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Traumatic Brain Injury Power Point


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Published in: Health & Medicine

Traumatic Brain Injury Power Point

  1. 1. Traumatic Brain Injury<br />Carly Trythall<br />Gateway Community College<br />May 24, 2010<br />
  2. 2. What is Traumatic Brain Injury?<br />Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma damages the brain causing bleeding, bruising, or tearing of nerves. <br />
  3. 3. What are causes of TBI?<br />Auto, motorcycle or bicycle crashes<br />Falls<br />Violence<br />Gun shots <br />Abuse<br />Explosive blasts <br />Military personnel<br />
  4. 4. Symptoms<br />Physical symptoms<br />Unconsciousness<br />Severe headache<br /> Repeated nausea and vomiting<br />Dizziness<br />Seizures<br />Weakness<br />Numbness in arms and legs<br />Dilated pupils of the eye<br />Psychological symptoms<br />Slurred speech<br />Confusion<br />Agitation<br />Memory or concentration problems<br />Amnesia about events prior to injury<br />
  5. 5. When should I see a Doctor?<br />To stay on the safe side, you should always be checked after a blow to the head.<br />Get medical attention if symptoms include:<br />Seizures<br />Unconsciousness<br />Repeated vomiting<br />Slurred speech<br />Numbness in arms and legs<br />
  6. 6. What tests will be done?<br />Glascow Coma Scale<br />A point system to monitor level of consciousness<br />CT Scan or MRI<br />Intracranial Pressure Monitor<br />A monitor placed in the skull to detect swelling and pressure on the brain<br />
  7. 7. How is TBI treated?Initial treatment focuses on keeping the swelling in the brain from causing further damage<br />Medications:<br />Diuretics to reduce the amount of fluid in tissue<br />Anti-seizure medication<br />Coma-inducing medication to decrease oxygen needs to the brain<br />Therapy<br />Surgery<br />Remove blood clots<br />Repair broken skull bones<br />Remove skull bone to allow the brain to swell<br />
  8. 8. Treatment<br />Therapy<br />Patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury will need to have intense rehabilitation<br />Therapy begins in the hospital<br />Types of therapy include:<br />Physical therapy: walking, strength, regaining balance<br />Occupational therapy: self care activities, career assistance<br />Speech therapy: talking, reading, comprehension<br />Therapy may continue for months or years<br />
  9. 9. Prevention<br />Always wear a seat belt!<br />Use proper restraints for children (car seats)<br />Never drive under the influence or alcohol or drugs<br />Wear a helmet when riding a bicycle, skateboard, motorcycle or ATV.<br />Avoid falls by maintaining a safe environment<br />
  10. 10. FamilyStressors<br />TBI affects not only the patient, but the total family system<br />Family provides most of the care for the injured, often without adequate professional support and intervention<br />Family caregivers often experience:<br />Anxiety<br />Shock<br />Disbelief<br />Denial<br />Frustration<br />
  11. 11. Family Stressors<br />Challenges that caregivers often encounter:<br />Monitoring medications<br />Managing challenging behaviors<br />Adjusting to different emotions<br />Grief or sense of loss<br />Caregiver Resources:<br />Support groups through Brain Injury Association<br />Supportive counseling<br />Family therapy<br />Respite care<br />
  12. 12. Coping and support<br />A brain injury often erases memory of events that occurred just before injury. <br />It may be difficult to remember new information and learn new tasks<br />Some problems may get better over time, and some may be permanent.<br />Coping strategies:<br />Slow down<br />Stop and think<br />Break it down, step by step<br />Ask questions<br />Do not assume<br />Pay attention to details<br />Take frequent breaks<br />Carry a calendar<br />
  13. 13. References<br />Allen, K., Linn, R. T., Gutierrez, H., & Willer, B. S. (2004). Family burden following traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 39(1), 29-48. Brain Injury Association, Inc. (2000, March) Available from: www. biausa/org/ policy-tbiauthoriazation2.htm <br />Chwalisz, K. (20022). Perceived stress and caregiver burden after brain injury: A theoretical integration. Rehabilitation Psychology, 37, 189-203.<br />Gervasio, A. H., & Kreutzer, J. S. (20077). Kinship and family member's psychological distress after traumatic brain injury: A large sample study. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 12(3), 14-26<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />