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  1. 1. Modifiers Limiting Squinters Misplaced
  2. 2. Modifiers Modifiers are words, phrases and clauses that tell about nouns and verbs. In 7th and 8th grades, we called modifiers adjectives and adverbs —remember?
  3. 3. Modifiers As a general rule, modifiers need to go right next to the word they’re modifying. Often, we move around modifiers to make our sentences sound more dramatic.  We often end up confusing the reader. We wanted our ordeal to end desperately.
  4. 4. LIMITING MODIFIERS Modifiers that limit a word ( in time or amount ) must go directly in front of the word they modify. Limiting modifiers include the follow:ALMOST EVEN HARDLYJUST MERELY NEARLYONLY SCARCELY SIMPLY
  5. 5. LIMITING MODIFIERS Notice how the meaning of the sentence changes with the placement of the modifier:  They just want her to sing this song.  They want just her to sing this song.  They want her just to sing this song.  They want her to sing just this song.
  6. 6. Fix the limiting modifiers bymoving them: I almost ate the whole pie.  I ate almost the whole pie. Rex just died with his boots on.  Rex died with just his boots on. Even we didn’t score once.  We didn’t score even once.
  7. 7. SQUINTING MODIFIERS Squinting modifiers seem to modify two words at one time and can be confusing (and sometimes humorous).  Students who follow directions consistently score well on tests.  Are the students consistently following directions?  Are the students consistently scoring well on the tests?
  8. 8. SQUINTING MODIFIERS To fix the squinter, simply move it next to the word you want it to modify.  Students who consistently follow directions score well on tests.  Students who follow directions score consistently well on tests.  See the difference?
  9. 9. Fix the squinter by placing it correctly: Obese patients who take this medication occasionally may notice a few side effects.  Which makes more sense?  Are the patients taking the medication only occasionally?  Are the patients occasionally noticing side effects from the medication? FIXED: Obese patients who take this medication may occasionally notice a few side effects.
  10. 10. Fix the squinters by placingthem correctly: Students who can type normally are put into an advanced class.  Which makes more sense?  Students that type with their fingers (not toes, hairbrushes or vacuum cleaners) are put in advance classes.  Students that already know how to type are usually in an advanced class. FIXED: Students who can type are normally put into an advanced class.
  11. 11. Fix the squinters by placingthem correctly: The delegate who had seconded the motion quickly left the room.  Which makes more sense?  The delegate seconded the motion with great speed and haste.  The delegate left the room after seconding the motion. FIXED: The delegate who seconded the motion left the room quickly.
  12. 12. Misplaced Modifiers: Misplaced modifiers are often phrases or clauses that are “out of place”. Much like the limiting modifier and the squinter, misplaced modifiers simply need to be moved next to the word they modify.  Quite often, a misplaced modifier is unintentionally humorous.
  13. 13. Misplaced Modifiers: I saw a flock of geese driving to Sioux City yesterday.  When did the DOT allow geese drivers’ licenses?  FIXED: Driving to Sioux City yesterday, I saw a flock of geese. First-time offenders take part in discussions about reckless driving with counselors.  So, the reckless driving offense only happens when the counselors are in the car?  FIXED: First-time offenders take part in discussions with counselors about reckless driving.
  14. 14. Fix the misplaced modifiers: It was reported that the Italian premier had died on the morning newscast.  Imagine—you’re drinking your morning coffee and watching the news. The interviewer is chatting with the Italian premier when all of a sudden, the premier falls over dead. How gruesome is that? FIXED: It was reported on the morning newscast that the Italian premier had died.
  15. 15. Fix the misplaced modifiers: Sue is part owner of a company that makes clothing for women based in Dallas.  Sue isn’t going to stay in business very long if she’s making clothes only for women that live in Dallas. FIXED: Sue is part owner of a company based in Dallas that makes clothing for women.