Web 2.0

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Web 2.0

  1. 1. WEB 2.0Christodoulos Tsiambartas
  2. 2. Overview Introduction - What is WEB 2.0  O Reilly definition  Criticism WEB 1.0  Dot com Bubble  Technologies WEB 2.0  Comparison with WEB 1.0 Technology  Design Patterns  Design Features/styles  Technologies and Tools  Successful Web 2.0 Companies  Advantages & Disadvantages WEB 3.0  What is coming next Summary Questions and Discussion References
  3. 3. Introduction – What is WEB 2.0 What do you think WEB 2.0 is ?  Tim O‟Reilly  Definition (2004 Conference) Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.  WEB 2.0 Conferences (SUMMIT)
  4. 4. What is WEB 2.0 (continued) Contradiction meaningless marketing buzzword OR the new conventional wisdom  Buzzword?  Not clear for average user what WEB 2.0 is  People are struggling to understand;  No common architecture  Multiple definitions  Contentious  Attitude not technology  Links back to the original web  Quotes from WEB influencers  Alan Meckler (internet.com): “web 2.0 is just a continuing evolution…”  Gina Bianchini (Ning): “I think it means a lot of different things to a lot of different people”  Biz Stone (twitter): “the public acceptance of the fact that the web is a highly social utility”  Tim Berners-Lee: “nobody even knows what it means”
  5. 5. What is WEB 2.0 (continued)  Conventional wisdom?  Atomization of web  Quotes fromWEB influencers :  Eric Engleman (Bloglines): “it is really about end users”  Max Mancini (ebay): “Atomization of the WEB”  “taking all of the components and making them available for combination in unconsidered way, or in ways that are very individual”  Dorion Carroll (technorati): “its no longer the one-way WEB”  Rodrigo Madanes (Skype): “web 2.0 is the resurgence in web innovation”.
  6. 6. WEB 1.0There was a Web 1.0…if we assume that theres a Web 2.0WEB 1.0 Static pages Source: http://blog.aysoon.com/le-web20-illustre-en-une-seule-image Not interactive Applications are proprietary
  7. 7. WEB 1.0 (continued)Dot com bubble  Existing businesses realized that needed a presence on the internet.  Strived to make money by reaching consumers only over the internet.  Over optimism about e-commerce  Problems dealing direct with customer is the customer: Source: http://www.watblog.com/2008/04/17/the-biggest-bubble-there-ever-was/  Small orders Survivors:  Returns  Amazon.com: it is the middleman  Complaints  Ebay: brings buyers and sellers and  Shipping makes profit from it.  Customer service
  8. 8. WEB 1.0 (continued) Companies significant to the bubble  Boo.com – spent $180 million in online fassion. Went bankrupt in May 2000  Geocities – purchased by Yahoo for $3.57 billion in 1999. Yahoo closed Geocities in 2009.  eToys – share price from $80 (1999) went to $1 (2001)
  9. 9. WEB 1.0 (continued) Technologies (design elements)  Static pages instead of dynamic user-generated content  The use of framesets  Proprietary HTML extensions  Online guestbooks (geocities)  GIF buttons  HTML forms sent via email
  10. 10. WEB 2.0WEB 1.0 vs 2.0 Source: http://oreilly.com/web2/excerpts/web2-architectures/chapter-3.html
  11. 11. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design patterns Collaborative Tagging  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Tagging refers to the ability of users to add “labels” (or tags) to link resources  Synchronized Web  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA)  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source: http://community.bamboosolutions.com/blogs/bambooteamblog/archive/2009/04/15/sharepoint-tag- cloud-web-part-just-released-to-bamboo-labs.aspx
  12. 12. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Synchronized Web In this pattern, multiple applications or users  Synchronized Web share the same state or view of the same state.  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA)  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source: http://www.technobuzz.net/play-free-web-games-online/
  13. 13. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Its an architectural style of building software  Synchronized Web applications that promotes loose coupling between components so that you can reuse them  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA)  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information http://www.w3.org/2003/Talks/0521-hh-wsa/slide5-0.html
  14. 14. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements SaaS  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) delivers computational functionality to users without  Synchronized Web them having to persist the entire application or system  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA) on their computers.  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source: http://www.ekinsystems.com/Home/CloudComputing/tabid/102/Default.aspx
  15. 15. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Persistent Rights Management users retaining their Create, Read,  Synchronized Web Update, Delete (CRUD) rights on every  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA) copy of a digital artefact.  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source:http://help.adobe.com/en_US/livecycle/9.0/rightsMgmtExt2007Help/index .htm?content=000006.html
  16. 16. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements Mashup  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) aggregating content or computational resources from  Synchronized Web multiple sources, and mixing them together to create  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA) something new.  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source:http://webscripts.softpedia.com/scriptScreenshots/Maxmind-and-Google-Maps-Mashup- Screenshots-42943.html
