Presentation of ola erstad's paper of changing assessment practices and the role of it dongyi guo
Presentation of Erstad, Olas paper of Changing assessemtn practices and the role of IT by Dongyi Guo E-assessment 2013 vår IKT-sl. Hioa
Major Issues in EducationalAssessmentThe role and differences between summativeand formative ways of assessment. Summative assessment Formative assessment occurs at the end of a learning process occurs during a learning process To evaluate what student has learned To motivate and support the progress of learning
Major focus of E-assessmentresearch in this chapter● Focus on some new issues are raised by increased implementation of new digital technologies in education ○ How assessment is linked to different perspectives on learning ○ "What" & "how" researches of e-assessment is related to the role of "IT" ○ Purpose of this chapter is to question to what extent and in which ways the use of new technologies represent changing assessment practices in school- based settings.
Different traditions oflearning 1● The behaviourist tradition ○ stadndadized testing as the dominating assessment system over the last century ○ the learner is seen as a passive receiver of knowledge. ○ based on the factory metaphor: emphasis on hwo students were required to master specific contents defined by teachers or textbooks through memorization. ○ focus on facts and predefined fragments of contenct ○ to get feedback about students performance so as to stratify and certify them accordingly. ○ Technologies is used as a part of teaching machine ○ CD-ROMs used in1990s are used as part of assessment in this perspective
Different traditions oflearning 2● Constructivist tradition of learning ○ learner is seen as a more cognitively active participant ○ adaptassessment, such as adaptive testning still focuses on individua and intrapersonal ways of learning, but requires more complex and diverse approaches ■ assessment of eassays or projects ■ performance assessment: a form of testing that requires students to perform a task ○ Techonological development have made it possible to develop interacitve tools to assess complex cognitive skills. ■ including different modalities: written text, pictures, video, simulations
Different traditions oflearning 3● Sociocultural tradition of learning ○ learner is seen as a participant of the world around ○ emphasis on learning as social practice, it occurs during collaboration and communication between people ○ focus interpersonal ways of learning ○ assessment focuses on the process of learning as well as the outcomes ○ students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills.
Traditional Goals of E-assessment 1● Processing large numbers of tests to reduce the workload on teachers and the costs of education● To creat new approaches, e.g., adaptive testing● How IT can improve assessment by online leanring, where courses and assessemnts are both done online● Raikes and Harding (2003) sketch some of the issues that should be solved before conventional examinations can be computerized. ○ costs, equivalence of test forms, security, diversity of school cultures and environemnts and techincal reliablility
Traditional Goals of E-assessment 2● Research issues of the transition from paper- and-pencil testing to computer-based tesning: ○ the test validity ■ computerized assessments tend to be more difficult than paper-and-pencil versions of the same test. ○ mode effects ■ the presentation of a test and the process of taking a test can result different modes that made the test validity unstability. ■ it may be solved by minimizing differences between modes.
New Goals of E-assessment 1● create a new interest of "assessing the inaccessible" ○ to assess metacognition, learning strategies, attitudes and lifelong learning skills● IT is used to develop a more diverse formative approaches of assessment in order to better monitor and assess student learning progress ○ The use of various multimodalities by IT increases interest for project work ○ Increased use of digital portfolios ■ let teachers eariser to follow students progress and comment on assignments and keep track of documents ■ make summative assessment easier. ○ bringing in new qualitative dimensions for assessment ■ abilities of processing files electronically ■ abilities of making text multimodal
New Goals of E-assessment 2● Support collaborative work online ○ collaborative problem-solving skills are considered necessary for success in todays world. ○ it stimulate students learning and the process of inquiry ○ the problem-solving process online can be recorded and make it available for teachers for further assessment of students cognitive process ○ it also raises issues ■ on interface design features that can support online measurement ■ how to evaluate collaborative problem-solving process in an online contest
New Goals of E-assessment 3● web-based peer-assessment ○ defined by some as an innovative assessment method since students themselves are put in the position of evaluators as weel as learners● web-based self-assessment ○ selecting a series of simple "I Can" statements ○ to promote them to think about what are able to do● Using milestone todemonstrate and control learning progress● tools like computer-based simulations support students understanding of knowledge● to assessemnt of creative thinking as different from analytic thinking by reviewing of their performance by digital recording.
New Goals of E-assessment 4● IT Literacy Skills ○ Due to the mismatch between conventional national tests, which focus on prespecified knowl-edge and concepts, and the wider range of knowledge that students are acquiring by carrying out new kinds of activities with IT at home ○ Acquire practical skills in using computers that are not part of the assessment processes that they meet in schools ○ A framework for ICT literacy (2002) ■ IT literacy: the ability of individuals to use ICT appropriately to access, manage and evaluate information, develop new understandings, and communicate with others in order to participate effectively in society
Conclusion● Hwo IT is changing assessment practies ○ Within policy and curriculum development ○ Within research field ○ With teaching in schools● Further disscussion ○ What has to be assessed? ○ Hwo IT can supprot all relevant types of assessments?