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• File name: Intro2pc.ppt This presentation explains the block diagram of a computer system and how to read a computer advertisement.
• ### B Intro2 Pc

1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO PERSONAL COMPUTERS
2. 2. Learning to Use a Computer is Easy, Right???
3. 3. Where Do I Start? Square One Introduction to Personal Computers
5. 5. TECHNO-BABBLE??? BITS BYTES RAM ROM HARD DISK FLOPPY DISK CPU CD-ROM MOTHER BOARD MOUSE VGA POSTSCRIPT MONITOR MHZ 386 AT DATA
6. 6. Bits, Bytes and ASCII An introduction to the inner workings of a computer system...
7. 7. Bits, Bytes and ASCII What do you see in your mind’s eye when you concentrate on the yellow box below... A
8. 8. Bits, Bytes and ASCII A What is a generic term that could be used to describe this image that you see in your mind’s eye?
9. 9. Bits, Bytes and ASCII AT How about now? What does this grouping of two symbols cause your mind’s eye to see?
10. 10. Bits, Bytes and ASCII CAT How about now? What do you see in your mind’s eye?
11. 11. Bits, Bytes and ASCII So, it seems that we use grouping of symbols to generate pictures in our mind’s eye. CAT =
12. 12. But can a computer recognize a symbol? What type of information can a computer recognize? Bits, Bytes and ASCII
13. 13. Bits, Bytes and ASCII Computers can only recognize one form of information: there is electricity present ( on ), or there is no electricity present ( off ). This binary condition is called a BIT . A “BIT” is an acronymn, it stands for B INARY DIG IT
14. 14. Bits, Bytes and ASCII Take a quick scan around this room. What could we use as an example of a B INARY DIG IT Remember, we need something that only has two possible states, on and off .
15. 15. 1 BIT Computer Computer Keyboard CRT ? Off On Let’s start out with a simplistic design using a single light switch to signal the CPU as to which symbol we want displayed on the CRT...
16. 16. 1 BIT Computer Computer Keyboard CRT ? Off On Next, we need to establish some way of telling the CPU which symbol is to be displayed on the CRT when the switch is either in the ON or OFF position...
17. 17. 1 BIT Computer = A = B off on Computer Keyboard CRT ? Off On This conversion chart shown above is called a truth table...
18. 18. 1 BIT Computer = A = B off on Computer Keyboard CRT on Off On So, with the switch flipped to the ON position, what symbol shows up on the CRT?
19. 19. 1 BIT Computer = A = B off on Computer Keyboard CRT on Off On B Right, an ON = B
20. 20. 1 BIT Computer Computer Keyboard CRT on Off On B Now this design leaves a little bit to be desired... Assuming that we want to display more than just two symbols, what do we need to do to our design?
21. 21. 2 BIT Computer = A = B = C = D off on off on off off on on Computer Keyboard CRT on off Off On So what symbol does this sequence of switches create?
22. 22. 2 BIT Computer = A = B = C = D off on off on off off on on Computer Keyboard CRT on off Off On C Right, ON + OFF = C
23. 23. BITs as colors = BLUE = RED = GREEN = WHITE off on off on off off on on Computer Keyboard CRT on off Off On We are not limited to only symbols, here we can make switches effect color on the CRT!
24. 24. BITs as colors = BLUE = RED = GREEN = WHITE off on off on off off on on Computer Keyboard CRT on off Off On Here ON + OFF = Green
25. 25. 3 BIT Computer = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H off on off on off on off on off off on on off off on on off off off off on on on on Computer Keyboard CRT on off on Off On What will this sequence produce on the CRT?
26. 26. 3 BIT Computer = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H off on off on off on off on off off on on off off on on off off off off on on on on Computer Keyboard CRT on off on Off On F
27. 27. 3 BIT Computer = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H off on off on off on off on off off on on off off on on off off off off on on on on Right about now we need to resolve a minor problem affecting our efficency. We could spend the better part of our careers writing on and off down every time we want to indicate a binary condition...
