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Cyclone and Tsunami Risk Mitigation Measures in          India             Presented by     CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. ...
MAJOR DISASTERS     EarthquakeEarthquake,Oct, 2005           (1980-2005)   Uttarkashi,                                  20...
Recent Disasters in India (1990-2005)YEAR       PLACES        &         DISASTER          LOSS OF LIVES   LOSS OF PROPERTY...
India is vulnerable to a large number ofdisasters• Approx. 60% of the landmass is prone to Earthquakes• Approx.12% (About ...
Vulnerability is increasing with• Rising population• Haphazard Urbanization• Developments in High-Risk zones• Environmenta...
Tsunami Damage    CT.Lakshmanan
Tsunami Damage    CT.Lakshmanan
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CONTINUUM                            Disaster                            Strikes            CT.Lakshma...
Disaster Management Cycle                        Organisations Involved   Prevention     Research Institutions (Sponsored...
Disaster Management Cycle                                         Cont.                            Organisations Involved...
Disasters offer a unique opportunity tolearn where we have gone wrong….  Preparedness and Mitigation of Disasters is      ...
Disaster MitigationNatural Hazards cannot be prevented, however with mitigationmeasures the effects/damages could be reduc...
CT.Lakshmanan
Mitigation Measures• Integrated multi-hazard approach(emphasis on cyclone and tsunami risk in coastal areas)• Early warnin...
Mitigation Measures Cont.Structural Mitigation Measures Seawalls and Coral reefs Tsunami breakwaters                   (...
Mitigation Measures Cont.Structural Mitigation Measures   Permanent structures strictly according to BIS codes   Retrofi...
Mitigation Measures Cont.Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Education Public Awareness Information Risk Communication...
Mitigation Measures Cont.Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Coastal regulations Zone Act – Strict implementation         ...
Mitigation Measures Cont.Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Risk transfer in highly vulnerable areas (Insurance) Network...
ERS – RADAR                                IMAGETSUNAMI INUNDATION INNAGAPATTINAM COAST                        CT.Lakshmanan
RIVERS / CREEKS   AS CARRIERS OF TSUNAMI WAVES                              PATHS TO BE KEPT FREE                         ...
Radial Drains ---    PALAEO                                    Aforestation ----   /PRESENT                            Pro...
BEACH AS ABSORBERS - MARINA BEACH, CHENNAI                CT.Lakshmanan
Reconstruction in Andaman                Stilt Type               Non-Stilt Type          CT.Lakshmanan
Reconstruction in AndamanSource: www.and.nic.inOnline Monitoring System of Construction of Permanent shelters for Tsunami ...
Reconstruction in Cuddlore           CT.Lakshmanan
Thank You   CT.Lakshmanan
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4.5 cyclone and tsunami risk mitigation practices in india

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4.5 cyclone and tsunami risk mitigation practices in india

