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Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: The Enabling Technologies


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Just what is that thing on top of the Google Car? What does adaptive cruise control with lane assist mean? When are these things going to be ready? The answer to these questions and more in a technology overview that unravels just how these vehicles are going to work. Presented at the 2017 D-STOP Symposium.

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Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: The Enabling Technologies

  1. 1. Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: The Enabling Technologies The 2017 D-STOP Symposium James Kuhr, Esq. February, 2017
  2. 2. Overview • Definitions • Levels of Autonomy • The Sensor Suite • Semi Autonomous Features • V2X • An Immediate Timeline
  3. 3. Definitions • NHTSA – National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, they are the regulating body for autonomous vehicles • Autonomous – A vehicle that can operate, in some manner, without constant direction from the driver • Connected – A vehicle that can communicate with other vehicles and infrastructure
  4. 4. Levels of Autonomy Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Adaptive Cruise Control Adaptive Cruise Control + Lane Assist Open Road Automated Vehicle Generally Hands Off Driving IncreaseinRoadwaySafety IncreaseinNetwork Effects Level 5
  5. 5. LIDAR Produces a 360 degree 3d model of the surroundings Video Camera Monitors frontward, lane departure and reads traffic signals Radar Monitors surroundings Odometry Sensors Monitors vehicle distance travel and speed GPS Tracks the car location geospatially Ultrasonic Senses at low speeds Internal CPU V2V, V2I Communication Connects with other cars and supporting infrastructure Autonomous Vehicle Technology
  6. 6. ●Ultrasonic ●Short/Long Range Radar ●Lidar ●Camera • Surround View • Digital Side Mirror • Surround View • Park Assistance • Rear View Mirror • Rear Collision Warning • Park Assist • Blind Spot Warning • Cross Traffic Warning• Lane Departure Warning • Traffic Sign Recognition • Cross Traffic Warning • Emergency Braking • Pedestrian Detection • Collision Avoidance • Adaptive Cruise Control • Environment Mapping Car Sensor Suite 1) Traffic-Sign Recognition 2) Obstacle Detection 3) Lane Detection 4) Terrain Mapping 5) Vehicle Detection 6) Oncoming-Vehicle Detection 7) Blind-Spot Monitor 8) Parking-Lot Detection 9) Scene Classification and Tunnel Detection 10)Pedestrian Detection Sensor Requirements
  7. 7. LIDAR
  8. 8. Cameras Radar
  9. 9. GPS GPS position (white box) vs. Google Car Ultrasonic and Odometry CPU
  10. 10. LIDAR vs Camera
  11. 11. US Market Share Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 20% 2016 2021 16% 2016 2021 13% 2016 2020 12% 9% 2016 2020 7% 2016 2018 2020 7% 2016 2020 2030 3% 2016 2020 2% 2016 2017 2021 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 2016 2025 2016 2021 2016 2030 2016 2017 2018 2016 2016 2018 2020 Others: Market Shares
  12. 12. The car will identify the vehicle in front of it and match speeds to maintain a safe following distance (set by the user) while not exceeding a certain speed (also set by the user) Adaptive Cruise Control Automatically adjust speeds in a traffic jam, including braking to a full stop, and handles the steering. Driver must stay alert, but does not have to touch the wheel or pedals. Traffic Jam Assist Alerts the driver when the system detects that the vehicle is about to leave its lane and can automatically correct the steering and keep the car on course Lane Keep Assist The car will detect panicked breaking and apply more pressure to the brakes to stop the car faster. Emergency Brake Assist Automatically parallel parks a car, as long as the gap is 1.2 times the size of the car. Parking Assist Automatically applies the brakes for obstacle avoidance. Auto Braking Semi-autonomous features are safety based – and their incorporation in current models will begin to reduce accidents in the next 5 to 10 years. Conclusion Semi Autonomous Features
  13. 13. • Through use of just V2V BSM to warn drivers, with a mature system, NHTSA studies indicate that up to 79% of unimpaired crashes could be avoided. • Using just a V2I communication system, NHTSA estimates that 26% of unimpaired crashes could be avoided. • Together, NHTSA studies indicate that 81% of all unimpaired crashes could be avoided with a fully mature V2V and V2I system. Benefits V2X Introduction • By 2029, seven years after the projected phase-in of the light vehicle V2V rule, 60% of all vehicles, or a cumulative 146 million cars, will have DSRC/V2X equipment. • Adoption of aftermarket/consumer electronics DSRC devices will outpace factory installed DSRC within five to six years after a NHTSA Light Vehicle V2V rule requiring 100% of all new vehicles to be equipped with V2V. FHWA ITS JPO Prediction
  14. 14. Timelines Technology predictions seem to be coalescing around a 2021 commercial available start-date, but there are still many issues to be resolved
  15. 15. Thank You!