28. 28. 3 BIT Computer = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H off on off on off on off on off off on on off off on on off off off off on on on on So lets create a shorthand notation for on and off ... Lets use the symbol for the number 0 to equal to an off condition, and lets, use the symbol for the number 1 to equal an on condition...
29. 29. 3 BIT Computer = Using this notation, the above two tables are equal = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H off on off on off on off on off off on on off off on on off off off off on on on on = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
30. 30. 3 BIT Computer Computer Keyboard CRT on off on Off On F = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
31. 31. 4 BIT Computer Computer Keyboard CRT = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H = I = J = K = L = M = N = O = P 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 Off On CRT will display?
32. 32. 4 BIT Computer Computer Keyboard CRT = A = B = C = D = E = F = G = H = I = J = K = L = M = N = O = P 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 Off On G
33. 33. BIT Based Structure on/off = bit (1) 1010 = nibble (4) 10101010 = byte (8) 1010101010101010 = word (16) 10101010101010101010101010101010 = dword (32) 101011010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010 = qword (64) Bit ==> Nibble ==> Byte ==> Word ==> Dword ==> Qword
34. 34. BIT Based Structure 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Byte Keystroke Bit = A ASCII
35. 35. HOW SIZE IS MEASURED One byte = One keystroke
36. 36. MULTIPLE BYTES <ul><li>KILOBYTES (KB) = 1000 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>MEGABYTES (MB) = 1,000,000 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>GIGABYTES (GB) = 1,000,000,000 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>TERABYTES (TB) = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes </li></ul>
37. 37. FOUR PARTS OF A COMPUTER <ul><li>CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) </li></ul><ul><li>INPUT DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>STORAGE DEVICES </li></ul>
38. 38. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT <ul><li>MICROPROCESSOR CHIP - Often called the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>MEMORY - ROM (Read only memory) - RAM (Random access memory) </li></ul>
39. 39. Microprocessor Chip Central Processing Unit (CPU)
40. 40. The CPU <ul><li>The Decision Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Processor Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Mhz </li></ul>
41. 41. 8088 - “PC” <ul><li>1981 </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>PC - 4.77 mhz </li></ul>
42. 42. 8086 - “XT” <ul><li>1983 </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>10 mhz </li></ul><ul><li>Apple introduces the “Mac” </li></ul>
43. 43. 80286 - “AT” <ul><li>1984 </li></ul><ul><li>16 bits </li></ul><ul><li>10 - 16 mhz </li></ul><ul><li>HD Disk Drives </li></ul>
44. 44. 80386 - “386” <ul><li>1986 </li></ul><ul><li>32 bits - Multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>16 - 33 mhz </li></ul><ul><li>SX -vs- DX </li></ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul>
45. 45. 80486 - “486” <ul><li>1989 </li></ul><ul><li>32 bits </li></ul><ul><li>25 - 66 mhz </li></ul><ul><li>SX -vs- DX </li></ul>
46. 46. 80586 - “The Pentium” <ul><li>1993 </li></ul><ul><li>64 bit processor </li></ul><ul><li>60 - 250 mhz </li></ul><ul><li>Any Operating System </li></ul>
47. 47. MEMORY <ul><li>ROM (Read only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>RAM (Random access memory) </li></ul>
48. 48. ROM <ul><li>ROM is used to store information that you do not want to change. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, there are certain things a computer does when you turn it on. </li></ul><ul><li>You do not want these to change so they are stored in ROM memory </li></ul>
49. 49. RAM <ul><li>For your computer to be functional it needs to be able to process different information at various times. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, you want to write a letter. Then you want to play a game of tetris. </li></ul><ul><li>These are different functions that the computer will need to think about. </li></ul>
