauty. In the style of Scopas, powerful emotional effects are common. Lysippos brought a new feeling for individualization and three-dimensional movement. They style of the sculptors of this time is influenced by fragments and Roman copies. The Hellenistic Period was the last great phase of Greek art. Masterpieces of this time include the Nike of Samothrace, Aphrodite of Melos, and the Pergamum Frieze. Minor arts of this period were often terra-cotta figurines. Heightening spatial illusionism are revealed in sculpture and painting. Pergamum Sculpture Frieze by Scopas Sculpture by Lysippos Nike of Samothrace
  13. 13. Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) is a famous Mexican painter who makes colorful art with a larger-than- life appearance. Unlike the work of her contemporary artists, Kahlo did not do murals or work on mass- printed graphics; rather, she worked in mediums that could not spread easily. Kahlo’s work combines dreamlike imagery with reality. Her paintings have similar characteristics to those of traditional Mexican devotional paintings. Kahlo’s works are small paintings with great details and sometimes include text. “Viva La Vida”: Kahlo’s final painting “El abrazo amoroso” Self-Portrait: Between the borderline of Mexico & the United States
  14. 14. Fernando Botero (born in 1932) is a Colombian artist whose works are primarily focus on situational portraiture. His other works also include still-lifes and landscapes. Botero’s portraits often show life in an enlarged way, as both human and animal bodies are given exaggerated proportions. Botero is an abstract artist whose works have details based on visual thinking. Picasso and the Nonconformity of Art Botero’s take on Mona Lisa
  15. 15. Carmen Lomas Garza was born and raised in a town in Texas, right near the Mexican border. She has been following her dream of being an artist since she was a little girl and has worked with oil, acrylics, lithographs, and papel picado-Mexican paper-cutting. Garza is not only an artist and continues to work as an illustrator, art director, curator, and writer. In her first book, Family Pictures/Cuadros de Familia, Garza describes her childhood experiences and with each picture comes a story about the family event or tradition being displayed. “Sandia” (Watermelon) “Quinceañera” “Cakewalk”
  16. 16. A very significant form of Israeli art is paper cutting. Paper cutting dates back to the 14th century. However, it has become less common since the Holocaust. Today, we have the famous artwork of Dena Levie to look at for the influence of paper cutting. A Ketuba, a marriage license, with a Chuppa at its bottom and Jerusalem at its top A family tree with Jerusalem at its roots
  17. 17. Safed is the central city of art in Israel. Many of the art galleries of the country are found in Safed. The artists’ colony established in Safed’s Old City has been a center for creativity and has drawn many artists from around Israel, including Yosl Bergner, Moshe Castel, and Menachem Shemi. Moshe Castel: “The Resting Gardener” Menachem Shemi: “Carob Tree” Yosl Bergner: “Destination X”