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1.5) Designing 
Solutions
• Designing a solution is the transformation of 
the specifications into appropriate hardware, 
software and information p...
• Participant development became a solution 
because IT personnel were often unable to 
provide immediate service. 
• The ...
• Making decisions—participant chooses an 
appropriate solution. 
• Designing solutions—participant develops 
the solution...
• Implementation—participant begins using 
the system. This stage is often easier to 
accomplish with participant developm...
• Advantages: 
• Participant development is more responsive 
to participant needs 
• Potential to save money 
• less need ...
• Disadvantages: 
• Participants are NOT hardware experts 
• Different participants within an organisation 
could choose d...
• Design tools assist in the development of a new 
system. 
• They include: 
• context diagrams 
• data flow diagrams 
• s...
• Context diagrams are graphical methods of 
representing systems by using only a single 
process together with inputs and...
• DFD’s focus on the flows of data between 
information processes in a system. 
• They show where data is: 
• collected 
•...
• There are four main symbols” 
• process 
• data flow 
• data store 
• external entity 
• To draw a DFD, start with the p...
• Many information processes that occur are 
determined by various decisions. 
• Two tools used to display and analyse 
de...
• A data dictionary describes the data within a 
system. 
• A data dictionary describes each field in a 
database. 
• It c...
• A system flowchart is a graphical means of 
representing both the flow of data and the logic 
of a system. 
• It documen...
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IPT HSC 1.5) Designing Solutions

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IPT HSC 1.5) Designing Solutions

  1. 1. 1.5) Designing Solutions
  2. 2. • Designing a solution is the transformation of the specifications into appropriate hardware, software and information processes. • It involves: • purchasing hardware • writing or purchasing software • specifying information processes • Participant development occurs when people within the information system develop the solution.
  3. 3. • Participant development became a solution because IT personnel were often unable to provide immediate service. • The stages of the system development cycle are affected by participant development in the following way: • Understanding the problem—participant identifies the problem. Information system personnel might be used to advise the participant on possible tools to solve the problem.
  4. 4. • Making decisions—participant chooses an appropriate solution. • Designing solutions—participant develops the solution, often using guided processes found in application packages. The participant may require some training
  5. 5. • Implementation—participant begins using the system. This stage is often easier to accomplish with participant development than with a system developed by information system personnel as the participant is familiar with the application and does not require further training. • Testing, evaluating and maintaining— participant is totally responsible for the maintenance and testing of the solution and determining if any changes need to be made to the solution.
  6. 6. • Advantages: • Participant development is more responsive to participant needs • Potential to save money • less need for IT staff • less time wasted on communication between participants and IT specialists
  7. 7. • Disadvantages: • Participants are NOT hardware experts • Different participants within an organisation could choose different applications • Increased costs in terms or purchasing and training • Increased access to data leads to greater security problems
  8. 8. • Design tools assist in the development of a new system. • They include: • context diagrams • data flow diagrams • system flowcharts • decision trees • decision tables • data dictionaries
  9. 9. • Context diagrams are graphical methods of representing systems by using only a single process together with inputs and outputs. • The input and output sources are also called external entities. • The external entities are linked to the single process through data flow arrows. • Data flow diagrams are graphical methods of representing a system that use a number of processes together with inputs, outputs and storage.
  10. 10. • DFD’s focus on the flows of data between information processes in a system. • They show where data is: • collected • organised • analysed • stored • processed • transmitted • displayed
  11. 11. • There are four main symbols” • process • data flow • data store • external entity • To draw a DFD, start with the processes and use data flows to link them to data stores and entities. • The limitation of context diagrams and DFD’s is that, while they identify basic structures, they do not show sequences of operations or decisions that are required.
  12. 12. • Many information processes that occur are determined by various decisions. • Two tools used to display and analyse decisions are decision trees and decision tables. • A decision tree is a diagrammatic way of representing all possible combinations of decisions and their resultant actions. • A decision table is a table that represents all possible conditions and actions. • The table is divided vertically into conditions and actions, and horizontally into rules.
  13. 13. • A data dictionary describes the data within a system. • A data dictionary describes each field in a database. • It clarifies characteristics such as: • field name • field size • data type • description • example
  14. 14. • A system flowchart is a graphical means of representing both the flow of data and the logic of a system. • It documents such things as: • the sequence • the processes • the selection rules and actions • the hardware used

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