50. 50. MORE RAM <ul><li>For you to use a program it must be loaded into RAM memory. </li></ul><ul><li>When you change to another program, you are - removing the current program from RAM memory - loading the new program into RAM memory </li></ul><ul><li>In effect, you are changing the computers mind. </li></ul>
51. 51. RAM CHIPS (in banks)
52. 52. SECOND INPUT DEVICES
53. 53. INPUT DEVICES <ul><li>KEYBOARD </li></ul><ul><li>MICE </li></ul><ul><li>SCANNERS </li></ul><ul><li>LIGHT PENS </li></ul><ul><li>BAR CODE SCANNERS </li></ul>
54. 54. Key Boards <ul><li>96 Standard </li></ul><ul><li>101 Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Extra Keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function Keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeric Key Pad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booster Keys (CTRL, ALT, SHIFT.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Keys </li></ul></ul>
55. 55. THIRD OUTPUT DEVICES
56. 56. OUTPUT DEVICES <ul><ul><li>IMPACT PRINTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INK JET PRINTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LASER PRINTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLOTTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MONITORS </li></ul></ul>
57. 57. Printers <ul><li>Impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daisy Wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot Matrix 9 pin and 24 pin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ink Jet </li></ul><ul><li>Laser </li></ul>
58. 58. Monitors <ul><li>Monochrome (MGA) </li></ul><ul><li>No color, No graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) </li></ul><ul><li>Four Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Graphics Adapter (EGA) </li></ul><ul><li>16 Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) </li></ul><ul><li>128 Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Super Video Graphics Adapter (SVGA) </li></ul><ul><li>1024 Colors </li></ul>
59. 59. FOURTH STORAGE DEVICES
60. 60. STORAGE DEVICES <ul><li>HARD DRIVES </li></ul><ul><li>FLOPPY DRIVES </li></ul><ul><li>COMPACT LASER DISKS </li></ul><ul><li>TAPE </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul>
61. 61. DISKETTE SIZES <ul><li>5.25 Inch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>360, 000 BYTES LABLED AS DSDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOUBLE SIDED DOUBLE DENSITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,200,000 BYTES LABLED AS DSHD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOUBLE SIDED HIGH DENSITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>740,000 BYTES LABLED AS DSDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOUBLE SIDED DOUBLE DENSITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,400,000 BYTES LABLED AS DSHD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOUBLE SIDED HIGH DENSITY </li></ul></ul></ul>
62. 62. HARD DRIVES <ul><li>INTERNAL STORAGE DEVICE </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY IN MEGABYTES (MEGS) TODAY - Though this is changing to gigabytes </li></ul><ul><li>USED TO STORE - Operating system - Application software (programs) - Data (the things you produce) </li></ul>
63. 63. Hard Drive Floppy Drive
64. 64. RAM -vs- Hard disk Ram is like your desktop, where you work with stuff Your Hard disk is where you store stuff when you are not using it RAM needs ELECTRICITY The Hard Disk doesn’t
65. 65. LETS PUT IT ALL TOGETHER <ul><li>THE USER ENTERS COMMANDS - Type something on the keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>THE CPU - Interprets your request - Takes the appropriate action </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION (DATA) IS - Retrieved from the disk drive - Stored in RAM </li></ul>
66. 66. Mother Board Power Supply Expansion Cards Additional Components
67. 67. NOW THAT YOU KNOW HOW COMPUTERS WORK Lets look at a typical computer advertisement
68. 68. THE AD READS <ul><li>486dx2/66 - w/256k cache </li></ul><ul><li>4MB RAM </li></ul><ul><li>420MB HD </li></ul><ul><li>1.44MB Floppy Drive </li></ul><ul><li>VLB Graphics Card - 1MB </li></ul><ul><li>14” SVGA Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>101 Key Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Logitech mouse </li></ul><ul><li>DOS 6.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Price: \$999.00 </li></ul>
69. 69. CONGRATULATIONS You have now purchased a new computer. Next, we will learn how to control the computer using DOS.
70. 70. WE’RE OFF to the land of DOS