CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory services: Nigeria


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M. Akeredolu and A. Tunji, Winrock International, Nigeria

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CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory services: Nigeria

  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>70% of 140.0 million (GIANT OF AFRICA) lives in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>68 million hectares of arable land; 12 mhectares fresh water,960km of coastline; ecological diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Largest NARES in SSA: </li></ul><ul><li>17 Commodity-based Research Institutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd largest economy (SA) with a GDP US $40.0 billion BUT 2/3 of the population lives below the national poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>“ agriculture key component in country’s economy, (40.0% GDP, employing about 70.0% active population), sector significantly underperformed its potential” (FGN,2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Very high food prices, food insecurity at household & national level & malnutrition </li></ul>
  3. 3. TASKS IN THIS DISCUSSION <ul><li>Review: </li></ul><ul><li>The national policy environment for Nigeria’s agriculture and rural development </li></ul><ul><li>The national policy environment for the country’s extension and AS </li></ul><ul><li>The current extension and advisory system, staffing, funding and impact of the services </li></ul><ul><li>Determine lessons learnt and make recommendations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. NATIONAL POLICIES FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Divided into four major eras: </li></ul><ul><li>The Colonial and immediate post-independence era: 1893 – 1968. </li></ul><ul><li>The “oil boom” era: 1970 – 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>The statewide ADP era: 1980 – 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>The post-World Bank-assisted ADP Era: 1996- 2011. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The post-World Bank-assisted ADP Era: 1996-2011 : <ul><li>1988 Agricultural Policy (1 st documented policy that affected extension) “Policy objective must transcend self-sufficiency to cover food security” (FMARD, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned roles and responsibilities to the different tiers of government/private sector as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>The Federal Government: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reorganizing the Institutional framework for government intervention in the sector to facilitate smooth and integrated development of agricultural potentials. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing agricultural production through increased budgetary allocation and promotion of necessary developmental, supportive and service oriented activities to enhance production and productivity and marketing opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Collaboration with State and Local Governments for effective agricultural extension delivery”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>State Governments: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Promotion of primary production of all items of agricultural produce through the provision of a virile and effective extension service. </li></ul><ul><li>Training & Manpower dev. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring a viable agricultural extension delivery service. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of appropriate institutions for administering credits to small-holder”.  </li></ul><ul><li>Local Government: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of an effective extension service . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilization of farmers for accelerated agricultural and rural development through cooperative organizations, local institutions and communities ”.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private Sector: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Since agric. production, processing, storage & marketing essentially their activities. Document stated clearly that Federal, State & Local Govt should jointly adequately finance Agric. Extension & rural infrastructure development. </li></ul><ul><li>Several unilateral and multilateral agricultural projects initiated with their own policy instruments. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nigeria Rural Development Sector Strategy <ul><li>The major features/principles of this Integrated Rural Development Policy include: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Non-interventionist </li></ul><ul><li>“ Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>“ Participatory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>“ Greater Equity </li></ul>
  8. 8. The 2001 & 2008 Agricultural (Extension) Policy: <ul><li>2001: Agricultural policy first to address the issue of the public agric. extension service with particular reference to the roles and responsibilities of the various tiers of government & private. </li></ul><ul><li>2008: Provided for the establishment of a “One-stop” Agricultural Extension Services </li></ul>
  9. 9. Major Challenges with respect to the Policy environment for Agral Extension & AS: <ul><li>“ Practice without legislated policy” (Madukwe, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Poor leadership and Coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-involvement of the key actors and development partners in policy articulation (Ref. the establishment of the “One Stop” Extension Service Centers). </li></ul><ul><li>Poor budgetary provision for proposed program and projects. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Current status of AG. EXTN IN NIGERIA <ul><li>Public extension system still dominant service provider for resource-poor small-scale producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-plural (public and private) agricultural extension system delivery exists: </li></ul><ul><li>ADPS using an unclearly defined or a corrupted T & V extension system in non-donor project areas of States; </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of modified T &V (“group enterprise modular approach) and the FFS extension system at the NPFS sites in only States that have paid the required NPFS counterpart funds </li></ul><ul><li>Fadama Project in its areas of operation in all States using a participatory demand-responsive advisory service delivered mainly by private advisory service providers. </li></ul><ul><li>Other donor-assisted projects (CBARDP, CBNRMP, etc) using various models of participatory extension </li></ul><ul><li>Public-private partnership in agricultural extension service delivery is growing, actively promoted by the donor community. