Auxiliary Review 2.2


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Auxiliary Review 2.2

  1. 1. Verb Type <ul><li>• Main verbs </li></ul><ul><li>– Express action, occurrence or state of being </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Julie studies English. She is a student. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>• Auxiliary verbs </li></ul><ul><li>– Accompany the verb and show person, number, or tense, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do, be, have </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I'm leaving now. I've finished my work. I don't need to stay. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>modal verbs (must, can, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>George can speak French. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They must study more. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>• To do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not normally used in affirmative sentences using simple verb tenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Simple present and Simple past) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I like tennis. I played it yesterday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in questions , short answers and negatives of simple verb tenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Do you speak English? Yes, I do . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Does your sister speak English? No, she doesn’t . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Didn’t she learn it in school? No, she didn’t take English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as a foreign language. She studied French. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Did you study French also? No, my sister did but I didn’t . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice that after the auxiliaries do, does, did , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the base form of the verb is used . </li></ul></ul>Auxiliary Verbs
  3. 3. <ul><li>To be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Used to form the continuous aspect of verbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The main verb in the -ing form will come after the auxiliary. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Present continuous, past continuous, present perfect continuous) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jeffrey is coming over for dinner. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharon was preparing a turkey. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have been working for hours. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Used to form the passive voice . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The main verb always appears after the auxiliary, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but when forming the passive voice, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the past participle form of the main verb is used. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math 101 is taught by Mrs. Zircon. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cake was made this morning. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>To be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for affirmatives, questions , short answers and negatives of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both continuous and passive forms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you going to bed now? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What were they doing last night? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are the mistakes made by the students common? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was he given for his birthday? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. • To have <ul><li>Used to form the perfect aspect of verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in all perfect sentences: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>affirmatives, questions , short answers and negatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Have you ever gone parachuting? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Yes, I have and so has my brother, but my boyfriend hasn’t because he’s scared of heights. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Had you considered parachuting for a long time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>before you went the first time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– No, I hadn’t. I hadn’t thought about it at all before I went. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My brother had gone several times, and he talked me </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>into going with him for lessons. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>• Notice that after the auxiliary to have, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the past participle form of the main verb is used. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Modal verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to give meaning to the main verb, related to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certainty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to act </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed by the base form of the verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for affirmatives, questions , short answers and negatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could you pass me the ketchup? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What must you do to get service here? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Modal verbs – modal-like expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in the same way as modals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certainty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But they are formed with the auxiliary to be: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be expected to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be required to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be supposed to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain verbs also work like modals in that they add meaning to the verb: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In questions, short answers and negative form, they </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work with the auxiliary do/does/did . </li></ul></ul>