  17. 17. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Rich user experiences a combination of GUI -style (Graphical User  Synchronized Web Interface) applications and multimedia content.  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA)  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source:http://www.thedailyslice.com/tag/consumer-engagement/
  18. 18. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements Participation/Collaboration  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) focuses on self-organizing communities and social  Synchronized Web interactions among Web 2.0 participants.  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA)  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source:http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/qa-focus/documents/briefings/briefing-78/html/
  19. 19. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements Asynchronous Particle Update  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Rather than forcing a complete object (page view)  Synchronized Web update, a smaller part of the whole can be updated  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA) asynchronously.  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source:http://www.rhema-webdesign.com/web/web_technologies
  20. 20. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Social Networking Social networks such as Facebook, where people  Synchronized Web simply “declare” existing social structures  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA)  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update Source:http://events.venturebeat.com/gamesbeat2010/  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source:http://conserveonline.org/workspaces/ZumwaltPrairieWorkspace
  21. 21. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Semantic Web grounding  Synchronized Web It facilitates self-learning, self-healing software, as observing the patterns of interactions can lead to  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA) inferences about the relevancy of semantic  SaaS (cloud computing) declarations.  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding  Structured Information Source:http://www.velvetblues.com/web-development-blog/google-added-ajax-features-to-search/
  22. 22. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design elements  Collaborative Tagging (folksonomy) Structured Information  Synchronized Web The advent of XML and the ability to apply  Single Oriented Architecture (SOA) customized tagging to specific elements  SaaS (cloud computing)  Persistent Rights Management  Mashup  Rich User Experience  Participation/Collaboration  Asynchronous Particle Update  Social Networking  Semantic Web Grounding Source:http://blog.mozilla.com/faaborg/2006/12/13/microformats-part-2-the-fundamental-types/  Structured Information
  23. 23. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Simplicity:  Central layout "Use as few features as are necessary to achieve what you need  Fewer columns to achieve“. Web design is simpler than ever, and thats a good thing. 2.0 design means focused, clean and simple.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections Source:http://intlstore.mozilla.org/index.php?cPath=4  Cute icons  Star flashes
  24. 24. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity  Central layout Central layout:  Fewer columns This "2.0" style is simple, bold and honest. Sites that sit straight front & center feel more simple, bold and honest.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections Source:http://www.etre.com/  Cute icons  Star flashes
  25. 25. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Fewer columns:  Central layout Less is more. Fewer columns feels simpler, bolder, and more  Fewer columns honest. Communicating less information more clearly.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections  Cute icons Source: http://www.apple.com/mac/  Star flashes
  26. 26. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Separate top section:  Central layout This means making the top of the screen (the main branding &  Fewer columns nav area) distinct from the rest (the main content).  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections Source: http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/  Cute icons  Star flashes
  27. 27. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Solid areas of screen real-estate:  Central layout Leading on from the clearly differentiated top area, sites define  Fewer columns the various areas of real-estate boldly and clearly.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Cute icons  Star flashes
  28. 28. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Simple navigation:  Central layout Navigation bar needs to be clearly identifiable as navigation, and  Fewer columns should be easy to interpret, target and select  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Reflections  Cute icons  Star flashes
  29. 29. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Bold logos:  Central layout A clear, bold, strong brand - incorporating attitude, tone of voice,  Fewer columns and first impression - is helped by a bold logo. Strong, bold logos say "This is who we are." in a way that we can  Separate top section believe.  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Reflections  Cute icons  Star flashes
  30. 30. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Bigger text:  Central layout Making things bigger makes them more noticeable than lesser  Fewer columns elements. Not only does big text stand out, but its also more accessible to more people.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections Source: http://37signals.com/  Cute icons  Star flashes
