The Monroe Doctrine was an Americandiplomatic decision which greatly inf luenced theworld and the way it has developed to present day. Itwas a policy initiated by President James Monroewhich aimed to limit European expansion into theWestern Hemisphere. Monroe proclaimed, "theAmerican continents, by the free and independentcondition which they have assumed and maintain, arehenceforth not to be considered as subjects for futurecolonization by any European powers.“ The USaccepted the responsibility of being the protector ofindependent Western nations and affirmed that itwould steer clear of European affairs.
The monroe doctrine is the declaration byPresident James Monroe, on december 2. 1823 thatconsisted in the United States would not tolerate aEuropean nation colonizing independent nation inNorth or South America. Any such intervention wouldbe considered a hostilc act by United States. ThoughUnited States would respect existing Europeancolonies in Western Hemisphere.
The original thrust of the Monroe Doctrine was todiscourage Europeans from attempting to assertcontrol over Spanish colonies. The British supportedthe United States doctrine, which ultimately promotedtheir domination of shipping in the Atlantic Ocean.Although Latin America was the principal object of theMonroe Doctrine, the immediate cause for thedeclaration of the Monroe Doctrine was a Russianattempt to limit access to the northwestern region ofNorth America.
The most important causes of the declaration of Monroe Doctrine:1. Prevent any attempt of settling or recovery of the colonies in Western Hemisphere. In the message we read: “… the American Continent, for the free and independent condition that they have assumed and they support, they will not be considered to be in forward subjects to future settling”.2. To make clearly established so called “doctrine of both spheres” and the warning to Europe of which it is kept inside his sphere”.
Latin America According to the United States state deparment, theessence of the Monroe doctrine was based on threeprinciples: separate spheres of influenced for Europe and TheAmericas, non-intervention and non-colonization. The declaration stated that United States would notinterfere in European affairs and it expected that Europewould not become involved anywhere in SouthAmerica, with the exception of colonies still under Europeanjurisdiction.
Do not creat new colonies in America, all the American countries are free and independent and they can not be subject to European domination. The intervention of Europe can not exist in the internal affairs of the American countries. US would not intervene in conflicts relating to European countries, such as the wars and colonies.
The most important consecuence was the creationof the both spheres theory, since its creation theybegan to talk about the doctrine of "America for theAmericans" or rather sacastically "America for theNorth-Americans". It indicated the birth of diplomacyproperly North-American, proof from the capture ofconscience inmediatelly later of the revolutionaryevents. It managed to stop a double threat: The one ofthe Russians thar were trying to spread each othe overthe coast of the Pacific and to exclude all the foreingships to the north and the one of the Holly Alliances’
powers capable to help Spain with its Americanspossesions. The doctrine was recieved with enthusiasm in theUSA but in Europe it caused certainexasperation, because since diverse historians haveproved Europe did not have any intentions ofintervening in the Spanish America. The real historyof the doctrine began in the 19th century.
Back in 1823, U.S. President James Monroe, in anaddress to his country’s Congress, argued that theAmericas should be free of European intervention, andthat if a European power should try to interfere in orfurther colonize states in the Westernhemisphere, then the U.S. would have no choice but tointervene. This sealed U.S. hegemony over thecontinent and marked an isolation from Europeanaffairs (or problems, as they were mainly seen).
The Monroe Doctrine continued to dominate theU.S. vision throughout the Cold War, as it couldn’t risklosing its hegemony, let alone having socialistuprisings in its "backyard." Scholars argue that theMonroe Doctrine is no more, as the post-Cold Warera, without a "red scare," doesn’t require interventionin Latin America and the Caribbean. In fact, U.S.attention has shifted almost completely to the MiddleEast and the fight against terrorism, reinforcingMichael Reid’s term "the forgotten continent": LatinAmerica and the Caribbean now holds nothing ofparticular interest.