The Reformation

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The Reformation

  1. 1. The Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation was the European Christian reform movement that began in 1517 when a German monk, Martin Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses.
  2. 2. • The Protestant Reformation began as an attempt to reform (fix) the Catholic Church, because of perceived false teachings and malpractice that some Christians saw as evidence of the corruption of the Church’s hierarchy, which included the Pope. Why the need to reform?
  3. 3. Can you explain the need to reform?
  4. 4. • The Protestant Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church, because of perceived false teachings and malpractice that some Christians saw as evidence of the corruption of the Church’s hierarchy, which included the Pope. Why the need to reform?
  5. 5. Others sharply criticized the Church for some of its practices. Popes seemed more concerned with luxury and political power than with spiritual matters. Why the need to reform?
  6. 6. Why the need to reform? Following the years of the black plague in Europe, people became more suspicious of the Church and its power although they never doubted their faith.
  7. 7. Why the need to reform? As a result of the Renaissance, a new perspective on the world, spreading knowledge and education encouraged people to challenge authority, not just accept what was told to them.
  8. 8. •Biblical teachings contradicted science •The sale of indulgences was immoral & corrupt •The practice of simony was immoral & corrupt Why the need for reform?
  9. 9. Biblical Teachings •The printing press allowed for the publication of the bible in many vernaculars and for the first time in hundreds of years, average people could read the bible. To their surprise, much of what had always been taught to them was not the truth.
  10. 10. •An indulgence was a guarantee of forgiveness. By paying money to the Church, people thought they could win salvation. What are Indulgences?
  11. 11. •The selling and buying of Church jobs What is Simony?
  12. 12. Can you explain ways in which the church was corrupt?
  13. 13. Who was Martin Luther? Martin Luther was a German Monk who openly challenged the practice of indulgences and was the first to publicly challenge church wrongdoings. He posted a written protest called the 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral in Germany, for all to read.
  14. 14. Eventually his words were printed (using the new printing press) and spread throughout Germany. This was the beginning of the Reformation movement. Who was Martin Luther?
  15. 15. In 1524, peasants in Germany hoped to use Luther’s ideas about Christian freedom to change society. Goal of the Revolution
  16. 16. Goal of the Revolution Politically, German princes hoped the revolution would weaken the power of Catholic Church and help them escape the rule of the Pope. This would make Monarchies (King’s governments) stronger.
  17. 17. What Happened? A split between members of society saw some join forces with Luther (Protestants… which came to mean “Christians who belonged to non- Catholic churches”) while others remained loyal to the Pope. War eventually broke out between Catholic and Protestant forces in Germany.
  18. 18. Can you explain the importance of what Martin Luther did?
  19. 19. Calvinism In 1530, the Protestant movement gave way to the teachings of John Calvin. Calvin wrote an important book that gave structure to Protestant beliefs. He taught that people are sinful by nature.
  20. 20. Calvinism which too was a religion for “Christians who belonged to non-Catholic church”) taught predestination, the idea that God determines beforehand (He has pre-determined,) who will be saved.. Calvinism
  21. 21. Do you understand predestination?
  22. 22. The Catholic Church’s Response As Protestant churches grew all over Europe, the Catholic Church took steps to change itself. This was called the Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation.
  23. 23. The Catholic Church’s Response One Catholic reformer was Ignatius (later St. Ignatius) who founded a new group in the Catholic Church based on deep devotion to Jesus. Members of this group, were called the Jesuits.
  24. 24. The Jesuits… •started schools across Europe •they sent missionaries to convert people to Catholicism •tried to stop the spread of Protestantism This was called the Counter-Reformation Movement The Catholic Church’s Response
  25. 25. Do you understand how the counter reformation tried saved the Catholicism?
  26. 26. Legacy of the Reformation In the wake of the movement, Protestant churches flourished but… •the Catholic Church became more unified •there was an overall decline in the authority of the church. •individual monarchs/Kings and nations gained greater power.

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