CTA Sponsored Case Study ofExtension and Advisory Services            Policies            JamaicaJoseph I. Lindsay Consult...
Map of the Caribbean Showing Jamaica
Overview Jamaica is the third largest island in the  Caribbean Archipelago. It has a population of 2.7million and a GDP ...
Farm Sizes JamaicaSize group of   2007      Number of   1996       Number of           Average Size in hafarms            ...
Major Issues Facing AgricultureSector (www.vision 2030.com) Declining competitiveness of agricultural production Inadequ...
Data Collection Face to face interviews-    -Minister, senior management    - RADA CEO/Staff   Telephone interviews   E...
Major Policy InstrumentsJamaicaNo   Major policy1    Cattle Sector Policy Framework 2010-     20202    Food Safety Policy3...
Perspective on small scale andsubsistence farming The government is not encouraging subsistence  farming per se. In the c...
Extension policy environment Current Agriculture extension and advisory  structure Jamaica The advisory extension servic...
Current structure of extensionadvisory delivery in Jamaica RADA - dedicated de-centralized public sector  extension and a...
Extension Agency RADA’sMandate Provision of a channel for the free flow of policy    inputs from farmers and for the impl...
RADA’s Mandates (cont’d) Development and operation of rural agricultural    service centres at strategic locations in ord...
Extension Delivery RADA structure is aligned with parish    boundaries(Figure 1).   Each parish is divided into extensio...
Extension Areas
Complement of RADA ExtensionAdvisory Services StaffStaff category                 Number   Core businessPrincipal Director...
ICT Tools in Operation at RADA1   Establishment and maintenance of RADA website (www.rada.gov.jm)2   Establishment and mai...
RADA Budgetary and OtherResources Core budget from Government  - salary, travel support, core activities Income earning ...
Capacity Building Staff recruited from a number of institutions   -Universities, Agriculture Colleges Mandatory lifelon...
Challenges Linkage between extension and research Manpower/skills match Inadequate physical and human resources Confli...
Summary The extension and advisory services in Jamaica consist of    a dedicated statutory organization (RADA) since Augu...
Acknowledgements CTA funding of the case study and my    participation in the conference   Ministry of Agriculture and F...
 Thank you
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CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory services: Jamaica

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. Lindsay, Consultant, Jamaica

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CTA case studies on the status of extension and advisory services: Jamaica

