A Digital Geography ofHispanic Baroque Art Juan Luis Suárez, Fernando Sancho, Javier de la Rosa firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
OverviewConceptual ProblemsSource of dataMethodologyElements for a Digital Geography of the Hispanic Baroque:Cultural Communities; Semantic Maps; CulturalAreas;Diversity; FlowsConclusions and Further Research
Conceptual Problems: Toward a Geography of Art• In Toward a Geography of Art, Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann, stated that his research would “investigate how notions of place, of the geographical, have been inflected into writing about change through time as it has been and is still discussed in art history” (DaCosta 2004).• The Catalogue of the 2010-2011 international exhibition Painting of the Kingdoms: • political geography and artistic geography do not coincide as countries, viceroyalties, native areas, and notions of center and periphery superpose one another in different research works and cataloguing efforts. • the need of a theory of diffusion that help explain the movements of creators, paintings and features from territory to territory and the effects that this transfers have in the spatial organization of art that experts carry out.• Painting of the Kingdoms: Elliott, Da Costa, GutiérrezHaces, Brown
Space and Cultural Complexity• The Hispanic Baroque: Cultural Complexity • diverse agents, connectivity, non-linear and meaningful interactions, adaptive and rule based behaviors • self-organization, emergence levels, phase transitions, large events, novelty, path- dependence• Culture defined as information that affects humans‟ behavior and represented here by the case of Hispanic Baroque paintings• We argue that the study of large-scale cultural systems such as the Hispanic Baroque is better tackled by a combination of tools and concepts that deal with the complex and evolving nature of the system and can be studied it through multi-scale, data mining and visualization techniques that reduce that complexity to a minimum, offering new ways of arranging the space in which that system unfolded over time.
The “Lived Spaces” of Hispanic Baroque Paintings• “Spatiality [i.e. Socially produced space] is a substantiated and recognizable social product, part of a „second nature‟, [the transformed and socially concretized spatiality arising from the application of purposeful human labor] which incorporates as it socializes and transforms both physical and psychological spaces.” (Soja 1996)• The Lived Spaces of Art as Third Spaces of Cultural Transitions • Multiple power structures • Localities over time • Activation of cultural works• New Localities, New Meanings, New Representations • The Digital and The Complex: discovery and representation
A Digital Geography of Hispanic Baroque Art• A Digital Geography of Artencompasses the various possible organizations of the place of art (the “lived spaces”) by digital means in a manner that relates different types of connected data about authors and artworks to different notions of space, and to a variety of problems about human culture.
Source of Data• Classical Relational Database• Web based interface: http://baroqueart.cultureplex.ca ~ 100,000 topics ~ 13,000 artworks (16th-19th century) ~ 1,500 creators ~ 400 series ~ 200 schools ~ 2,500 geographical locations ~ 75,000 atomic descriptions
MethodologyFocus on descriptors, artworks, and authorsUsing descriptors, give a similarity measure between artworks...o ... allowing to classify artworks on similarity classeso ... (duality) and obtaining relations for descriptorsAnalyze the evolution of these classes over time, and indifferent spaces
Elements for a Digital Geography of the Hispanic Baroque Cultural Communities Semantic Maps Cultural Areas Diversity Flows
Cultural Communities: Clustering & Visualizations (Raw Graphs)• Layout algorithms (Gephi): Philogeny3D, OpenOrd, YifanHu& Force Atlas• Analysis of modularity classes: Only those that represent at least 1% of the total nodes• Connectivity filtering: Degree range > 4 •Culture as distribution of information in a group• Partition and colouring (Sperber&Hirschfeld, 2004) •Koiné as leveler in New Spain painting (GutiérrezHaces 2008)
Cultural Communities:Clustering & Visualizations (Raw Graphs) http://zoom.it/vJVw#full
Semantic Maps vs Genres•Franco Moretti (Graphs, Maps, Trees, 14) says that genres are “temporarystructures”, “morphological arrangements that last in time, but always onlyfor some time”.•They look at the same time toward History and Form: we propose that themost efficient way to represent them is through a semantic organization thatincludes the features in a such a dynamic way that gets the best of anontology that lives in a graph.•The Catalogue of Paintings of the Kingdoms: • how to measure shared identities • how to compare schools, authors, features • how to track trajectories and flows
Semantic Maps vsGenres:Clustering & Visualizations• Using main descriptors (more frequent and/or by types): Religious, Civil, Portrait, Saint, Virgin & Christ• Project similarity classes in a 2D space using an MDS-like algorithm• For every descriptor, create a potential surface using the elements of the above- mentioned distribution as focal points• Establish a threshold to bound the surface for each descriptor
Cultural Areas• A cultural areais a virtual or concrete space organized through the same information technology and a flow of common culture shared in different degrees by a population.
