Organizational Paradigms


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Depending on the purpose of your paper, your outline can look like...

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Organizational Paradigms

  1. 1. Organizational Paradigms Huh? Okay, “systems” for organizing your outline. (Better?)
  2. 2. All-Purpose Model <ul><li>Intro: Identify the subject. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide background information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a thesis statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body: Analyze the subject. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine first major issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine second major issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine third major issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Discuss your findings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go beyond restating the thesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide answer, solutions, or a final opinion. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cause and Effect <ul><li>Thesis: Television can have positive effects on a child’s language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence 1: Television introduces new words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence 2: Television reinforces word usage and proper syntax. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence 3: Literary classics come alive verbally on television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence 4: Television provides the subtle rhythms and musical effects of accomplished speakers. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Advancing Your Ideas and Theories <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss its significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide needed background info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intro experts (may use in body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a past-to-present examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare and analyze the details and minor issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cite experts who have addressed the same problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance/defend your theory based on evidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a plan of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest additional work or research. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Argument and Persuasion <ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In one statement, establish the problem the paper will examine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide background information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide thesis that establishes author’s position. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the key terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the issue both pro and con. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make concessions on certain points of the argument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop arguments to support author’s side of subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use quotations and paraphrases to clarify the author’s position. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try “look to the future” or “call to action” closing. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Comparative Study <ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide background information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish A. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish B. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce central issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present thesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice #1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine B </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast A and B. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice #2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare A and B </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast A and B. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the central issues. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice #3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issue #1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss A </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss B </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issue #2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss A </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss B </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issue #3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss A </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss B </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize significant issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose one side over the other and write a conclusion that ranks it such. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Historical Study <ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide historical background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the background leading up to the event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trace events from one historic episode to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer chronological sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaffirm thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss consequences of event/how it changed history. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Point, Illustration, Explanation-- PIE <ul><li>Easier to identify while composing, not after it’s written. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Make a P oint. </li></ul><ul><li>2. I llustrate the point with something from the text. </li></ul><ul><li>3. E xplain how the illustration proves the point. </li></ul><ul><li>Made-up example: </li></ul><ul><li>POINT : Arizona is a great place to live. </li></ul><ul><li>ILLUSTRATION : We can wear shorts in the winter. </li></ul><ul><li>ILLUSTRATION : We can also go outside almost any day of the year without being chilled. </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION : Those are two examples of weather-related reasons why Arizona is a great place. </li></ul>
  9. 9. PIE-I-E <ul><li>The homeless person taking shelter in the boxes is the first symbol of separating the rich from poor. In the picture a person rests within a dirty makeshift cardboard home that is tied to a bench with string and plastic tape. Inside the box lies a new pillow with no pillow case along with a pink towel and a green sheet. The bench is next to a fence that seems to divide the rich and poor. There is garbage on the ground underneath the bench, where it seems to be that the fence represents the separation “trash” from the “wealthy.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Quotation Sandwich <ul><li>Bread —Say where a quotation comes from or who said it </li></ul><ul><li>Filling —Quotation, summary, or paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Bread —Say what this adds to your paper without repeating the quote </li></ul><ul><li>Made-up example: </li></ul><ul><li>BREAD: Plato was speaking to a group of young students one day at his school. </li></ul><ul><li>FILLING: He said, “Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools talk because they have to say something.” </li></ul><ul><li>BREAD: He wanted speakers to think before they spoke. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Quotation Sandwich <ul><li>Example from an actual student paper: </li></ul><ul><li>BREAD : When they were settling into the mansion, she was made to stay in a room that was obviously designed to house small children. </li></ul><ul><li>FILLING : &quot;It was a nursery first, and then a playroom and gymnasium, I should judge, for the windows are barred for little children, and there are rings and things in the walls&quot; (256). </li></ul><ul><li>BREAD : The nursery was an unusual choice since the couple had a baby who most logically should have stayed there. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Balance evidence with your own thinking: Quotation Sandwich My thinking: Kate Chopin crafts her story so that a reader can’t tell for sure how Mrs. Mallard feels. The story is full of conflicts that show Mrs. Mallard’s mixed feelings for her husband. Evidence: On the one hand, she is a sad widow who “went away to her room alone” and sinks into a chair feeling exhausted. On the other hand, as she sits there, she looks out the window and sees treetops “all aquiver with the new spring life” (320). Evidence: The “sparrows twittering in the eaves” and the blue sky my thinking: are both happy images. The busy, lively view seems out of place in this room where a new widow is supposed to be mourning (320). My thinking: Mrs. Mallard must be happy to some degree, or she wouldn’t be noticing the happy images. The contrasts help build suspense for the reader, who asks, does she or doesn’t she love this man?
  13. 13. Reminders <ul><li>Always organize within the essay or paper (remember LATCH). </li></ul><ul><li>The supporting ideas are what make the paper worth reading. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert opinions from research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real world examples (use a fictional character) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics and numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the PIE or Quotation Sandwhich within paragraphs! </li></ul>