Chista tatar ch 9 presentation


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chista tatar ch 9 presentation

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Presentation: Urinary system Chista Tatar Professor Abdullah
  2. 2. Male & Female Urinary Systems
  3. 3. Acute Renal Failure (ARF) Also called acute kidney injury, means that your kidneys have suddenly stopped working. kidneys remove waste products and help balance water and salt and other minerals (like electrolytes) in your blood. When your kidneys stop working, waste products, fluids, and electrolytes build up in your body. This can cause problems that can be deadly.
  4. 4. Acute Renal Failure Causes
  5. 5. Main Causes of ARF A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys Heavy blood loss, an injury, or a bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) also can harm the kidneys. Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections Antibiotics, pain medicines (aspirin & ibuprofen), some blood pressure meicines, dyes used in s0me X-ray tests. A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys Kidney stones, a tumor, an injury, or an enlarged prostate gland can cause a blockage.
  6. 6. Symptoms of ARF Little or no urine when you urinate. Swelling, especially in your legs and feet. Not feeling like eating. Nausea and vomiting. Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy. Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain. Some people may not have any symptoms.
  7. 7. ARF Treatment Your doctor or a kidney specialist (nephrologist) will try to treat the problem that is causing your kidneys to fail. At the same time, the doctor will try to: Stop wastes from building up in your body. You may have dialysis. This treatment uses a machine to do the work of your kidneys until they recover. It will help you feel better. Prevent other problems. You may take antibiotics to prevent or treat infections. You also may take other medicines to get rid of extra fluid and keep your body’s minerals in balance. You can help yourself heal by taking your medicines as your doctor tells you to. You also may need to follow a special diet to keep your kidneys from working too hard. You may need to limit sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. A dietitian can help you plan meals.
  8. 8. Bladder Neck Obstruction
  9. 9. Bladder Neck Obstruction Bladder neck obstruction is a condition in which the bladder neck does not open appropriately or completely during voiding (urination). Symptoms include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream, hesitancy, incomplete emptying. Treatments vary from watchful waiting to medical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic findings, and response to therapy.
  10. 10. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) A urinary tract infection is an infection that begins in your urinary system. Your urinary system is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Any part of your urinary system can become infected, but most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra. Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, the defenses sometimes fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract. Women are at greater risk of developing a urinary tract infection than are men. A urinary tract infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a urinary tract infection spreads to your kidneys.
  11. 11. UTI Symptoms A strong, persistent urge to urinate A burning sensation when urinating Passing frequent, small amounts of urine Urine that appears cloudy Urine that appears bright pink or cola colored — a sign of blood in the urine Strong-smelling urine Pelvic pain, in women Rectal pain, in men
  12. 12. UTI Signs & Symptoms
  13. 13. Treatment of UTI Antibiotics are typically used to treat urinary tract infections. Which drugs are prescribed and for how long depend on your health condition and the type of bacterium found in your urine. Usually, symptoms clear up within a few days of treatment. But you may need to continue antibiotics for a week or more.
  14. 14. Treatments continued If you experience frequent urinary tract infections, your doctor may recommend a longer course of antibiotic treatment or a program with short courses of antibiotics at the outset of your urinary symptoms. For infections related to sexual activity, your doctor may recommend taking a single dose of antibiotic after sexual intercourse. If you're postmenopausal, your doctor may recommend vaginal estrogen therapy to minimize your chance of recurrent urinary tract infections.
  15. 15. Sources Pictures