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STATUS of FOOD and NUTRITION SECURITY IN KENYA

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Improving food and nutrition security outcomes in East Africa. What role for universities?

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STATUS of FOOD and NUTRITION SECURITY IN KENYA

  1. 1. Improving food and nutrition security outcomes in East Africa: what role for universities: status of food and nutrition security in Kenya Dr. Newton Nyairo Dr. Eric Bett Kenyatta University
  2. 2. Country Facts Statistic 2015 Population, total (Millions) 43 Population growth (annual %) 2.5 GDP (current US$ (Billions) 35 GDP per capita (current US$ (Billions) 1247 Life expectancy at birth, total (years) 54.8 Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) 54.2 Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24) 92.7 Source: Kenya Economic Survey and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
  3. 3. Food Security Status in Kenya
  4. 4. Magnitude & Severity of Chronic Malnutrition • Over 10 million people in Kenya suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition. • 3-6 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time. • Nearly 30% of Kenya’s children are undernourished with 35% stunted. • Micronutrient deficiencies (Iron, Vitamin A, Zinc and Iodine ) are widespread, with emerging rise in rickets.
  5. 5. Double Burden of Malnutrition: Overweight and Obesity Emerging conditions and diseases known as non- communicable diseases (NCDs) Hypertension, Diabetes, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases due to a rise in Overweight and Obesity (40% in women and 22% in children) Causes: Shift to increased consumption of highly refined foods with added Sugars, Salts & Fats Sedentary lifestyle and reduced physical activity
  6. 6. Impacts of Malnutrition  Early and premature deaths  Increased health care costs at national and household level  Little/No savings for investment and poverty cycle continues  Complicates the HIV/AIDS situation in Kenya  Depresses productivity
  7. 7. High Impact Nutrition Interventions in Kenya  Improving the nutritional status of women of reproductive age - nutrition education on consumption of healthy foods and strengthening iron and folate supplementation during pregnancy;  Improving nutritional status of children under five years - exclusive breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding and micronutrient supplementation;  Strengthening coordination and partnerships among key nutrition actors - partners in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), education, health, and livelihood sectors.  Prevention and treatment of malnutrition ( moderate and severe acute forms)
  8. 8. Policy Environment for Nutrition Improvement: The National Food and Nutrition Security Policy This policy provides a close link between food and nutrition hence key role of agriculture sector Objectives of the NFNSP:  To increase the quantity and quality of food available, accessible and affordable to all Kenyans at all times.  To achieve good nutrition for optimum health of all Kenyans.  To protect vulnerable populations using innovative and cost-effective safety nets linked to long-term development
  9. 9. Key priority areas for the NFNSP • Food availability and access • Food safety, standards and quality control • Nutrition improvement and nutrition security • School nutrition and nutrition awareness programs • Food and nutrition security information • Early warning and emergency management • Institutional and Implementation framework
  10. 10. Agricultural Sector Development Strategy 2010-2020  Part of CAADP launched in Kenya in 2005.  Agriculture key driver for delivering 10 % annual economic growth rate envisaged in the vision 2030  Recognizes food security as an integral part of agriculture  Emphasis on other enabling factors such as infrastructure, non-tariff barriers (NTBs) etc.
  11. 11. Strategy for Revitalization of Agriculture 2003-2007  Programs to help farmers: Fertilizer subsidy program (on and off) – FIRE- FIGHTING!  National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Project - Kilimo plus -Voucher system for seeds and fertilizer (Insurance embedded)
  12. 12. Cont..  Kilimo biashara–Low cost-cost credit to purchase inputs -with support from AGRA and IFAD)  Njaa Marufuku-supports the up- scaling of private sector food security innovations through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) to undertake food security projects –with support from FAO and MDG Secretariat).