Cultural Areas and Similarities:1550-1650 1650-1750 1750-1850
Cultural Areas as “Territorial Insertions”“territorial insertions […] do not necessarily entail subsumption underexclusive state authority because they are predicated on specificdenationalization in laws and policy in the service of a global regime”(Sassen, 2006, 418)“[these processes of globalization] are multisided, transboundary networks andformations which can include normative orders; they connect subnational or„national‟ processes, institutions and actors, but not necessarily through the formalinterstate system” (Sassen, 2006, 3) • Mexico, Peru and Spain, as countries • Different Territories • New Spain and Peru as Viceroyalties
Cultural Areas and Territories: Mexico 1750-1775
Cultural Areas and Territories: Oaxaca 1750-1775
Cultural Areas and Viceroyalties: New Spain and Peru 1550-1650 NewSpainandPeru Peru (withoutAnonymous, specialattentiontoBitti)
Diversity• Bar-Yam: local variety and the appropriate scale to study a problem• Diversity and complexity (Scott Page)• Contexts of Art History: creation, change and diffusion
Diversity: Cultural Areas and Creators 1550-1650
Diversity: Cultural Areas and Creators 1650-1750
Diversity: Cultural Areas and Creators 1750-1850
Diversity and Search Quispe Tito, 1625-1650 (10.3%)
Diversity and Search Quispe Tito, 1625-1650 (10.3%); withlabels
Flows• From Braudel to David Christian• Origin and Present Locations of Hispanic Baroque Painting• The Sack of Latin America (Báez)?, New Colonialism? or Where Does Art Belong?• Museums of the 20th Century • A new History of Art • The Locality of Art and Postmodern Geographies
Flows and Transmission• “The Baroque means many different things even across the visual cultures of western Europe, depending on the date and the character of the work of art under consideration. There is no convincing Baroque Zeitgeist, in the fullest sense, argued by the great cultural historian Jakob Burckhardt, nor does Wölfflin‟s model of the Baroque —as a reaction against Renaissance— always apply. We present the Baroque as a complex stage in the development of the post- Renaissance classical language of design and we explore it through themes such as assemblage and synthesis, the visual exploration of the physical space, the illusion of movement and naturalistic ornament. Common to nearly all the works of art discussed is that they result from the transmission of people, ideas, motifs or materials” (emphasis ours).Nigel Llewellyn in Michael Snodin and Nigel Llewellyn, eds. Baroque 1620-1800. Style in the Age of Magnificence. London V & A Publishing, 2009 (20).
Flows and Cultural Transfers:Brown‟s Triptych of Spanish Baroque Painting• The Spanish Monarchy as a Cultural Area: • Low Countries & Italy / Spain / Mexico (New Spain) / Peru 1650-1750 1750-1850 1550-1650
Flows and Cultural Transfers:Brown‟s Triptych of Spanish Baroque Painting
Conclusions and Further Work Enrich the descriptors annotation to address more specific questions on subsets of artworks (add iconography) Improve the Similarity Measures Extend Semantic Maps to Evolutionary Semantic Maps Use Formal Concept Analysis for semantic classification
Thank you! Questions?Juan Luis Suárez, Fernando Sancho, Javier de la Rosa email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com CulturePlex Lab: http://www.cultureplex.ca