  31. 31. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Bold text introductions:  Central layout They tend to be graphical, rather than regular text. The reason  Fewer columns for this is that designers want a lot of control over the pages visual impact, especially early on in a browsing experience.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections Source: http://37signals.com/  Cute icons  Star flashes
  32. 32. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Strong colours:  Central layout Bright, strong colours draw the eye. When you have a simple, stripped-out design, you can use a bit of intense colour to help  Fewer columns differentiate areas of real-estate and to draw attention to items  Separate top section you want the visitor to notice.  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients  Reflections  Cute icons Source: http://www.colorschemer.com/  Star flashes
  33. 33. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Rich surfaces:  Central layout Realistic surface effects (like drop-shadows, gradients and reflections) help make a visual interface feel more real, solid and  Fewer columns "finished".  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Gradients  Reflections  Cute icons  Star flashes
  34. 34. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Gradients:  Central layout Gradients soften areas that would otherwise be flat colour/tone.  Fewer columns  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Reflections  Cute icons  Star flashes
  35. 35. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Reflections:  Central layout The illusion of reflection is one of the most common applications on gradients.  Fewer columns  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Reflections  Cute icons  Star flashes
  36. 36. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Cute icons:  Central layout Icons play an important role in Web 2.0 design. Today we use fewer, better icons that carry more meaning. Icons can be useful  Fewer columns when theyre easily recognisable and carry a clear meaning.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Reflections  Cute icons  Star flashes
  37. 37. WEB 2.0 (continued) Design features/styles  Simplicity Star flashes:  Central layout These are the star-shaped labels that you see stuck on web pages, alerting you to something important. They work by  Fewer columns evoking price stickers in low-cost stores.  Separate top section  Solid areas of screen real estate  Simple navigation  Bold logos  Bigger text  Bold text introductions  Strong colours  Rich surfaces  Gradients Source: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com  Reflections  Cute icons  Star flashes
  38. 38. WEB 2.0 (continued) Web 2.0 neglecting good design„  Jacob Nielsen: “Web firms neglect the basics of good design, web usability guru” Source:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6653119.stm  Paying attention on good design but not on usability  Web firms rush to create websites, making site less usable  Only few users will make significant use of all tools provided
  39. 39. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools AJAX:  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Client-side scripting means JavaScript. The major advantage to JavaScript is that it doesn’t require page  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) reloading.  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT)  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF) Soutce:http://blogs.microsoft.co.il/blogs/justinangel/archive/2007/12.aspx
  40. 40. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Server-side scripting: Server side scripts give instructions to the computer (the  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) server) that hosts a webpage, instead of using a browser on the user’s desktop. Server side scripts are usually  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) faster than client side ones, and most AJAX programming requires at least some server-side scripts.  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF)
  41. 41. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Hypertext Transfer Protocol: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) used to describe the presentation semantics (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) language.  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF)
  42. 42. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) XUL (XML User Interface Markup Language): XUL relies on multiple existing web standards and web  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) technologies, including CSS, JavaScript, and DOM. Such reliance makes XUL relatively easy to learn for people  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) with a background in web-programming and design.  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF) Source: http://www.peppertop.com/blog/?p=126
  43. 43. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools XML (eXtensible Markup Language): XML’s design goals emphasize simplicity, generality, and  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format, with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) world. Although XML’s design focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) structures, for example in web services.  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF) Source: http://entrecard.com/blog/?p=547
  44. 44. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) documents..  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF) Source: http://docstore.mik.ua/orelly/webprog/dhtml/ch01_06.htm
  45. 45. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Flash Fex: Flex is a highly productive, free open source framework  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) for building and maintaining expressive web applications that deploy consistently on all major browsers, desktops,  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) and operating systems.  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF) Source:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/70/Flexicon.png
  46. 46. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) REST (Representational State Transfer):  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) Representational state transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture for distributed hypermedia systems  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) such as the World Wide Web.  XUL  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF) Source:http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw06/papers/refereed/wright/paper.html
  47. 47. WEB 2.0 (continued) Technologies and Tools  AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Resource Description Framework (RDF)  Server-side scripting (PHP,Perl,Java,Ruby) RDF is a standard model for data interchange on the Web. RDF has features that facilitate data merging even  Stylesheets (CSS & XSLT) if the underlying schemas differ, and it specifically supports the evolution of schemas over time without  XUL requiring all the data consumers to be changed.  XML  DOM  Flash Fex  REST (Representational State Transfer)  Resource Description Framework (RDF) Source: http://renato.iannella.it/paper/rdf-idiot/
  48. 48. WEB 2.0 (continued) Successful e-commerce web 2.0 companies  Amazon.com  Ebay  Google  Facebook  Twitter  Yahoo  Wikipedia
  49. 49. WEB 2.0 (continued) Advantages:  Information can be gathered from multiple sources  Mass population communicates and spreads ideas and information  Personalization to meet the needs of a single user  Greatest communication medium in the world  Broader perspective for viewing events  Creativity
  50. 50. WEB 2.0 (continued) Disadvantages/Issues  Dependence  Bandwidth  Paperless offices (danger)  Sharing sensitive data  Copyrights  Job opportunities  Vandalism  Anonymity  Credibility
  51. 51. WEB 2.0 (continued) How to create a successful WEB 2.0 business:  Simple Business Idea (e.g. Google)  Create and Release as Early as Possible (prototypes)  Use the Network Effect (collaboration, volunteers, feedback)  Track Your Users & Rankings (business statistic, alexa‟s)  Marketing (creative and innovative solutions)  Read about Successful and Unsuccessful e-Companies  Have a Revenue Model(millions of pageviews but no earning)  Continually Improve Your Business and Develop Improvement Metrics
  52. 52. WEB 2.0 (continued) Web 2.0 tools for promoting your business:  Company personality: blogging  Promote events: Facebook/Twitter (eg Obama)  Video : YouTube  Track success: Google Analytics  Professional growth: Meetup  Recruitment tool: LinkedIn
  53. 53. WEB 2.0 The phenomenon of long tail in WEB 2.0  Why The Future of Business is Selling Less of More Source:http://satyamshot.wordpress.com/2009/04/19/the-long-tail-bollywood-hollywood-hits-and-niches-and-much-more/
  54. 54. WEB 3.0 What is coming after 2.0?  Semantic web?  Meaning of data  Openness  Open source API‟s  3D virtual worlds
  55. 55. Summary Web 2.0 is not a technology Web 2.0 is a trend Web 2.0 is a collaboration of web tools Web 2.0 facilitates various technologies to deliver rich user experience Web 2.0 is about read and write Web 2.0 is not all good Web 2.0 is participatory The Machine is US/ing us
  56. 56. Questions and Discussion What do you think about the future of WEB? Is WEB 2.0 a bubble 2.0? What other implications Web 2.0 is causing? What is raw data?  Governments/institutions/organisation to make their data openly available on the web
  57. 57. References1. CASAREZ, V., CRIPE, B., SINI, J. and WECKERLE, P., 2009. Reshaping your business with WEB 2.0. USA: McGraw-Gill2. DIX, A. and COWEN L., BCS: HCI 2.0? Usability meets Web 2.0 [online]. Available: http://www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/ewic_hc07_papaper1.pdf [accessed 20 Feb 2010].3. Governor J., Hinchcliffe D. and Nickull D., 2009 WEB 2.0 Architectures. Canada: O‟Reilly Media, Inc.4. JONES, B. L., 2008. WEB 2.0 Heroes. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc.5. O‟Reilly Media, 2010. Dissecting Web 2.0 Examples: Chapter 3 - Web 2.0 Architectures [online]. Available: http://oreilly.com/web2/excerpts/web2-architectures/chapter-3.html [accessed 21 Feb 2010].6. O‟Reilly Media and TechWeb, 2010. Web2.0 Summit 2009 [online]. Available: http://www.web2summit.com/web2009 [accessed 21 Feb 2010].7. SANKAR, K. and Bouchard A. S., 2009. Enterprise Web 2.0 Fundamentals. Indianapolis: Cisco Systems, Inc.8. Scratchmedia Limited, 2009. Graphic Design for the web [online]. Available: http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com/web-design/[accessed 21 Feb 2010].9. SHUEN, A., 2008. Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide. Canada: O‟Reilly Media, Inc.10. SITEBOAD, 2010. Creating a successful web 2.0 business [online]. Available: http://siteboat.com/creating-a-successful-web-20-business/[accessed 21 Feb 2010].11. SMITH, C., 2010. Web 2.0 (Videos/PPoints) [online]. Available: http://web2videos.blogspot.com/[accessed 20 Feb 2010].12. BLIP NETWORKS., 2010. Web2Expo [online]. Available: http://web2expo.blip.tv/[accessed 21 Feb 2010].

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