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Pre-writing and learning styles


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8th CTJ Seminar presentation

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Pre-writing and learning styles

  1. 1. PRE-WRITING TASKS FOR VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND KINESTHETIC LEARNERS Isabela Villas Boas - CTJ Claudio Fleury – CTJ 8th CTJ Seminar – In Charge of Change
  3. 3. ACTIVITY 1 ORGANIZING INFORMATION • Stand up, discuss and organize yourselves in three groups, according to the activity in your cards. • Explain the rationale for the organization.
  4. 4. ACTIVITY 2 GENERATING IDEAS • In pairs, take turns speaking non-stop for three minutes each. • Partner A: “What do you know about perceptual learning styles?” • Partner B: “How can teachers apply knowledge about different learning styles to their teaching?”
  5. 5. ACTIVITY 3 ORGANIZING INFORMATION • Fill in the mind map with information generated in the previous activities. • Share your mind map with a partner and complete the information about learning styles
  6. 6. WRITING ACTIVITY • Write an article for your school bulletin board about how important it is that students’ different learning styles be catered to in class.
  7. 7. PRE-WRITING ACTIVITIES AND LEARNING STYLES • what is the connection? • pre-writing – why is it important? • the writing process • generating ideas and planning are the most neglected
  8. 8. LEARNING STYLES • “… an individual’s natural, habitual, and preferred ways of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills.” (Kinsella, 1995, p. 171, in Christison, 2003)
  9. 9. LEARNING STYLES • “How a person is likely to perceive and process information and experiences.” (Mc Carthy, 1980)
  10. 10. LEARNING STYLES • “Cognitive, affective, and physiological traits that are relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment.” (Keefe, 1979, p. 4)
  11. 11. KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS • ESL / EFL teachers’ teaching styles often reflect their own learning style • As cited in Leopold, 2010
  12. 12. KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS • Higher student achievement relates to a match between student learning styles and teacher teaching styles • As cited in Leopold, 2010
  13. 13. KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS • Although culture is not the sole determinant, it is one of the principal factors influencing learning styles • As cited in Leopold, 2010
  14. 14. KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS • More than 90% of the traditional college classroom is auditory • As cited in Leopold, 2010
  15. 15. KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS • Most ESL students strongly prefer kinesthetic learning • As cited in Leopold, 2010
  17. 17. Well-known models - Kolb • • learning-styles-lsi.jpg
  18. 18. Well-known models – Dunn & Dunn •
  19. 19. Well-known models - Gardner •
  20. 20. LEARNINGstyles in TESOL Learning STYLES IN TESOL Type 1: Cognitive Type 2: Sensory Type 3: Personality Styles Styles Styles Field Dependent Perceptual: Tolerance of ambiguity Filed Independent Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile Analytic Environmental: Right and left Global Physical hemisphere Sociological dominance: Left-brain Right-brain Reflective Impulsive Christison, 2003
  21. 21. PERCEPTUAL LEARNING STYLES • “the perceptual perspective allows us to take into account aspects of several well- recognized learning-style theories by synthesizing their important characteristics into an approach that is based on behaviors and/or actions that can be easily perceived in a classroom situation (Sarasin, 1998).”
  22. 22. WHAT IS YOUR LEARNING STYLE? • Read the sentences on the posters • Stand next to the poster with sentences that best describe your preferred learning style • Adapted from Barsch • The actual test involves choosing whether the sentences are seldom, often, or sometimes true
  23. 23. VISUAL LEARNERS Visual learners have two sub-channels • Linguistic • Spatial
  24. 24. VISUAL LEARNERS visual-linguistic learners • learn through written language, such as reading and writing tasks • remember what has been written down, even if they do not read it more than once • like to write down directions • pay better attention to lectures if they watch them
  25. 25. VISUAL LEARNERS visual-spatial learners • usually have difficulty with the written language • do better with charts, demonstrations, videos, and other visual materials • visualize faces and places by using their imagination and seldom get lost in new surroundings.
  26. 26. VISUAL LEARNERS Pre-writing activities • mind-mapping for brainstorming • • graphic organizers (tree) • videos • slides / illustrations • demonstrations
  27. 27. KINESTHETIC LEARNERS Kinesthetic learners two sub-channels: • kinesthetic (movement) and • tactile (touch) • tend to lose concentration if there is little or no external stimulation or movement
  28. 28. KINESTHETIC LEARNERS • When listening to lectures, they may want to take notes for the sake of moving their hands. • When reading, they like to scan the material first, and then focus in on the details (get the big picture first). • They typically use color highlighters and take notes by drawing pictures, diagrams, or doodling.
  29. 29. KINESTHETIC LEARNERS Pre-writing activities • forming groups - organizing • tossing objects • computers and the internet • acting out • changing places / moving around
  30. 30. AUDITORY LEARNERS • often talk to themselves • may move their lips and read out loud. • may have difficulty with reading and writing tasks. • often do better talking to a colleague or a voice recorder and hearing what was said.
  31. 31. AUDITORY LEARNERS Pre-writing activities • voice recorders – mp3 players • Audacity • • paraphrasing • debates
  33. 33. Activity 1 – My weekend • Work in groups of six. Each person has a connector. Say the first sentence and use the connector in another sentence. • The next person repeats the sentences and adds one more, using his/her connector • The last participant should have a whole paragraph, that can be memorized by the group On my last vacation I went to China and I did many interesting things there.
  34. 34. Activity 2 – Hosting a world cup • Form a circle. The first participant gives one advantage to hosting a world cup and throws the ball. • The participant who gets the ball has to say one disadvantage to hosting a world cup and throw the ball. • Continue until all participants have given an advantage or disadvantage to the topic.
  35. 35. Activity 3 – Global Warming • Complete the tree with causes and consequences of global warming. • The trunk of the tree represents the problem. The roots represent the causes and the canopy represents the consequences. • Share your tree with a partner.
  36. 36. SAMPLE ACTIVITIES • Activity 1 – auditory – beginners • Activity 2 – kinesthetic - advanced • Activity 3 – visual - intermediate
  37. 37. Thank you • • •
  38. 38. Bibliography • BROWN, H. Douglas Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, 2nd ed.New York: Longman, 2001. • CHRISTISON, M. A. Learning styles and strategies. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003. • DUNN, R., K DUNN AND G. E. PRICE. The learning style inventory. Lawrence, KS: Price Systems, 1975. • KEEFE, J. W. Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1979. • KINSELLA, K. Understanding and empowering diverse learners. In J.M. Reid (ed.) Learning Styles in the ESL/EFL Classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1995. • LIGHTBOWN, Patsy and SPADA, Nina. How Languages are Learned, 3rd ed. China: Oxford, 2006. • WOOLFOLK, Anita Educational Psychology - 10th ed. New York: Pearson, 2007.
  39. 39. Available online • epartmentsandPrograms/Humanities/English/WritingResources/LearningSt yles/tabid/953/Default.aspx • • • research • test • • test • • links • •
  41. 41. AUDITORY LEARNERS • Audacity