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The Connected Car: Impact on Wireless Communication

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2016 D-STOP Symposium ("Smart Cities") session by FutureWei Technologies of Huawei's Murali Narasimha. Get symposium details: http://ctr.utexas.edu/research/d-stop/education/annual-symposium/

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The Connected Car: Impact on Wireless Communication

  1. 1. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. The Connected Car Impact on Wireless Communication Murali Narasimha Senior Staff Engineer Huawei Technologies
  2. 2. Driving today • Traffic Congestion in the US± › 6.9 billion hours stuck in traffic › Extra 3 billion gallons of fuel • Accidents±± › Over 37,000 people die in road crashes each year in the US (1.3 million worldwide) › Road crashes cost $230.6 billion per year in the US, or about $820 per person per year • Traffic tickets › 78 people get a speeding ticket every minute Congested Roads and Infrastructure that are not keeping up Not much room for (human) driver behavior improvement ±2015 Urban Mobility Scorecard, Texas A&M Transportation Institute ±± Association for Safe International Road Travel
  3. 3. Driving Automation Trends • Semi-autonomous Driving Arrives, Feature by Feature± – Adaptive Cruise control – Emergency braking – Blind spot detection – Lane drift detection – Drowsy driver warning • Commercially available: – “Autopilot” - Tesla – “Pilot Assist” for Traffic jams – Volvo – “Active safety” – Audi – “Super Cruise” – Cadillac – ... ± The New York Times, April 2015
  4. 4. Connecting Cars for Safety and better traffic management “It’s important for safety and functionality that car-makers move to a connected philosophy … It’s kind of odd to have a computing device that’s not connected.” – Elon Musk
  5. 5. Improving Safety – an example Avoiding collision requires: 1. Detecting approaching vehicles, pedestrians 2. Determining likelihood of collision 3. Providing timely message to vehicles of impending collision Sensors (Cameras, Radar etc) and communication equipment needed at or near intersection.
  6. 6. Improving Traffic Flow – an Example • Each vehicle requests permission to enter • Server checks for possible collisions • Accepts if no collisions; rejects otherwise. Illustration from: Autonomous intersection management project, UT Austin
  7. 7. Applications enabled by Connectivity • Seeing through large vehicle • Seeing past curve • Bird’s eye view • Cooperative Collision Avoidance • Automated Overtake Robust communication between vehicles and Infrastructure is needed
  8. 8. Infotainment – Living room on wheels • With or without automation, vehicles increasingly demand high bandwidth communication – Entertainment – Mobile office – Augmented reality
  9. 9. The Infrastructure perspective: What is different about connected cars? • High Data rates and support of high mobility for dense populations of vehicles – Applications demand high data rate (See through, Birds eye view, Infotainment) – Very high proportion of fast moving connected devices that are often densely packed • Need for very short communication latency – Safety applications rely on fast communication to make life saving decisions
  10. 10. Shortcomings of current technologies • Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC)± ±± – CSMA/CA does not perform well when load increases • Cannot guarantee reliability and low latency – Hidden nodes can be a major problem for vehicles moving in urban settings – Difficult to synchronize access points • Results in inter-cell interference – Security and authentication require separate (new) infrastructure • LTE Macro Cellular deployment – Difficult to support consistently high data rates demanded – Difficult to meet communication latency requirements – Precise positioning of vehicles in urban settings is difficult • LTE Proximity Services (ProSe) – Difficult to guarantee reliable connectivity when both end-points can be moving – Insufficient discovery speed to address some scenarios (e.g., vehicles approaching an intersection from different directions in an urban canyon) ±“Novel issues in DSRC Vehicular Communication Radios,” Y. Morgan, IEEE Canadian Review, Spring 2010. ±± “An Overview of the DSRC/WAVE Technology,” Y. Li, DSRC 2010, Huston, TX, USA, November 17-19, 2010.
  11. 11. Connected Cars and 5G • One ring to rule connect them all – 5G will be a wireless technology that supports a wide range of vertical industries
  12. 12. (Chatty) Autonomous Vehicles “The autonomous car doesn't drink, doesn't do drugs, doesn't text while driving, doesn't get road rage. Young, autonomous cars don't want to race other autonomous cars, and they don't go to sleep.” – Bob Lutz, GM. • Communication can enable sharing of sensor and other information (“Seeing with many eyes”) • Communication infrastructure can be placed with transportation infrastructure (e.g., traffic lights) along with sensors (cameras, radar etc) – Less reliance on hard to generate 3D maps – More accurate positioning of vehicles – Reduced sensor burden at vehicles… less $$ – Better traffic flow “… our goal was a vehicle that could shoulder the entire burden of driving. Vehicles that can take anyone from A to B at the push of a button could transform mobility for millions of people, whether by reducing the 94 percent of accidents caused by human error, reclaiming the billions of hours wasted in traffic, or bringing everyday destinations and new opportunities within reach of those who might otherwise be excluded by their inability to drive a car.” – Chris Urmson, Google.
  13. 13. Summary • Automation in driving is already happening – Motivated by improved safety • Fully automated driving with efficient traffic flow management is the holy grail – But automation will occur in phases leading to full automation – Each successive phase needs more communication capabilities • A New generation of Wireless Communications Technologies and Deployments are needed to meet the demands – Deeper integration of communication and transportation infrastructure
  14. 14. Thank You!

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