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Active involvement of farmer groups and associations in program planning, implementation and evaluation is growing (Fadama Project, CBARDP, CBNRMP and LEEMP). </li></ul><ul><li>Overall funding and staffing inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Supply of inputs is still common today as part of the extension service in all the projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of Local Govt in actual AAS delivery minimal </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of NGOS in extension delivery is minimal except for the unique case of the SG 2000 (an international NGO) and a few others. </li></ul><ul><li>REFILS still very weak and uncoordinated. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance of the ADPs non-impressive at best . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. ICT use in AG Extension in Nigeria <ul><li>British Leyland land rover-operated mobile cinema : 1921 – 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>(1963 – 68), the use of ICTs improved with the introduction of assorted extension publications (in English and local languages) and farm radio broadcasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of government-sponsored TV farm broadcasts and TV viewing centers complemented the already established radio programs:1969-1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Provider driven(technology and project) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>World Bank-funded ADPs (1986 – 1990) were able to establish well-equipped, DSC Units (printing, video, TV and Radio recording facilities etc) and were able to broadcast radio and TV programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal WB support: reduced frequency radio and TV broadcast programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 26 (70.3%) of the 36 States’ ADPs produced & aired radio programs thereafter; </li></ul><ul><li>Only 48.6% produced and aired TV programs of which 57.7% were in local languages. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Modern ICT use in Extension <ul><li>The CTA–supported Question and Answer Service in Nigeria , hosted by the NAERLS (NAQAS). </li></ul><ul><li>The USAID-sponsored ICT Support for Agricultural Growth in Nigeria (ICS-Nigeria ) launched in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fadama III Project: “ Communications and Information Support ” to ADPs </li></ul><ul><li>NAERLS with ICTs extension specialist support services apart from the CTA-supported NAQAS, </li></ul><ul><li>Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF) ICTs Fadama III project in 4 States to ADPs </li></ul><ul><li>NAMIS:USAID-supported Nigeria Agric. Market Info Service </li></ul>
  15. 15. Capacity building <ul><li>Over 78 Federal, States’ and private Universities providing degree and postgraduate diploma </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions (State/Fed) providing National and Higher National Diplomas </li></ul><ul><li>Research Institutes providing capacity building to the ADP staff, private advisory services providers, and producers in their commodity disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>NAERLS, providing specialist extension capacity building in agriculture and rural development including ICTS, </li></ul><ul><li>The Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Notable donor-supported project-related capacity building programs: Fadama III:,SAFE etc </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gender of Extension Workers in the Geo-political Zones of Nigeria .
  17. 17. Funding <ul><li>Perhaps the most difficult information to access from the ADPs is the details of their funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral compulsory funding in donor supported projects with fairly high rate of default, so difficult to trace what really goes to agric. extension and advisory services. </li></ul><ul><li>Fadama 11 2002/2008 (IFAD/ADB), Fadama 111 2009 till date (WB) $250m/counterpart contribution 200m, National programme for food security 2005 till date 265.1m (FGN/FAO)……………Commercial ag.dev project WB 150m/counterpart 35m etc </li></ul>
  18. 18. Performance NORTH EAST ZONE STATE Funding Situation Adequacy & Quality Of Staff. REMARKS Adamawa Inadequate Fair Poor & untimely releases, Need to recruit staff Bauchi Fair Fair Funds on downward trend, Need to sustain staff Borno Very poor Adequate Serious funding challenges. Gombe Inadequate Fair Need to increase funding significantly Yobe Weak Fair Need to improve funding & staffing. Jigawa Weak Fair To increase funding & improve staffing
  19. 19. Impact 2008 no F noFFS nofrs no F noFFS nofrs 2009/10 Kwara 0 0 0 0 0 0 No state contribution. Nasarawa 27 27 746   27 746   Niger 0 0 0 27 27 774 Late payment. Plateau 27 27 675   46 1156   Taraba 32 0 0   22 550  
  20. 20. Important lessons learnt <ul><li>Properly documented & legislated agric. extension policy needed to guide all actors in sector (stakeholders workshop 20 &21 Nov) </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector, NGOs, and farmer organizations given voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly and stable policy environment critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Desired impact achieved with political will and commitment . </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory and dd-responsive agric. extension and AS improves service delivery/performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate, regular and timely funding necessary for impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate and well-trained staff along VCA /opportunities for in service cap. dev./ICT </li></ul><ul><li>All partners must pay their counterpart funds as at when due </li></ul><ul><li>Donor-supported projects to provide for exit strategies to ensure sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened & well-coordinated res.-extension-farmer-inputs system (REFILS) imperative for effective and efficient AAS.   </li></ul><ul><li>States and LG to be more committed to AS delivery as assigned by policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the Agricultural investment Plan </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Thank you very much </li></ul><ul><li>Merci beaucoup </li></ul>