  1. 1. CTA Sponsored Case Study ofExtension and Advisory Services Policies JamaicaJoseph I. Lindsay Consultant & Al Powell CEO Rural Agricultural Development Authority
  2. 2. Map of the Caribbean Showing Jamaica
  3. 3. Overview Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean Archipelago. It has a population of 2.7million and a GDP per capita of US$5,000 Large estates dominate sugar, citrus and to a lesser extent banana and pastures. The best lands are still in sugar and some have diversified into fruit and tree crops Over 230,000 farmers are engaged in agriculture and over 40% of the population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture
  4. 4. Farm Sizes JamaicaSize group of 2007 Number of 1996 Number of Average Size in hafarms farms farms(hectares) 2007 1996Under 1 47,712 159,040 43,459 108,648 0.3 0.41 to under 5 86,011 45,269 101,977 50,989 1.9 2.00.4 50,783 4,534 67,723 6,046 11.2 11.250 to under 25,449 270 41,484 427 94.3 97.2200 200 115,854 140 152,791 369 827.5 414.1All farms 325,000 209,213 407,434 1.6 2.4
  5. 5. Major Issues Facing AgricultureSector (www.vision 2030.com) Declining competitiveness of agricultural production Inadequate financing for the agricultural sector Limited staffing and resources for the extension services Gaps in key agriculture infrastructure- roads, irrigation, grading and storage facilities Weaknesses in markets-informality in channels, inadequate marketing information, poor linkages to other sectors in the society Land degradation issues-soil erosion, agrochemicals, deforestation, fires, illegal settlements Land tenure issues-informality, squatting, lack of
  6. 6. Data Collection Face to face interviews- -Minister, senior management - RADA CEO/Staff Telephone interviews Email queries Questionnaire-training institutions Literature review -Planning Institute, Statistical Institute; Organizational websites, publications
  7. 7. Major Policy InstrumentsJamaicaNo Major policy1 Cattle Sector Policy Framework 2010- 20202 Food Safety Policy3 Sustainable Fisheries Development Policy4 Plant Health Policy5 Animal Health Policy6 Banana Policy7 Organic Agriculture Policy8 Food and Nutrition Security Policy9 Agricultural Land Utilization Policy10 National Seed Policy
  8. 8. Perspective on small scale andsubsistence farming The government is not encouraging subsistence farming per se. In the case of small scale farming, emphasis is being placed on commercial production. This is being supported by finance, marketing , post harvest and generally managed by RADA
  9. 9. Extension policy environment Current Agriculture extension and advisory structure Jamaica The advisory extension services in Jamaica dates back to 1895 when the major responsibility was vested in the farmer-based Jamaica Agriculture Society(JAS) (www.jas.org). The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries since the 1950s has had major responsibility for the public sector advisory and agriculture extension service in Jamaica Since 1990 the public extension advisory services have been vested in the Rural Agriculture Development Authority (RADA) (www.rada.gov.jm).
  10. 10. Current structure of extensionadvisory delivery in Jamaica RADA - dedicated de-centralized public sector extension and advisory service Commodity based extension services –sugar cane, banana, coffee, cocoa, coconut, fisheries/aquaculture, irrigation Private - Broiler chicken contractors -Agro-industrial input suppliers
  11. 11. Extension Agency RADA’sMandate Provision of a channel for the free flow of policy inputs from farmers and for the implementation of policy decisions taken by policy makers; To enhance the development of farming through an effective, efficient and sustainable Extension Service. To supplement information to rural development agencies, thereby assisting to advance improvements in rural infrastructure. To provide the supplemental social services required for the improvement of the quality of life of farm families. To provide technical advice to farmers of any size. To provide a reliable agricultural marketing information service. To assist in the implementation of specified rural development projects
  12. 12. RADA’s Mandates (cont’d) Development and operation of rural agricultural service centres at strategic locations in order to bring the service closer to farmers; Implementation of selected projects which impact on the farming and biological environments (watershed development, hillside agriculture) in order to stem environmental degradation and promote the use of natural resources; Liaising with agricultural research organizations in order to provide the technology delivery link to rural farmers; Encouragement of agro-industrial development in order to contribute to national food security and reduce the reliance on food imports; Assistance to rural women in identifying income earning opportunities and developing small businesses through which they can earn a livelihood
  13. 13. Extension Delivery RADA structure is aligned with parish boundaries(Figure 1). Each parish is divided into extension areas which are manned by extension offices for crops, marketing, livestock, land husbandry The qualifications of extension officers range from ASc degrees to PhD/DVM Several approaches are used in the delivery of technology and information Social Services/Home economics-for women empowerment and development of agro-processing – value adding to products Ratio of RADA extension officers to farmers is about
  14. 14. Extension Areas
  15. 15. Complement of RADA ExtensionAdvisory Services StaffStaff category Number Core businessPrincipal Director 2 Field Services/Operation /Technical servicesSenior Directors 2Zonal Directors 2 Zonal AdministrationParish Managers* 13 Parish AdministrationDeputy parish Managers 13 Extension AdministrationCrop Extension Officers 98 Crops; General AgricultureExtension Assistants 60 Backstopping of extension officersMarketing Extension Officers 14 Market promotion/ intelligenceLivestock Extension Officers 14 Livestock training and developmentPlant Protection Officers 4 Plant Protection, Pest RiskLand Husbandry Officers 4 Livestock husbandryRegional Engineers 5 Roads and WorksSub-Total 231
  16. 16. ICT Tools in Operation at RADA1 Establishment and maintenance of RADA website (www.rada.gov.jm)2 Establishment and maintenance of Agricultural Business Information System Website (www.abisjamaica.com.jm) with data on all farmers, buyers etc3 Maintaining linkage to main Ministry of Agriculture website (www.moa.gov.jm) and related partner agencies4 Linkage of marketing officers to Jamaica Agriculture Marketing Information System (www.ja-mis.com)5 Provision of internet access to extension staff6 Provision of desktop and laptop computers for dedicated use by extension staff7 Provision of GPS Units for extension districts8 Training of staff in MS Office and provision of relevant programmes licensed to the organization9 Training in GIS and GPS use/application10 Provision of blackberry or other cell phone and establishing of closed user group
  17. 17. RADA Budgetary and OtherResources Core budget from Government - salary, travel support, core activities Income earning projects Contract Services/Implementing Agency -Government sponsored projects -Bilateral projects-FAO, EU, USAID, IICA, CARDI -NGOs
  18. 18. Capacity Building Staff recruited from a number of institutions  -Universities, Agriculture Colleges Mandatory lifelong learning completion of minimum of 30 hours of in-service training for extension officers Provision of study leave support for specialized and graduate studies South/South visits to extension, research and development institutions
  19. 19. Challenges Linkage between extension and research Manpower/skills match Inadequate physical and human resources Conflicting demands on extension personnel Policy shifts with changes in administration Lack of mechanism for evaluation of the impact of extension on producers and productivity of the agriculture sector Identification of the best methods for technology transfer Lack of a local professional extension body
  20. 20. Summary The extension and advisory services in Jamaica consist of a dedicated statutory organization (RADA) since August 01, 1990, As a statutory body RADA is not stymied by Government bureaucracy RADA has mandates for modernizing extension service focusing on market driven commercial production with support for accessing finance, post-harvest management, marketing and use of the agriculture value chain Extension started in 1895 as a farmer managed advisory service Commodity boards and private sector service providers play an important link in Several limitations including funding, human resources for sociology, rural development and matching personnel to required skill sets The impact of the extension service on agriculture sector and farmers needs to be documented
  21. 21. Acknowledgements CTA funding of the case study and my participation in the conference Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries –Minister and staff Rural Agricultural Development Authority –CEO and staff Commodity organizations Private sector service and input suppliers
  22. 22.  Thank you

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