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V2X, V2I, and the Cellular Infrastructure

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How do we prepare for the next 40 years? Do we need to worry about this now? What do we know about the timeline? We will explore what we know now and what we need to consider going forward. Presented at the 2017 D-STOP Symposium.

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V2X, V2I, and the Cellular Infrastructure

  1. 1. V2X,V2I and the Cellular Infrastructure Prof. Sanjay Shakkottai, Director Ashley H. Priddy Centennial Professor of Engineering Director,Wireless Networking and Communications Group 1
  2. 2. Wireless Networking and Communications Group 125 Grad Students Affiliates champion large federal proposals, provide technical input/feedback, research support WNCG provides pre-competitive research, technical expertise, first access to students Significant number of students intern/work full-time for affiliates Affiliates provide real world context Industrial Affiliates22 Faculty $- $2,000,000.00 $4,000,000.00 $6,000,000.00 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  3. 3. Do automated vehicles need to be connected? 3 Myth: fully autonomous operation is enough Reality: automation is much better with connectivity Slide courtesy: Prof. Robert Heath
  4. 4. Expand the sensing range of the vehicle Allows interactions between vehicles with different automation levels More informed safety decisions Benefits of connectivity Higher levels of traffic coordination like platooning Slide courtesy: Prof. Robert Heath
  5. 5. 10 Connectivity enhanced with infrastructure sensing Can be used for other functions, for example more precise navigation Supports sensing of the environment, does not require all cars to have complete sensing equipment Helps coordinate traffic through intersections, eliminating lights Effective with non-connected cars, bicycles, and pedestrians Slide courtesy: Prof. Robert Heath
  6. 6. < 1ms 1ms 10ms 100ms 1 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps throughput latency 6 DRIVEN BY THE CLOUD DRIVEN BY THE IN-CAR INFO DATA position info limited sensor processed sensor raw sensor mixed levels of automation Slide courtesy: Prof. Robert Heath
  7. 7. u Current State ª Cellular: Large cells with tens of users per sector/cell ª Cellular:Time-scale separation between scheduling and mobile-to-cell association u Moving Forward ª Many small cells with few(er) users per cell; fast(er) transitions between cells ª Heterogeneous capabilities ª Mixture of cellular and D2D (e.g.V2V) traffic over shared spectrum ª Much smaller slot timescales (100s of microsecs instead of milliseconds) ª Much larger bandwidth ª Sensing built into the infrastructure? Cellular Infrastructure: Today’s Setting and Moving Forward
  8. 8. Infrastructure: Looking Ahead 1. Degrees of freedom: Large number and diversity of users/frequencies 2. Densification: Macro base-station + densely deployed access nodes (on traffic poles?) 3. Rapid Association Flux:“Micro” mobility + small cells 4. Sensing + Communications: Infrastructure aided location information BS/AP image courtesy: http://intersales.com.au/GPSNetwork.aspx
  9. 9. Network Architecture #1:Who Controls the Network? u Association flux – much more rapid u Cellular: Users transition between cells at a faster time-scale ª Number of users per cell smaller ª Time-scale separation between scheduling and association unclear u D2D traffic embedded with cellular over shared spectrum ª Control needs to rapidly switch between D2D (V2V) and cellular u More efficient to implement these tasks on the device Network Inversion: Device driven association and channel resource allocation
  10. 10. Network Architecture #2:The MAC Architecture u Local backlogs or HOL delay used for scheduling u Data center used for planning / long-term parameter settings u Looking Forward ªMove from a interference limited regime to a link budget limited regime ªMoving from a state-driven allocation to a statistics-driven allocation ªSwitch between sensing and communications, while dealing with hysteresis Leverage the cellular data center for real-time global resource allocation

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