Chapter 22


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Chapter 22

  1. 1. Life and Works<br />of<br />Dr. Jose P. Rizal<br />
  3. 3. Rescue Attempts by the Katipunan<br />Katipunan - a secret revolutionary society founded by Andres Bonifacio<br />Dr. PioValenzuela - secret emmisary of Katipunan to Dapitan<br />
  4. 4. Last trip to Spain<br />For 26 days (August 6-September,1896) Rizal stayed on board the Castilla<br />August 26 - Bonifacio and the Filipino patriots raised the “Cry of Balintawak” <br />August 29 - Katipunan plot to rise in arms against Spain was discovered by Father Mariano Gil (Augustinian parish priest of Tondo)<br />
  5. 5. August 30 - he receive a letter from Governor Blanco wishing him “happiness” and two additional letter of recommendation for the Ministry of War (General Marcelo de Azcarraga, Philippine born Spaniard) and the Ministry of Colonies<br />September 3, 1896 - left Spain on board the steamer Isla de Panay<br />
  6. 6. Rizal in Singapore<br />September 7 - streamer reached Singapore, a British colony<br />Don Pedro Roxas and his son Periquin get off the ship<br />
  7. 7. Arrest and Imprisonment<br />September 30- Rizal was placed under arrest by the ship skipper, Captain A. Alemany, upon the telegraphic orders from Manila<br />October 13- Isla de Panay arrived at Barcelona, Feast Day of St. Francis de Assisi<br />General Despujol- the same man who banished him to Dapitan now military Commander of Cataluña <br />Montjuich Castle<br />
  8. 8. Unsuccessful Rescue in Singapore<br />Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto Lopez dispatch frantic telegrams<br />Mr. Fort- English lawyer<br /> The crux of Mr. Font’s legal contention was Rizal was “illegally detained” on the Spanish steamer<br />
  9. 9. Back to Manila<br />November 3- the steamer Colon arrived in Manila<br />Incommunicado<br />Tortured:<br /> *Deodato Arellano *Domingo Franco<br /> *Dr. Pio Valenzuela *TimoteoPaez<br /> *Moises Salvador <br />*Pacino(cruelly tortured)<br /> *Jose Dizon<br />
  10. 10. Preliminary Investigation<br />Judge Advocate, Colonel Francisco Olive<br />2 kinds of evidence<br /> * documentary<br /> * testimonial<br />Documentary evidence<br /> 15 exhibits<br />
  11. 11. Testimonial evidence<br /> *Martin Constantino *Domingo Franco<br /> *Aguedo del Rosario *Jose Dizon<br />*AmbrosioSalvador *Jose Reyes<br /> *MoisesSalvador *TimoteoPaez<br />*Pedro Serrano Laktaw<br /> *Deodato Arellano <br />*Dr. PioValenzuela<br />*Antonio Salazar<br /> *Francisco Quison<br />
  12. 12. At the conclusion of the preliminary investigation<br /> Colonel Olive - Governor Blanco- Captain Rafael Dominguez- Don Nicolas de la Peña (opinion)<br />Recommendations:<br /> 1. the accused be brought to trial<br /> 2. he should be kept in prison<br /> 3. an order of attachment be issued against his properties to the amount of 1 M pesos as indemnity<br /> 4. he should be defended in court by an army officer, not by civilian lawyer<br />
  13. 13. Rizal chooses his defender<br />December 8- Feast Day of Immaculate Conception<br /> -a list of 100 first and second lieutenants in the Spanish Army was presented to Rizal<br />Don Luis Taviel de Andrade- 1st lieutenant of the artillery<br /> -familiar<br /> -brother of Jose(Rizal “bodyguard” in Calamba 1887)<br />
  14. 14. Charges Read to Rizal<br />December 11 - to the question asked, Rizal replied:<br /> 1. He did not question the jurisdiction of the court<br /> 2. He had nothing to amend, except that since his deportation to Dapitan in 1892 he had not engaged in politics<br /> 3. He did not admit the charges preffered against him<br /> 4. He did not admit the declaration of the witnesses aginst him<br />
  15. 15. December 13 - the case against Riazal was reffered to Governor Camilo C. de Polavieja, who had just replaced Governor Blanco<br />
  16. 16. Rizal Manifesto to His People<br />December 15 - he wrote a manifesto to his people appealing to them to stop the unnecessary shedding of blood and to achieve their liberties by means of education and industry.<br />It was written in his prison cell at Fort Santiago<br />Judge Advocate Nicolas de la Peñarecommended to Governor Polavieja that the manifesto be surpressed. Accordingly its publication was prohibited.<br />
  17. 17. Rizal’s Saddest Christmas<br />December 26, 1896- he who was accustomed to spend this merry season in the company of his beloved family of dear friends, found himself alone and depressed in a dreary cell.<br />
  18. 18. The trial of Rizal<br />His trial was an eloquent proof of Spanish injustice and misrule<br />December 26, 1896(8:00 am) - the court martial of Rizal started in the military building called Cuartel de España<br />
  19. 19. 7 members of military court:<br /><ul><li>Lt. Col. Jose TogoresArjona (pres)
  20. 20. Capt. Ricardo Muños Arias
  21. 21. Capt. Manuel Reguera
  22. 22. Capt. Santiago Izquierdo
  23. 23. Capt. Braulio Rodriguez Nuñez
  24. 24. Capt. Manuel Diaz Escribano
  25. 25. Capt. Fernando Perez Rodriguez</li></li></ul><li>Also present at the courtroom were Dr. Rizal, Lt. Taviel de Andrade, Capt. Rafael Dominguez (Judge Advocate), Lt. Enrique de Alcocer (Prosecuting Attorney) and the spectator.<br />Among the expectator were Josephine Bracken, a sister of Rizal, some newspapermen, and many Spaniards<br />Rizal was accused of 3 crimes:<br />
  26. 26. 1. rebellion<br /> 2. sedition<br /> 3. illegal association<br />In his preliminary defense, he further proved his innocence by twelve points<br />On the same day, the court decision was submitted to Gov. Polavieja then sought the opinion of Judge advocate Gen. Nicolas de la Peña. The latter affirm the death verdict.<br />
  27. 27. Polavieja signs Rizal’s Execution<br />December 28 - Gov. Polavieja approved the decision of the court martial and ordered the execution of Rizal on December 30th at Bagumbayan Field (Luneta)<br />