  13. 13. KENYA NATIONAL NUTRITION ACTION PLAN 2012- 2017-Key Priority Areas • Improve the nutritional status of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) • Improve the nutritional status of children >5 • Reduce the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in the population • Prevent deterioration of nutritional status and save lives of vulnerable groups in emergencies • Improve access to quality curative nutrition services • Improve prevention, management and control of diet related Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) • Improve nutrition in schools, public and private institutions • Improve nutrition knowledge attitudes and practices • Strengthen the nutrition surveillance, monitoring and evaluation systems • Enhance evidence-based decision-making through research • Strengthen coordination and partnerships among key nutrition actors
  14. 14. Potential to achieving Nutrition Goals Guiding Documents • Kenya Vision 2030 • Kenya National Health Sector Strategic plan • National Food and Nutrition Security policy • National Nutrition Action Plan • At global level The MDGs and Scaling Up Nutrition framework for action Guiding Principles The Constitution of Kenya 2010 • 43 (1 ) (C) Every person has the right to be free from hunger and to have adequate food of acceptable quality • 53(1) (C) Every child has the right to basic nutrition, shelter and health care
  15. 15. Underlying causes of Food & Nutrition Insecurity  Growing population and endemic poverty -56% of population living in absolute poverty (53% of the poor live in rural areas, 47% in urban)  60% of so-called farmers are net buyers of food. (Rockefeller Foundation, 2010)  Low agricultural productivity, exacerbated by land degradation and insecure land tenure  HIV/AIDS prevalence  Skewed Income distribution: Top 10% control 42% of total income; bottom 10% control <1%  Increasing frequency and severity of droughts
  16. 16. What role for universities in FNS?  Position itself decisively to fulfill the CAADP agenda  Universities as centers/factories of can potentially contribute knowledge useful in tackling the food insecurity challenges.  Agribusiness innovations that will deal with food security and in dealing with the overarching CAADP agenda.  Working closely with the community in dealing with challenges at the community level – closer interaction that can mitigate FNS challenges
  17. 17. Kenyatta University Profile VISION STATEMENT  "To be a dynamic, an inclusive and a competitive centre of excellence in teaching, learning, research and service to humanity. ”  MISSION STATEMENT  "To provide quality education and training, promote scholarship, service, innovation and creativity and inculcate moral values for sustainable individual and societal development.”  IDENTITY STATEMENT  "A community of scholars committed to the generation and dissemination of knowledge and cultivation of wisdom for the welfare of society.”
  18. 18. Kenyatta University Teaching Programs Related to Food Security  Kenyatta University has 15 Schools and 70 departments  Out of these two schools directly deal with food security:  School of Applied and Human Sciences  1. BSc. Food and Nutrition  School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development  BSc. Agriculture  BSc. Agribusiness  BSc. Agricultural Resource Management
  19. 19. Who are the actors in FNS?  Private sector/industry  United Nations organizations  Governments departments – The Ministry of Agriculture, The Ministry Health, Ministry of Water and Irrigation  Donor agencies – USAID, AGRA, Rockefeller Foundation, IFDC  National Agricultural Research Center – KALRO,  CGIAR, ILRI, ICRAF, ICIPE, IFPRI  Other universities – 30 universities
  20. 20. Theater model
  21. 21. Results of the audit AISHE PLAN DO CHECK 1.1 Vision 1.2 Policy 1.3 Communication 1.4 Internal environmental management 2.1 Network 2.2 Expert group 2.3 Staff development plan 2.4 Research, external services 3.1 Profile of the graduate 3.2 Educational methodology 3.3 Role of the teacher 3.4 Student examination 4.1 Curriculum 4.2 Integrated Problem Handling 4.3 Traineeships, graduation 4.4 Speciality 5.1 Appreciation by staff 5.2 Appreciation by students 5.3 Appreciation by professional field 5.4 Appreciation by society 0 1 2 3 4 5
  22. 22. Recommendations  The need to clearly define the profile of the graduate and to identify the component of food and nutrition security  Coordination of efforts by different actors/stakeholders in dealing with the challenge of food and nutrition security  University should begin to work with other stakeholders – cease being ivory towers in bid to unleash their full role  Strengthen teaching of agriculture to focus on food and nutrition security - improve curricula to address the core issues
  23. 23. MERCI

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