  1. 1. Cyclone and Tsunami Risk Mitigation Measures in India Presented by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Asst. Prof. (SG) SRM University CT.Lakshmanan
  2. 2. MAJOR DISASTERS EarthquakeEarthquake,Oct, 2005 (1980-2005) Uttarkashi, 20 Oct 1991, Chamoli, 23 April 1999AvalancheFeb 2005 Flood, Assam & Bihar 2004Bhuj,Earthquake,26 January, Bhopal Gas2001 Tragedy, Dec 1982Earthquake, S CycloneLatur, 30 29 OctSept 1993 1999 TsunamiFloods, 26 Dec 2004Mumbai, 26 July2005 TsunamiTsunami 26 Dec 26 Dec 20042004 CT.Lakshmanan
  3. 3. Recent Disasters in India (1990-2005)YEAR PLACES & DISASTER LOSS OF LIVES LOSS OF PROPERTY (APPROX) ( Rs Crore) APPROX)1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake 2000 20001993 Latur Earthquake 9500 60001997 Jabalpur Earthquake 200 50001999 Chamoli Earthquake 2000 20001999 Orissa Super Cyclone 9887 100002001 Bhuj Earthquake 14000 134002004 SE India Tsunami 15000 100002004 Assam & Bihar Floods 700 50002005 J&K Avalanche 350 1002005 Mah, Guj, HP, Floods 1569 10300 Karnataka, T’Nadu2005 J&K Earthquakes 1336 1000 Total Losses of Major Disasters only 56542 64800 CT.Lakshmanan
  4. 4. India is vulnerable to a large number ofdisasters• Approx. 60% of the landmass is prone to Earthquakes• Approx.12% (About 40 million hectares of land) is prone to floodand river erosion.• Approx. 68% of the cultivable area is vulnerable todrought//landslides/avalanches• About 5770 km of coastline out of a total 7516 km is prone toCyclone and Tsunami CT.Lakshmanan
  5. 5. Vulnerability is increasing with• Rising population• Haphazard Urbanization• Developments in High-Risk zones• Environmental Degradation• Climate Change etc. CT.Lakshmanan
  6. 6. Tsunami Damage CT.Lakshmanan
  7. 7. Tsunami Damage CT.Lakshmanan
  8. 8. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CONTINUUM Disaster Strikes CT.Lakshmanan
  9. 9. Disaster Management Cycle Organisations Involved Prevention Research Institutions (Sponsored Research) Ministry of Earth Science (IMD, DOD, DST) Ministry of Water Resources Ministry of Agriculture Mitigation Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA, MUD, MoEF and other related ministries and departments) State Govt. (Various Departments) District/Local Administration and NGO’s Preparedness Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA, MUD, MoEF) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s CT.Lakshmanan
  10. 10. Disaster Management Cycle Cont. Organisations Involved Response Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Relief Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Rehabilitation Central Govt. (Integrated efforts of various ministries and departments) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Reconstruction Central Govt. (Integrated efforts of various ministries and departments) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Long term Recovery Central, State, Local Govt. and NGO’s CT.Lakshmanan
  11. 11. Disasters offer a unique opportunity tolearn where we have gone wrong…. Preparedness and Mitigation of Disasters is the most important part of Disaster Management while strengthening our response capabilities CT.Lakshmanan
  12. 12. Disaster MitigationNatural Hazards cannot be prevented, however with mitigationmeasures the effects/damages could be reducedIndia’s three pronged approach - Mitigation measures integrated with the ongoing developmental projects National-level mitigation projects in high priority areas (Initiated by NDMA with the help of all concerned ministries, departments and states) State-level mitigation projects (Assistance in guidelines, plans and implementation by NDMA) CT.Lakshmanan
  13. 13. CT.Lakshmanan
  14. 14. Mitigation Measures• Integrated multi-hazard approach(emphasis on cyclone and tsunami risk in coastal areas)• Early warning system for cyclones and tsunamis• Evacuation plans(with emphasis on self reliance for sustenance with the coastal community)• Capacity building• Training of all concerned• Public awareness programmes• Hazard Mapping and Vulnerability Analysis• Risk Identification, zoning and mapping CT.Lakshmanan
  15. 15. Mitigation Measures Cont.Structural Mitigation Measures Seawalls and Coral reefs Tsunami breakwaters (to provide cushion against Tsunami andCyclone) Increasing the river dike height Tsunami and Cyclone Shelters (safe places to flee) Evacuation routes identification CT.Lakshmanan
  16. 16. Mitigation Measures Cont.Structural Mitigation Measures Permanent structures strictly according to BIS codes Retrofitting of vulnerable structures for tsunami/cyclone resistance Retrofitting of important buildings I. Fire stations / police stations/ army structures/ hospitals II. VIP residences / offices/ railways, airport, etc. III. Schools/colleges IV. Hazardous industries V. Other critical structures (i.e. power stations, warehouses, oil and other storage tanks etc) CT.Lakshmanan
  17. 17. Mitigation Measures Cont.Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Education Public Awareness Information Risk Communication Training to all concerned(Govt. officials, search and rescue workers, volunteers, women, children, elderly,local community as a whole) CT.Lakshmanan
  18. 18. Mitigation Measures Cont.Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Coastal regulations Zone Act – Strict implementation (nodevelopment within 500 m of the high tide line with elevation of less than 10 m abovem.s.l) Land use Zoning in accordance with CRZ Natural Bioshields (Mangroves) and shelterbelt plantations(Casuarina) Maintaining Natural Sand dunes Maintaining and promoting beach development CT.Lakshmanan
  19. 19. Mitigation Measures Cont.Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Risk transfer in highly vulnerable areas (Insurance) Network of local knowledge centers along the coast lines( Training and Emergency communication) Reducing Vulnerability Diverse Livelihood options Micro Finance Empowerment Gender sensitive development CT.Lakshmanan
  20. 20. ERS – RADAR IMAGETSUNAMI INUNDATION INNAGAPATTINAM COAST CT.Lakshmanan
  21. 21. RIVERS / CREEKS AS CARRIERS OF TSUNAMI WAVES PATHS TO BE KEPT FREE & BANKS TO HAVE STONE EMBANKMENTS CT.Lakshmanan
  22. 22. Radial Drains --- PALAEO Aforestation ---- /PRESENT Promotion of Bird SanctuariesBACKWATERS &TIDAL FLATS------ACCOMODATORS NAGAPATTINAM CT.Lakshmanan
  23. 23. BEACH AS ABSORBERS - MARINA BEACH, CHENNAI CT.Lakshmanan
  24. 24. Reconstruction in Andaman Stilt Type Non-Stilt Type CT.Lakshmanan
  25. 25. Reconstruction in AndamanSource: www.and.nic.inOnline Monitoring System of Construction of Permanent shelters for Tsunami victims CT.Lakshmanan
  26. 26. Reconstruction in Cuddlore CT.Lakshmanan
  27. 27. Thank You CT.Lakshmanan

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