Lymphatic & Endocrine systems - Anatomy


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Lymphatic & Endocrine systems - Anatomy

  1. 1. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 1
  2. 2. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM • The system which is responsible for the circulation of the lymph from the tissue spaces (intercellular spaces) to the blood stream. • The lymph is a clear colorless fluid, rich in proteins, which circulates in the lymph vessels. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 2
  3. 3. Lymphatic system consists of 3 parts: • Lymph vessels. • Lymphoid tissues as lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and thymus. • Free cells (lymphocytes). 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 3
  4. 4. Lymph Vessels: • They are closed end fine vessels present in the tissue spaces uniting together to form larger lymph vessels which join the lymph nodes. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 4
  5. 5. • All the lymph vessels in the body are collected into 2 large lymph ducts in the root of the neck, they are: • Thoracic duct drains the left side of head, neck and left upper limb, left half of thorax and whole body below diaphragm. • Right lymphatic duct drains the right side of head and neck, right half of thorax and right upper limb. • The 2 ducts open into 2 large veins present at the root of the neck. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 5
  6. 6. • Lymph Nodes • Lymph nodes are oval or kidney-shaped small bodies situated along the course of lymph vessels. • Lymph node consists of cortex and medulla. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 6
  7. 7. • They are present in groups in special and fixed sites, they are: • At the root of upper limb (in axilla) and root of lower limb (in groin). • In the neck, on both its sides and at its junction with the head. • In the chest, close to trachea and bronchi. • Close to abdominal and pelvic organs. • Around abdominal aorta and blood vessels of pelvis. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 7
  8. 8. • Functions: – Filtration of lymph from bacteria and foreign bodies. – Formation and production of lymphocytes. – They are the sites of interaction between microorganisms (antigens) and phagocytes and lymphocytes (antibodies). So they play an important role in the defense mechanism. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 8
  9. 9. Spleen • Position: It lies in the upper left part of the abdominal cavity, deep to the 9th, 10th and 11th ribs. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 9
  10. 10. • Shape: Wedge-shaped, it has: • Two ends: – Medial (narrow end). – Lateral (broad end). • Two borders: • Upper border: sharp and notched. • Lower border: smooth and rounded. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 10
  11. 11. • Two surfaces: • Diaphragmatic: convex surface related to diaphragm. • Visceral Related to 4 viscera: • • • • a- Stomach. b- Left colic flexure. c- Tail of pancreas. d- Left kidney. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 11
  12. 12. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 12
  13. 13. • A group of ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream. • Pituitary gland: A small gland 1/2 gm in weight which lies in a special fossa in the middle part of the base of the skull, below the brain. • It secretes many hormones which circulate in the blood and control the secretion of all remaining endocrine glands, as: - growth hormone - TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) - ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic hormone). 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 13
  14. 14. • Thyroid gland: Butterfly gland which lies in front of the lower part of larynx and upper part of trachea in the lower part of the neck. • It consists of 2 pyramidalshaped lobes which are connected together by a transverse band called isthmus. • It moves up and down with the movement of larynx during swallowing. • It secretes thyroxin hormone. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 14
  15. 15. • Parathyroid glands: 4 small yellowish glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland • Responsible for secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) which regulates the calcium and phosphorus metabolism. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 15
  16. 16. • Suprarenal glands (Adrenals): Two semilunar or triangular glands present at the upper poles of the kidneys. • Each gland has: - cortex secretes cortisone hormone - medulla secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline hormones. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 16
  17. 17. • Pancreas: A mixed endocrine and exocrine gland which lies transversely on the posterior abdominal wall extending from the duodenum till the spleen. • Its endocrine part is called islets of Langerhans, which secretes insulin and glucagon hormones that regulate the blood glucose level. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 17
  18. 18. • Gonads: Two testis in male and two ovaries in female: – Testes in male secretes testosterone hormone. – Ovary in female secretes oestrogen and progesterone hormones. 11/10/2013 Dr. Abir El Sadik 18